Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Micah-Chapter 1

The book of Micah (who is like) was written by the Prophet Micah and was a native of Moresheth, near Gath in northern Philistia, about twenty miles southwest of Jerusalem. He may have been a farmer by occupation. His ministry covers the reigns of three kings from approximately 738 to 698 BC, His father’s name is not mentioned so scholars believe his family was insignificant and of humble status. His message favored the oppressed people of the land against the arrogant rich, as were other prophets like Amos, Isaiah, and Hosea his contemporaries.

The first three chapters bring forth the judgments of Yehovah against Israel and Judah and their impending doom. The next two chapters offer comfort and hope in view of the days to come when the Temple will be established upon the holy mountain, and a remnant will return from captivity in Babylon. The Messiah will come from Bethlehem and will cause the righteous remnant to be a blessing, and the land will be purged of its idolatry and oppression. The last two chapters tell us about the way to salvation by discussing a lawsuit the Lord brings upon Israel. He reminds them of how they were delivered from Egypt and what true worship in the Torah really is. He is against their wickedness and how they oppress the people. Israel confesses their guilt and there is a prayer to Yehovah that he will return and shepherd his flock like in the days of old. There is a Hebrew word play on his name in Micah 7.18 where it says, “Who is like thee” because only he can pardon and show compassion to the people of his covenant. For such a small book, you will be amazed at the eschatological information contained in these chapters.

v 1…The word of the Lord (Yehovah) which came to Micah of Moresheth (in the Shephelah Valley in the territory of Judah) in the days of Yotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah kings of Judah (these kings are a picture of the first three years of the birth-pains), which he saw concerning samaria (the ten tribes in the north) and Judah (two tribes in the south.

v 2…Hear (and obey), O peoples (tribes), all of you; listen (pay attention), O earth (land) and all it contains (its fullness), and let the Lord (Adonai) Yehovah be a witness (this is Yom Ha Din terms, or “day of judgment” so this is a court scene where Yehovah is giving credible evidence) against you (Israel and Judah who have despised the Torah), the Lord (Yehovah) from his holy (has a kedusha) Temple (“Hebrew “heichal” in heaven).

v 3…For behold (take note and see), the Lord (Yehovah) is coming forth from his place (in heaven; a change in his usual methods). He will come down and tread on the high places (the bamot for idols, fortresses) of the earth (the land, as the unmatched ruler of the world and universe).

v 4…The mountains (where the bamot and fortresses were located) will melt under him (figuratively-Zech 14.12; 2 Pet 3.10-12), and the valleys will be split (a complete dissolution) like wax before the fire like water poured down a steep place (streams of water, the valleys split with deep channels cut out by the water; this description reveals the destructive power upon nature by great national judgments).

v 5…All of this for the rebellion of Jacob and for the sins of the house of Israel (north). what is the rebellion of Jacob? Is it not Samaria (“Shomron”)? What is the high place of Judah? Is it not Jerusalem (these became the centers of idolatry; Samaria was built by Omri in the seventh year of his reign; it was bought from Shemar so he named it after him; it also means “water mountain.” The Assyrians called it “Brit Omri” or house of Omri; Tiglat-pilaser III called it “Samarin.” It was the site of the capital of the northern kings for 200 years. It was captured by Sargon in 727 BC but besieged by his predecessor Shalamanser V for three years. Two years later they rebel and Sargon deported the people. It was a pagan city and full of idolatry and Baal worship by all the northern kings. We know much more about Jerusalem and their idolatry).

v 6…For I will make Samaria a heap of ruins in the open country (as a plowed field in heaps of stones gathered), planting places for a vineyard. I will pour her stones down into the valley (Samaria was on a hill) and will lay bare her foundations (complete destruction, very similar to the words of Yeshua about the Temple buildings in Matt 24.2).

v 7…All her idols will be smashed (stone idols), all her earnings (temple gifts in honor of her gods) will be burned with fire, and all her images I will make desolate, for she collected them from a harlot’s earnings (gifts presented by idolaters), and to the earnings of a harlot they will return (going to Assyria for the worship of their own idols).

Micah 1.8-16 describes the fear and terror of the people as Assyria comes through the Shephelah Valley

v 8…Because of this I must lament and wail, I must go barefoot and naked, I must make a lament liken the jackals (they cry loud when in pain) and a mourning like the ostriches (judgment was not going to stop in Samaria but spread into Judah and he knew it).

v 9…For her wound is incurable (Samaria and the ten tribes), for it (the calamity) has come to Judah (by the Assyrian army); it has reached the gate of my people (Jerusalem the capital), even to Jerusalem (the goal of the Assyrians).

Micah 1.10-16 will contain what is called “Midrashic Name Derivations” or MNDs in Hebrew poetry, which are puns and word plays, with messages, woven into a chiastic structure; that means verse 13 is the center point of the structure).

v 10…Tell it not (“tagidu”) in Gath, weep not at all (“tivku”-don’t cry so the Philistines don’t rejoice over the trouble in Judah). At Beth-le-aphrah (house of dust), roll yourself in the dust (this deals with Sargon II invading, but it also deals with Sennacherib coming up the Shephelah Valley).

v 11…Go on your way, inhabitant of Shaphar (beautiful city) in shameful nakedness. The inhabitants of Zaanan (departure) has not departed. The lamentation of Beth-ezel (house that is near) takes from you the standing near it.

v 12…For the inhabitant of Maroth (bitterness) writhes for good (tov) because a calamity (“ra” or evil) has come down from the Lord to the gate of Jerusalem.

In our chiastic structure of ABCDCBA (v 10-16), v 13 is “D” and the focal point, which deals with the city of Lachish. It was so important to capture and a key fort, Sennacherib the king of Babylon went there personally to oversee its capture. He sent subordinates to Jerusalem.

v 13…Harness the chariot to the horses, O inhabitant of Lachish! She was the beginning of sin to the daughter of Zion because in you were found the rebellious acts of Israel (Joshua was told to destroy it because it was the center of the defenses in the Shephelah Valley, but it never happened, and the idolatry of the Canaanites was not wiped out and it spread to the rest of Israel. Two miles from Lachish an inscription was found talking about Yehovah and his Asherah, alluding to the possibility that the Abomination of Desolation will have a statue of “Mary” standing with it. This idolatry would come in and the people wouldn’t know it. All of this has eschatological implications, so we are going to spend some time on this part of the verse.

Canaanite worship centered on agricultural fertility, and this led to power, which increased human fertility. Yehovah instructed Joshua to wipe out the Canaanites, if not, they would destroy Israel. He never did totally. Nobody wants or likes to see an amputation, but sometimes it is necessary to save a life. What happened at Lachish and the idol worship of the Asherah spread and Yehovah eventually had to judge the people. But it not only spread in Isra1el, but it went all over the world such as Phoenicia, Malta, Sicily, Cypress, Corinth, Greece, Rome, Europe, and the USA.

What we have just seen leaves no doubt that this was paganism, but it changed. They mixed it in with the true worship of God. Bull or calve worship was very popular in Egypt, but Israel copied it coming out of Egypt at the Golden Calf incident and mixed it in with the worship of Yehovah in Exo 32.5, not Baal. Jeroboam I built a worship center at Dan and Bethel involving calves, and he changed the festivals and said they were worshiping Yehovah in 1 Kings 12.25-33. No matter what form you find the Asherah it relates to fertility, potency, eroticism, and life after death.

In Rev 17.3 we have “Babylon, the mother of harlots.” The historian Herodotus says one time in the life of a Babylonian woman she would offer herself to the “Asherah” in a sexual fashion to male priests, or shave her head. In some places one time a year on a certain day. In Byblos (Tunisia) her worship was included as a prominent feature in the “weeping for Tammuz” practices and women shaved their hair or gave up their chastity.

2 Kings 11.14 says that Athaliah cried “treason” as they killed the priests of Baal and Asherah, and as she was taken out of the Temple and killed. People today react the same way if you don’t celebrate Christmas, Valentines’ Day, or Easter. In many ways, Christianity has mixed paganism with the worship of God. What is more Christian than Christmas? It has its own “Christmas spirit.” Valentines Day and Easter also come from pagan roots. Why are churches full on Sunday, but on the Sabbath day they are not? What are they learning? Proverbs gives us the contrast between the virtuous woman and the harlot. We live with the harlot all around us. Knowledge, wisdom, and understanding come into play because the harlot has presented herself as the virtuous woman. It’s a seduction and we must be able to discern what is of the harlot (false doctrine), and what is of the virtuous woman (the truth). Discernment is not being able to tell the difference between right and wrong, it is being able to tell the difference between right and what is almost right).

v 14…Therefore you will give parting gifts (Zion will have to relinquish all further claims) on behalf of Moresheth-gath (it’s given to the enemy), the houses of Achzib (deceit) becomes a deception (“achzab” in Hebrew) to the kings of Israel (the monarchy and heirs of Judah because Achzib was in Judah).

v 15…Moreover, I will bring on you the one who takes possession (another heir, Israel being the first one to inherit it, and now the enemy will possess it as the second heir), O inhabitant of Mareshah (to possess). The glory of Israel (the great people) will enter Adullam (a cave for refuge).

v 16…Make yourself bald (forbidden by the Torah-Deut 14.1 and a pagan tradition of mourning handed down) and cut off your hair (meaning “go into idolatry and paganism; you want it, you got it), because of the children (the nation) of your delight (pleasure), extend your baldness like the eagle (“nesher” or carrion vulture which has the front part of the head bald with only a few hairs at the back of the head), for they will go from you to exile (this was not done by the Assyrians, but will be done later by the Babylonians, as Micah prophesies in Mic 4.10.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Jonah-Chapter 4

Jonah 4.1-11 tells us about Jonah’s anger at the repentance of the Ninevites and the manifestation of God’s “racham” or mercy.

v 1…But it greatly displeased (“ra’ah” or irritated; “evil” for him) Jonah and be became angry.

v 2…And he prayed to the Lord and said, “Please Lord, was not this what I said (thought to himself) while I was still in my own country (Judea, Galilee or Gath-hepher, that they would repent and you would forgive? That’s why he did not want to go in the first place)? Therefore, in order to forestall this I fled to Tarshish (he is justifying his actions now as to why he fled-this is a far cry from his prayer in the stomach of the great fish) for I knew that thou art a gracious (chanan) and compassionate (racham) God, slow to anger and abundant in lovingkindness (chesed), and one who relents concerning calamity (which he himself experienced first hand).

v 3…Therefore now, O Lord, please take away my life from me, for death is better to me than life (he looked like a false prophet but he really wasn’t because his message was conditional and even the king understood it as such in Jonah 3.9).”

v 4…And the Lord said, “Do you have a good reason to be angry (there are times it is right to be angry, as with Moses in Exo 32.19; but there are other times when it is not, as with James and John in Luke 9.55 for instance)?”

v 5…Then Jonah went out from the city and sat east of it. There he made a shelter (sukkah) for himself and sat under it in the shade until he could see what would happen in the city (convinced that Ninevah was going to be spared, he goes out thinking something is going to happen anyway because the sins of Ninevah were great).

v 6…So the Lord (Yehovah) God (Elohay) appointed (prepared) a plant (like the great fish) and it grew up (rapidly) over Jonah to be a shade over his head to deliver him from his discomfort (to heal him of his anger). And Jonah was extremely happy about the plant (seeing it as a sign that he should wait for the destruction of Ninevah).

v 7…But God (Elohim-the power behind this) prepared a worm (tola) when dawn came the next day (to teach Jonah another lesson), and it attacked the plant and it withered (the same hand that gives mercy can also take it away, and very suddenly, in a matter of hours).

v 8…And it came about when the sun came up God appointed a scorching east wind, and the sun beat down on Jonah’s head so that he became faint (heat exhaustion) and begged with all his soul to die, saying, “Death is better to me than life” (everything was making his life unpleasant).

v 9…Then God (Elohim was the power behind all this) said to Jonah, “Do you have a good reason to be angry about the plant?” And he said, “I have good reason to be angry, even to death (now Yehovah is going to drive the lesson home).”

v 10…Then the Lord (Yehovah) said, “You had compassion on the pant, for which you did not work (toil), and which you did not cause to grow, which came up overnight and perished overnight (it sprang up one night, continued the next day, and then withered the next night).

v 11…And I should not have compassion on Ninevah (should I, in response to their repentance, not show pity on a people who I have worked, caused to grow, and play a role in my plans), the great city in which there are more than 120,000 persons who do not know the difference between right and left hand, as well as many animals (filled with children and simple-minded adults and animals who are innocent and deserve compassion; Jonah had more compassion for a plant than a whole city; Yehovah had to awaken within him the contrast so he could see it for what it was; since no answer is given by Jonah, we can assume Jonah was convicted of his sin and wrote about his shortcomings and weaknesses for us to learn from)?”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Jonah-Chapter 3

Jonah 3.1-10 gives us the account of a second call to Jonah to go to Ninevah, and how he obeyed. This is similar to Shimon ben Yonah (Peter) who was also told a second time to go to the non-Jews in Acts 10.15.

v 1…Now the word of the Lord (Yehovah) came to Jonah a second time, saying,

v 2…”Arise (Acts 10.20), go to Ninevah the great city and proclaim to it the proclamation which I am going to tell you.”

v 3…So Jonah arose and went to Ninevah according to the word of the Lord (he is given a chance to prove his repentance by being given the exact same circumstances). Now Ninevah was an exceedingly great city, a three days walk (around the area).

v 4…Then Jonah began to go through the city one days walk (as he went through it) and he cried out and said (as he went along), “Yet forty days (40 is the time of repentance) and Ninevah will be overthrown (not by an earthly army, but by the power of God).”

v 5…Then the people of Ninevah believed in God (his word was accepted as true), and they called a fast and put on sackcloth from the greatest to the least of them (old and young, without exception-divine power accompanied his preaching).

v 6…When the word reached the king of Ninevah (it came to his knowledge, informed of Jonah’s arrival and his prediction); he arose from his throne (he didn’t waste time), laid aside his robe from him, and covered himself with sackcloth and sat on ashes (a sign of mourning, exchanging his royal earthly robes of elegance; ashes are a sign that the fire of Yehovah has done its work).

v 7…And he issued a proclamation (a royal decree) and it said, “In Ninevah by the decree of the king and his nobles (his ministers, great men): Do not let man, beast, herd, or flock taste a thing. Do not let them eat or drink water (to make the mourning greater).

v 8…But both man and beast must be covered with sackcloth, and let men call on God earnestly (Acts 10.35) that each may turn to him (in repentance) from his wicked way (as defined by the Torah; sinful habits) and from violence which is in his hands (their oppression, thefts, and preying on others).

v 9…Who knows, God may turn and relent and withdraw his burning anger so that we shall not perish?”

v 10…When God saw their deeds (works) that they turned from their wicked way, then God relented concerning the calamity which he had declared he would bring upon them. And he did not do it (see Amos 7.3 notes also: This language is called “anthropomorphic” which is ascribing human feelings and passions to Yehovah, who is not human. He shows the people a judgment he could have done, but chose not to do. This seeming “change” is in accordance with his secret plans and purposes all along-it was already “factored in” before the foundation of the world).

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Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Jonah-Chapter 2

Jonah 2.1-10 contains the prayer of Jonah in the stomach of the great fish. This is not a prayer for deliverance, but a prayer of thanksgiving because he was delivered already by being kept alive. We will have allusions to Yeshua’s sign of three days and nights in the tomb, he rises at night when it is dark and cold, and we have allusions to Israel going deep into the Red Sea but coming out alive after three days and nights.

v 1…Then Jonah (a double-type of Israel and Yeshua) prayed to the Lord (Yehovah) his God from the stomach of the fish (these thoughts coming to him repeatedly while going through this distress),

v 2…and he said, “I called out of my distress to the Lord (like Israel will during the birth-pains-Hos 5.15 through 6.3), and he answered me. I cried for help from the belly (womb) of Sheol (this is not referring to the belly of the fish, this is an idiom referring to the danger of death with no escape). Thou didst hear my voice (and delivered him from certain death by drowning).

v 3…For thou hadst cast me into the deep (the sailors were Yehovah’s tool), into the heart of the seas (multitude of waters), and the current engulfed me. All thy breakers and billows passed over me (as he sank).

v 4…So I said (literally “then I thought”), ‘I have been expelled from thy sight (it’s all over now). Nevertheless (but wait a minute) I will look again toward thy holy Temple (he was overwhelmed with confidence, faith).’

v 5…Water encompassed me to the point of death (he was a “goner”), the great deep (Hebrew (tehom” or subterranean deep) engulfed me (he was really deep). Weeds were wrapped around my head (seagrass at the bottom alludes to the thorns around Yeshua’s head).

v 6…I descended to the roots (ends) of the mountains (was cut off); the earth with its bars (bolts, when a door is shut behind him so there was no way back to the land) was around me forever (buried), but thou hast brought up my life from the pit (from the night and darkness), O Lord my God.

v 7…While I (my soul, life) was fainting away (drowning into death), I remembered the Lord (he thought he knew him), and my prayer came to thee (reached Yehovah), into thy holy Temple (in heaven).

v 8…Those who regard vain (false) idols forsake their faithfulness (forfeit their one hope for deliverance).

v 9…But I will sacrifice to thee with the voice of thanksgiving (a prayer of sincere thanks). That which I have vowed (made in his distress) I will pay (fulfill them). Salvation (“yeshuatah”) is from the Lord (Yehovah.”

v 10…Then the Lord commanded the fish and it vomited Jonah up onto dry land (probably near Joppa again in the land of Israel, just like Yeshua came out of the grave in Israel. Jonah was taken right back to the starting point to pick up where he left off).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Jonah-Chapter 1

This book in Hebrew is called “Sepher Yonah” and his name means “a dove” and the symbol for peace. He was most likely from Gath-Hepher in the Galilee, in the territory of Zebulon (2 Kings 14.25). This clearly refutes the Pharisees from Beit Shammai in Yeshua’s day who said that no prophet came out of Galilee (John 7.52). Even though there are no prophecies in the book, it is clear that the story given is prophetic. Jonah ministered during the reign of Jeroboam II (786-746 BC) making the date of this book about that time.

He was a historical person (2 Kings 14.25; Matt 12.39-47) and this book clearly teaches about the call of Jonah to preach to the non-Jews in the Assyrian capital of Ninevah, so this alludes to the calling of the non-Jews in line with Matt 28.19-20 and Acts 10.1-48. This book is also ridiculed among unbelievers because of Jonah being swallowed by a “dag gadol” or a great fish, but Yeshua attested to this as a fact in Matt 12.40.

Why is this book prophetic? Jonah is seen as Israel who has a commission to go to the non-Jews with the knowledge of Yehovah and the Basar (good news). They “ran” from this calling, even excluding the non-Jews from the kingdom of God (through what was called the “Eighteen Edicts of Beit Shammai”) if they did not receive circumcision (convert) and become Jewish (Acts 15.1). As a result, they were cast into the turbulent sea of the nations, where they encounter the “dag gadol” or Leviathan. Even the nations “spit them out” (Ezek 37). Israel is sent again into the world to fulfill its commission.

This book should be studied on many levels. In the Peshat level (literal) it is Jonah’s prophecy, and in the Sowd level (secret) it alludes to Yeshua and his resurrection, Peter in Acts 10, the son of Jonah, and Israel. The essential meaning of this book can be seen when Peter, the son of Jonah, who was in Joppa (the place where Jonah ran from-Jonah 1.3; Acts 10.5-8), is sent the non-Jews with the Basar in Acts 10.

v 1…The word of the Lord (Yehovah) came to Jonah (dove) the son of Amittai (my truth) saying,

v 2…”Arise, go to Ninevah the great city (of the Assyrians; their capital), and cry against it, for their wickedness has come up before me (to a great height, to the heavens)”

v 3…But Jonah rose to flee to Tarshish (possibly Tartessus, a Phoenician port in Spain-Gen 10.4; Isa 23.1; some scholars believe this may be Tarsus; Jonah despised the Assyrians) from the presence of the Lord (not his omnipresence, but from the commission God gave him). So he went down to Joppa (a seaport, the same place Peter received his vision about going to the non-Jews in Acts 10), found a ship which was going to Tarshish (probably a commercial ship), paid the fare, and went down into it (the hold) to go with them to Tarshish from the presence (commission) of the Lord (thus denying his services to Yehovah).

v 4…And the Lord hurled a great wind (a mighty tempest) on the sea and there was a great storm on the sea so that the ship was about to break up (in danger of it).

v 5…Then the sailors became afraid and cried to his god (for help), and they threw the cargo which was in the ship into the sea to lighten it for them. But Jonah had gone below (everything he is doing takes him “down” -verse 3, 5 and away from God) into the hold of the ship, lain down, and fallen sound asleep (Israel sleeping spiritually).

v 6…So the captain approached him and said, “How is it that you are sleeping? Get up, call on your God. Perhaps your God will be concerned about us so that we will not perish.”

v 7…And each man said to his mate, “Come, let us cast lots (a common method to determine guilt, like Haman) so we may learn on whose account this calamity has struck us (they sensed something uncommon about this storm)’ So they cast lots and the lot fell on Jonah (by the direction of Yehovah as with Haman, and Zechariah in Luke 1.8-9).

v 8…Then they said to him, “Tell us now on whose account has this calamity struck us? What is your occupation? And where do you come from? What is your country? From what people are you (all these questions are shouted at him almost all at once in a confused manner because they were in a stressful situation; they also might ascertain what God he worshiped and what he may have done to offend that God).

v 9…And so he said to them, “I am a Hebrew, and I fear the Lord (Yehovah) God (Elohay) of heaven, who made the sea and the dry land (he is saying he is Torah observant, not an evil person, nor were his people; they knew Yehovah).”

v 10…Then the men became extremely frightened (when they found out he was a Hebrew and who his God was) and they said to him, “How could you do this?” For the men knew he was fleeing from the presence of the Lord (Yehovah), because he told them (in his confession in v 9).

v 11…So they said to him, “What should we do to you that the sea may become calm for us?”-for the sea was becoming increasingly stormy (agitated and getting worse).

v 12…And he said to them, “Pick me up and throw me into the sea (a type of Yeshua being lifted up and buried on our behalf). Then the sea will become calm for you, for I know that on account of me this great storm has come upon you (in fleeing his commission).”

v 13…However, the men rowed desperately to return to land but they could not, for the sea was becoming even stormier against them.

v 14…Then they called on the Lord (Yehovah and not to their false gods-by Jonah’s statement and the leading of God, they had some conviction about the true God) and said, “We earnestly pray, O Lord (Yehovah-they used his name), do not let us perish on account of this man’s life (his sin reckoned to them as their crime also) and do not put innocent blood on us (Jonah had not harmed them, so they were not qualified to make a judgment on account of what he had done), for thou, O Lord (Yehovah), has done as it pleased you (as he determined it through the storm, lot, etc).”

v 15…So they picked up Jonah and threw him into the sea, and the sea stopped its raging (no longer tossed to and fro in billows, etc).

v 16…Then the men feared the Lord (Yehovah) greatly (seeing the hand of Yehovah and what happened to the sea), and they offered a sacrifice (a “zevach”-being a large ship they may have had live animals aboard) and made vows (“nedarim” which is common with men under stress, but whether their hearts were changed we do not know).

v 17…And the Lord appointed (prepared, ordained, but not created) a great fish (he appointed the “dag gadol”) to swallow Jonah, and Jonah was in the stomach of the fish three days and three nights (being alive and conscious through Yehovah because he still had plans for Jonah; Yeshua himself said this is a picture of his own death so others could live, including his burial and resurrection-Matt 12.39-41)

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Obadiah-Chapter 1

The book is named after the prophet Obadiah (servant of Yehovah) and it seems to be a popular name because twelve other men are called this in the Tanak. It is the shortest book in the Tanak and is never quoted in the Brit Chadasha (renewed testament).

Nothing is known about Obadiah for sure, but he mentions Jerusalem, Judah, and Zion so it is believed he was part of the southern kingdom. The date it was written is hard to estimate, but it is believed to be associated with Edom rejoicing over the fall of Jerusalem and their captivity. The Edomites participated in this destruction (Psa 137.7; Ezek 35.5; Lam 4.21). Oddly enough, Edom “died” in trying to defend Jerusalem in 70 AD.

The Edomites descended from Esau, the brother of Jacob, and their struggles with each other are well documented. The Edomites opposed Saul, but were subdued under David. They also opposed Yehoshaphat and rebelled against Yehoram. They were conquered by Judah but regained their freedom during the reign of Ahaz. They were controlled by Assyria and Babylon and eventually were defeated by the Nabateans.

Spiritually, Edom represents several things. Edom represents the flesh, and the name became a code word in rabbinic writings for Rome and Christianity, who came out of Rome.

Edom is judged by Yehovah for cursing Israel, and Judah is told that he would bring judgment upon them for their participation in the destruction of Judah. Obadiah blesses Judah and foretells the demise of the Edomites, along with the judgment coming on the nations, and the possession of Edom by Israel in the day of the Lord during the Messianic Kingdom. Prophetically, this may be alluding to right before Yom Kippur of the third year of the birth pains.

v 1…The vision (prophecy) of Obadiah; thus says the Lord God (Adonai Yehovah) concerning Edom, we (Obadiah, other prophets) have heard a report from the Lord and an envoy (ambassador) has been sent among the nations saying, “Arise and let us go against her (Edom) for battle (by the instigation of Yehovah).

v 2…Behold (take note), I will make you small (in number) among the nations; you are greatly despised.

v 3…The arrogance of your heart has deceived you, you who live in the clefts of the rock (Hebrew “Cela”-Isa 16.6; Jer 49.16-may be alluding to Petra), in the loftiness of your dwelling place, who say in your heart, “Who will bring me down to earth?’

v 4…Though you build high like the eagle (a natural rock formation near Petra looks like an eagle), though you set your nest among the stars, from there I will bring you down,” declares the Lord (Edom will not be able to avert the fate coming upon them. Their lofty and rocky fortifications will not save them).

v 5…”If thieves come to you, if robbers by night (intent on plunder)-O how you will be ruined (a complete clearing out of Edom)!-would they not steal until they had enough (leaving some)? If grape gatherers came to you, would they not leave some gleanings?

v 6…O how Esau will be ransacked (totally), and his hidden treasures searched out (as a whole, in all areas, belongings, people, and parts).

v 7…All the men allied with you (in a confederacy) will send you forth to the border (to drive back the refugees to the border so they fall into the hands of their enemy; not receive the Edomites as refugees), and the men at peace with you will deceive you and overpower you (by cunning and deceit, secret treachery). They who eat your bread (received subsidies from them) will set an ambush for you (secretly wounding Edom). There is no understanding in him (Edom never suspected a thing and their usual cunning couldn’t find a way to escape from this distress).

v 8…Will I not on that day,” declares the Lord, “destroy wise men from Edom and understanding from the mountain of Esau (to give proper counsel of what to do, what methods should be taken; they were incapable)?

v 9…Then you mighty men will be dismayed, O Teman (known for valiant warriors, they were now afraid), in order that everyone may be cut off from the mountain (kingdom) of Esau by slaughter (none left).

v 10…Because (now reasons are given) of violence (whenever they had the opportunity) to your brother Jacob (starting in Gen 27.41 to Num 20.21), you shall be covered with shame, and you will be cut off forever (Nebuchadnezzar started it, but John Hyrcanus, a Maccabee, finished it).

v 11…On the day you stood aloof (didn’t help their brother Jacob), on the day that strangers (Babylonians) carried off his wealth, and foreigners entered his gate and cast lots for Jerusalem (by the soldiers who cast lots to divide up the spoils)-you too were one of them (Edom joined Babylon and entered the city with them and showed as much hatred and contempt as the Chaldeans did_.

v 12…Do not gloat (about the fall of Jerusalem) over your brother’s day, the day of his misfortune (day of judgment). And do not rejoice over the sons of Judah in the day of their destruction (by Babylon; the day of calamity and distress); yes, do not boast in the day of their distress (look with pleasure and joy over their demise, something Edom could never do).

v 13…Do not enter the gate of my people in the day of their disaster (enter Jerusalem and other cities to plunder). Yes, you, do not gloat (look with pleasure) over their calamity in the day of their disaster. And do not loot their wealth in the day of their disaster (the day of their disaster is used three times to show the greatness of their sin, and it is also an eschatological allusion to the birth pains).

v 14…Do not stand at the fork of the road (crossings) to cut down their fugitives (as they fled to the wilderness), and do not imprison their survivors in the day of their distress (a term for the birth-pains).

v 15…For the day of the Lord (this expression was “coined” by Obadiah, and Joel, Isaiah, and other prophets adopted it. It basically means when Yehovah reveals his power to overthrow his enemies and defend his kingdom. Eschatologically it alludes to when the Messiah comes) draws near (Hebrew “karav” meaning “here now”) on all the nations. As you have done it, it will be done to you (the concept of “midah kneged midah” or measure for measure), Your dealings will return on your own head.

v 16…Because just as you drank on my holy mountain (in revelry over Israel’s fall), all the nations will drink continually, they will drink and swallow, and become as if they never existed (for their revelry they will drink the intoxicating cup of the wrath of God-Obadiah only mentions the most severe crime of desecrating the kedusha of the Temple Mount here, but there were other crimes).

v 17…But on Mount Zion there will be those who escape (a remnant), and it will be holy (have a kedusha). And the house of Jacob will possess their possessions (their own ancient possessions).

v 18…Then the house of Jacob will be a fire (that consumes the chaff), and the house of Jacob a flame (a parallelism); but the house of Esau will be as stubble (chaff). And they will set them on fire and consume them, so that there will be no survivor of the house of Esau,” for the Lord has spoken.

v 19…Then those of the Negev (the south) will possess the mountain (kingdom) of Esau, and those of the Shephelah (valley) the Philistine plain (lowland); also they will possess the territory of Ephraim and the territory of Samaria (north), and Benjamin will possess Gilead (the trine is so large that it will possess across the Jordan to the north-Israel will take possession of the land promised and enlarge their territory to every region).

v 20…And the exiles of the host of the sons of Israel (ten tribes who have been exiled and captive), who are among the Canaanites as far as Zarephath (a Phoenician city between Tyre and Sidon), and the exiles of Jerusalem who are in Sepharad (meaning “end of wandering” and land west of Israel) will possess the cities of the Negev (historically those who returned with Ezra, Nehemiah, and Zerubabbel, etc, bur eschatologically those who return when Messiah comes).

v 21…The deliverers (judges, saviors) will ascend Mount Zion to judge the mountain (kingdom) of Esau (Edom, her once arrogant brother’s land), and the kingdom will be the Lord’s (Amos 9.11-12, Num 24.18-19 and can only be fulfilled in the Messianic Kingdom).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Amos-Chapter 9

Amos 9.1-15 contains the last vision of Amos. It speaks of the desolation of the land and the slaughter of the people with none escaping. It closes with the promise of the restoration of the kingdom of God.

v 1…I saw the Lord (Adonai) standing beside the altar (the pagan altar at Bethel) and he said, “Smite the capital (the lintel of the temple/house there) so that the thresholds will shake (signifying destruction), and break them on the heads of all of them (as the building collapses on the heads of the people assembled)! Then I will slay the rest of them with the sword (Assyrians). They will not have a fugitive who will flee or a refugee who will escape (and save his life).

v 2…Though they dig into Sheol (the deepest depth), from there shall my hand take them: though they ascend to heaven (the summit of the highest mountains), from there I will bring them down (no escape anywhere).

v 3…And though they hide in the summit of Carmel (one of the highest mountains with trees and caves), I will search them out and take them from there (by directing the enemies to find them); and though they conceal themselves from my sight on the floor of the sea (get into ships to faraway places, or islands where they think they are safe), from there I will command the serpent (Leviathan who lives in the sea-Psa 74.13-14, 104.2; Isa 27.1; Rev 13.1 and this alludes to the False Messiah in the birth-pains; also a term for Ha Satan-Rev 12.9; 1 Tim 1.20).

v 4…And though they go into captivity before their enemies (hoping to surrender to save their lives), from there I will command the sword that it slay them, I will set my eye (constant observation) against them for evil and not for good (so escape is futile).”

v 5…The Lord God of hosts (Adoani Yehovah ha Tzavaot), the one (he is the cause) who touched the land so that it melts (figurative language for destruction-2 Pet 3.10; Zech 14.12; Nahum 1.5; Exo 15.15; Psa 46.6) and all those who dwell in it mourn, and all of it rises up like the Nile (when it floods) and subsides like the Nile of Egypt.

v 6…The one (Yehovah) who builds his upper chambers (staircase to ascend) into the heavens and founded his vaulted dome (the firmament) over the earth, he who calls for the waters of the sea and pours them out on the face of the earth (the water cycle), the Lord (Yehovah) is his name (and the cause).

v 7…Are you not as the sons of Ethiopia to me (far away from the knowledge of God), O sons of Israel (Jer 13.23-the Ethiopian could not change his skin color and Israel cannot change from their evil)?” declares the Lord. Have I not brought up Israel from the land of Egypt, and the Philistines from Caphor (Crete) and the Syrians from Kir (in Media-since they broke the covenant, Israel has become like these nations that God has brought from other lands to occupy where they are now)?

v 8…Behold, the eyes of the Lord God are on the sinful kingdom (directing his judgments on them), and I will destroy it from the face of the earth; nevertheless, I will not totally destroy the house of Jacob (the believing remnant to whom were the promises that were made to Jacob-Rom 9.1-5),” declares the Lord.

v 9…For behold (take note and see), I am commanding, and I will shake the house of Jacob among the nations as grain is shaken in a sieve (to remove the chaff), but not a kernel (believer) will fall on the ground (or perish forever, not a hair on their head will fall).

v 10…All the sinners (chataim) of my people will die by the sword, those who say, “The calamity will not overtake or confront us.”

v 11…In that day (“B’yamim” and a term for when the Messiah comes) I will raise up (bring back out of captivity to their own land) the fallen booth (“sukkah” and a term alluding to the Messianic Kingdom) of David (a king will sit on the throne from his line), and will wall up its breaches (caused by all the division-Ezek 37.11-28); I will raise up its ruins, and rebuild it as in the days of old;

v 12..that they (believing Israel) may possess the remnant of Edom and all the nations who are called by my name (this was seen by Torah-based believers in Yeshua as a prophecy that would bring in non-Jews under the mishkan or “booth” of David-Acts 15.13-21; but some like the Zealots and Beit Shammai in the first century did not want non-Jews unless they were circumcised, meaning converted, to become Jewish-Acts 15.1; Acts 22.21-23; and the basis for the book of Galatians),” declares the Lord who does this.

v 13…Behold (take note), the days are coming (in the Messianic Kingdom or the Atid Lavo),” declares the Lord, “when the plowman will overtake the reaper and the treader of grapes him who sows seed (speaks of speedy growth and abundance)’ when the mountains will drip with sweet wine (large quantities), and the hills will be dissolved (looking like they are melting as though they are dissolving due to the abundant streams of wine pouring down).

v 14…Also I will restore the captivity (return of the exiles) of my people Israel, and they will rebuild the ruined cities and live (inhabit them), they will also plant vineyards and drink their wine, and make gardens and eat their fruit (this planting denotes their firm establishment in the land, with “deep roots”; this alludes back to 2 Sam 7.10 with the planting begun by David will be completed by the raising up of the fallen booth of David and the Messianic Kingdom firmly established forever, with no fear of captivity ever again, as seen in the next verse).

v 15…I will also plant them on their land, and they will not again be rooted out of the land which I have given them,” says the Lord your God.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Amos-Chapter 8

Amos 8.1-14 tells us about a fourth vision about a basket of summer fruit which symbolized the destruction of the ten northern tribes. They were “ripe” for judgment and it was coming quickly.

v 1…Thus the Lord God (Adonai Yehovah) showed me, and behold (see and take note of), a basket of summer fruit (Hebrew “kits” and similar to “ketz” meaning “end.” These were not the first ripe fruits, but the ones that were planted at the “end” of summer; but it also alludes to the “end” of the northern kingdom in a Hebrew wordplay).

v 2…And he (Yehovah) said, (What do you see, Amos ?” And I said, “A basket of summer (kitz) fruit.” And the Lord said to me, “The end (ketz; a Hebrew wordplay) has come for my people Israel, I will spare them no longer (pass by their offenses anymore).

v 3…The songs of the palace (Hebrew “heichal” or the temple at Bethel) will turn to wailing in that day (joyful songs will turn to lamentation in the north),” declares the Lord God. “Many (will be) the corpses; in every place (temples, houses, cities, fields, etc) they will cast them (the bodies slain in the siege of Samaria, in famine, and by the sword) forth in silence (not one word against Yehovah and his judgments).”

v 4…Hear this, you who trample (have contempt for) the needy, to do away with the humble of the land (to die for want of basic necessities),

v 5…saying, “When will the new moon be over (impatient for it to end so they could do business, etc), so that we may buy grain (granaries would be open), and the sabbath that we may open the wheat (market with their false scales to increase their prices), to make the bushel smaller and the shekel bigger, and to cheat with dishonest scales (balances of deception),

v 6…So as to buy the helpless for money (make them so poor they had to sell themselves to live, or be handed over to a creditor-Lev 25.39), and the needy for a pair of sandals (couldn’t pay for shoes, the smallest of debts), and we may sell the refuse of the wheat (they not only made them pay for overpriced wheat, but it was poor quality)?”

v 7…The Lord has sworn by the pride of Jacob (a term for Yehovah himself; there was no one greater), “Indeed, I will never forget any of their deeds (the evil ones, leaving them unpunished).

v 8…Because of this will not the land quake (tremble because of this wickedness) and everyone who dwells in it mourn (because of the power of God’s judgments)? Indeed, all of it (the land) will rise up like the Nile (rising and falling like a great ocean in turmoil), and it will be tossed about (by Assyria) and subside (reduce, ruin) like the Nile of Egypt (plunged into distress like when the Nile floods).

v 9…And it will come about in that day (when God punishes Israel),” declares the Lord God, “that I will make the sun go down at noon and make the earth dark in broad daylight (symbolic of the coming calamity and judgments).

v 10…Then I shall turn your festivals into mourning (no joy) and all your songs into lamentation; and I will bring sackcloth on everyone’s loins and baldness on every head (signs of mourning). And I will make it like a time of mourning for an only son, and the end of it will be like a bitter day (leaving a bitter taste that won’t soon be forgotten).

v 11…Behold, days are coming,” says the Lord God, “when I will send a famine on the land, not a famine for bread or a thirst for water, but rather for hearing the words of the Lord (the light of revelation since they did not listen to the prophets).

v 12…And people will stagger from sea to sea, and from north to east (the borders of Canaan). They will go to and fro to seek the word of the Lord, but they will not find it (no ministry of preaching or prophesying).

v 14…As for those who swear by the guilty Samaria (the calf at Bethel to worship), who says, “As your god lives, O Dan (the calf at Dan),’ and, ‘As the way of Beersheba lives (another place of idolatry; all of this was not purely pagan worship, but idolatrous worship of Yehovah mixed in),’ they will fall and not rise again (these idolatrous people will fall into ruin and desolation).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Amos-Chapter 7

Amos 7.1-17 begins a series of five visions of Amos which confirm his previous prophecies. They will discuss God’s judgments which have already fallen, and in part are still to fall. The latter vision describes the restoration of the fallen kingdom of God and its coming glory.

v 1…Thus says the Lord God (Adonai Yehovah) showed me (in visions) and behold, he is forming a locust storm when the spring crop began to sprout (in the Septuagint it says, “one locust, Gog the king” linking this with Joel’s locust army; John may be doing the same thing in Rev 9.1-12). And behold (see), the spring crop was after the king’s mowing (part of the king’s portion from the nation’s harvest; that was harvested, and then the locusts came and ruined the second harvest).

v 2…And it came about when it had finished eating the vegetation of the land, that I said, “Lord God, please pardon (the survival of the land is in doubt)! How can Jacob (Israel) stand, for he is small (reduced in numbers-he reminds the Lord of his promise to Jacob in Gen 28.10-15)?”

v 3…The Lord (Yehovah) changed his mind about this (due to the intercession of Amos; this language is called “anthropomorphic” which means ascribing human feelings and passions to Yehovah, who is not human. He shows Amos a judgment he could have used, but chose not to do. This seeming “change” is in accordance with his secret plans and purposes all along, determined before the world was created; it refined the righteous and eliminated the wicked-Hos 11.8-9; Num 23.19; Exo 32.14), “It shall not be,” said the Lord.

v 4…Thus the Lord God showed me (a second vision), and behold, the Lord God was calling to contend with them by fire and it consumed the great deep (sea) and began to consume the farmland (in the vision).

v 5…Then I said, “Lord God (Adonai Yehovah), please stop! How can Jacob stand for he is small (reduced in numbers)?”

v 6…The Lord changed his mind (see v 3 note on what this means) about this. “This too shall not be,” said the Lord God (Yehovah again showed Amos what could happen. Amos reminds the Lord of his promise to Jacob in Gen 28.10-15).

v 7…Then he showed me (a third vision), and behold, the Lord was standing by a vertical wall with a plumb line in his hand.

v 8…And the Lord said to me, “What do you see, Amos?” And I said, “A plumb line (meaning his judgment is going to be exact).” Then the Lord said, “Behold (take note and see), I am about to put a plumb line in the midst of my people Israel (the plumb line will be used to tear down a building, or Israel-Lam 2.8; Isa 34.11; 2 Kings 21.13). I will spare them no longer (the wall is symbolic of the defenses of Israel that held back the enemy).

v 9…The high places of Isaac will be desolated and the sanctuaries of Israel laid waste (these are the idolatrous places of Israel (“Isaac” is used because he built altars in Beersheba and they “imitated” him, but these altars were rejected by Yehovah). Then I will rise up against the house of Jeroboam (Jeroboam II) with the sword (representing the kingdom and the royal family; Jeroboam I introduced idolatry into the ten tribes with replacement theology-1 Kings 12.25-33. He substituted new places of worship, new priests and ministers, and different festivals and times contrary to the Torah. This is what is done today).

v 10…Then Amaziah, the priest of Bethel (the high priest overseeing the idolatry there), sent word to Jeroboam (Jeroboam II), king of Israel, saying, “Amos has conspired against you in the midst of the house of Israel; the land is unable to endure all his words.

v 11…For thus Amos says, ‘Jeroboam (Jeroboam II) will die by the sword and Israel will certainly go from its land into exile (to keep his own position with the king he twists what Amos has said in v 9 and falsely accuses him).”

v 12…Then Amaziah said to Amos, “Go, you seer (he saw visions), flee away to the land of Judah, and there eat bread and there do your prophesying (he mistook Amos for being as mercenary as he was, prophesying what people wanted to hear for bread).

v 13…But no longer prophesy in Bethel (where my interests lie), for it is a sanctuary (a house) of the king and a royal court (it had idolatry and kingdom royal authority all bound up in one).”

v 14…Then Amos answered and said to Amaziah, “I am not (was not ) a prophet, nor was I a son of a prophet (Amos was not born into that office, nor did he attend any school of the prophets), for I am a herdsman and a grower of sycamore figs.

v 15…But the Lord took me (past tense) from following the flock (gave him a direct call) and the Lord said to me, ‘Go and prophesy to my people Israel (they were not called “Lo-Ammi” as yet-Hos 1.9)’

v 16…And now hear the word of the Lord: you (Amaziah) are saying, ‘You shall not prophesy against Israel nor shall you preach (“drip” meaning “teaching drips like dew”-Deut 32.2) against the house of Isaac (or Israel.’

17…Therefore, thus says the Lord, “Your wife will become a harlot in the city (dishonored and sells herself for bread to the enemy; this fits his crime because he caused Israel to become a spiritual harlot), your sons and daughters will fall by the sword (slain by the enemy), your land will be parceled (assigned) up by line (a measuring line-to the new settlers in the land), and you will die upon unclean soil (carried captive to a foreign land). Moreover, Israel will certainly go from its land into exile (repeating what he told the king in 7.11 as a sign).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Amos-Chapter 6

Amos 6.1-14 seems to be addressed to Israel and Judah and Benjamin under the names “Samaria” and “Zion” and to the rulers of both. They will be threatened for their disregard of the Torah and God’s judgment.

v 1…Woe to those (lamentations await you) who are at ease in Zion (Judah and Benjamin to the south; they don’t believe judgment is coming-they are complacent-Zeph 1.12; Rev 3.15-16), and to those who feel secure in the mountain of Samaria (north). The distinguished men of the foremost of the nations, to whom the house of Israel comes (at certain times the ten tribes came to Samaria, and the two tribes to Jerusalem).

v 2…Go over to Calneh (a city in Babylon-Gen 10.10) and look (and see what happened to that city), and go from there to Hamath (in Syria) the great, then go down to Gath of the Philistines. Are you better than these kingdoms (you saw the punishments of the other nations; do you think you are better than they are?), or is their territory greater than yours?

v 3…Do you put off the day of calamity (they thought the evil foretold was for the distant future, not near), and would you bring near the seat of violence (by committing more acts of violence and injustice, believing the evil day will never come on them)?

v 4…Those who recline on beds of ivory and sprawl on their couches (living in splendor and ease), and eat lambs from the flock and calves from the midst of the stall (the choicest of animals),

v 5…who improvise to the sound of the harp (chanted according to the sound, sometimes with no meaning), and like David have composed songs for themselves (new ones; but David was inspired by God, but they weren’t; they thought they were like him; much like the religious musicians of today),

v 6…who drink wine from bowls (not small cups or glasses, but to excess) while they anoint themselves with the finest of oils (very indulgent), yet they have not grieved over the ruin of Joseph (“breach of Joseph” meaning over the coming disaster).

v 7…Therefore they (those who indulged themselves in this way) will now go into exile at the head of the exiles (go first into captivity), and the sprawlers banqueting will pass away (no more reclining at ease and drunkenness).

v 8…The Lord God (Adonai Yehovah) has sworn by himself (because there was no one greater), the Lord God (Yehovah Elohay) of hosts (the armies) has declared: “I loathe the arrogance of Jacob (their prosperity and power has made them arrogant), and I detest his citadels (palaces); therefore I will deliver up the city and all it contains (no escape).”

v 9…And it will be, if ten men are left in one house, they will die (by famine or disease; no matter how many, none will escape).

v 10…Then one’s uncle shall take him up, and he that burns him (a near relative who had the duty of providing for his burial and one man could not carry the body, so he burns the body so that they only had to carry the bones; possibly burned because of disease), will lift him up to carry out his bones from the house, and he will say to the one who is in the innermost part of the house, “Is anyone else with you?” And that one will say, “No one.” Then he will answer, “Keep out! For the name of the Lord (Yehovah) is not to be mentioned (it is useless to call on him now, or they feared that it might draw attention to the last remaining one and they will die also).

v 11…For behold (take note and see), the Lord (Yehovah) is going to command that the great house be smashed to pieces and the small house to fragments (he will strike the houses of the great and small).

v 12…Do horses run on rocks (you won’t have a good result)? Will one plow with oxen (both acts are absurd and stupid and a waste of time- he says this to get their attention)? Yet you have turned justice into poison (just as absurd and a stupid thing to do), and the fruit of righteousness into wormwood (bitter justice),

v 13…you who rejoice in Lo-debar (“no word” or a thing of vanity and emptiness, nothing) and say, “Have we not by our strength (power) taken Karnaim (“pair of horns”) for ourselves (they believed they had been successful by their power)?”

v 14…” For behold (take note of), I am going to raise up a nation against you (Assyria), O house of Israel,” declares the Lord God (Yehovah Elohay) of hosts (the armies), “and they will afflict you from the entrance of Hamath (on the border of Syria in the northeast) to the torrent (river) of the Arabah (in the south-the whole nation will be afflicted; what river this is referring to has some believing it is at the southwest towards Egypt, and others say it is to the southeast and a river that was the southern border of Moab. Either way, the whole land is meant).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Temple, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Amos-Chapter 5

Amos 5.1-27 says that Amos tells Israel to listen to him about their impending doom. But they are to seek the Lord and repent in the hope of finding mercy. If not, there will be weeping and distress. All their religious rituals will mean nothing and they will be going into exile.

v 1…Hear this word which I take up for you as a dirge (lamentation), O house of Israel.

v 2…” She has fallen (dying), she will not rise again, the virgin Israel (“virgin” in this sense is they have never been conquered). She lies neglected on her land (by the enemy); there is none to raise her up.”

v 3…For thus says the Lord God (Adonai Yehovah), “The city which goes forth a thousand strong Will have a hundred left (sent many, but few will survive-a slaughter), and the one which goes forth a hundred strong, will have ten left to the house of Israel (all else devoured by Yehovah’s judgments).”

v 4…For thus says the Lord (Yehovah) to the house of Israel, “Seek me that you may live (one last attempt to turn them to the true worship of Yehovah found in the Torah).

v 5…But do not resort to Bethel (a main worship center where idolatry was openly practiced), and do not come to Gilgal (another idolatrous center), nor crossover to Beersheba (in the extreme south where there was another idolatrous worship center evidently), for Gilgal will certainly go into captivity, and Bethel will come to trouble (their idols will not be able to save them).

v 6…Seek the Lord (Yehovah and his Torah) that you may live, lest he break forth like a fire, O house of Joseph (the ten tribes went by the name of Ephraim, the son of Joseph, (because that was the principle tribe and their first king was from that tribe), and it consume with no one to quench it for Bethel (the idols there were helpless and useless to put out the fire).

v 7…For those who turn justice (mishpat) into wormwood (a bitter wrong) and cast righteousness (“tzedekah” as defined by the Torah) down to the earth (to trample underfoot).”

v 8…He who made the Pleiades (literally “seven stars”) and Orion (“the gate”-Job 9.9. 38.31) and changes deep darkness into morning (night into day, or disaster into joy), who also darkens day into night (joy into disaster-these statements speak of Yehovah’s judicial rule), who calls for the waters of the sea and pours them out on the surface of the earth (ordinary rains for good, and floods for disaster), the Lord (Yehovah) is his name.

v 9…It is he who flashes forth with destruction upon the strong as catastrophes hit them), so that destruction comes upon the fortress (nothing can stand up against the power of Yehovah).

v 10…They (evil judges, princes, civil rulers) hate him (Yehovah, the prophet, or anyone who speaks against unrighteousness) who reproves the gate (where the corrupt courts met), they abhor him who speaks with integrity.

v 11…Therefore, because you (the judges, princes, civil rulers, etc) impose heavy rent on the poor and exact a tribute of grain from them (by coercion, bribery, extortion), you have built houses of well-hewn stone (with ill-gotten gains), yet you will not live in them; you have planted pleasant vineyards, yet you will not drink their wine.

v 12…For I know (he knew that the judicial system was corrupt) your transgressions are many and your sins great, you who distress the righteous and accept bribes, and turn aside the poor in the gate (the courts perverted justice0.

v 13…Therefore, at such a time the prudent (wise) person keeps silent, for it is an evil time (all warning is of no avail because they won’t listen because of the moral corruption).

v 14…Seek good and not evil that you may live (spiritually, the consequence of doing so-Deut 30.6); and thus may the Lord (Yehovah) God (Elohay) of hosts (tzavaot or the “armies”) be with you, just as you have said (they said the Lord was with them, but he wasn’t, but if they repent he will help them).

v 15…Hate evil, love good (this was what they weren’t doing), and establish justice in the gate (courts)! Perhaps the Lord God of hosts may be gracious to the remnant of Joseph (the ten tribes went by the name Ephraim who was the son of Joseph, and they were the principle tribe and their first king was from that tribe).

v 16…Therefore, thus says the Lord (Yehovah) God (elohay) of hosts (tzavaot or “armies”), the Lord (Adonai-Amos again reveals where he gets the authority to speak as a prophet), “There is wailing (mourning) in all the plazas (squares), and in all the streets (highways) they say, ‘Alas, Alas (woe)!’ They also call the farmer to mourning and the professional mourners to lamentation (everyone is mourning).

v 17…And in all the vineyards (normally a place of joy) wailing, because I shall pass through the midst of you (this alludes to the events of Exo 12 and the blood on the doorposts-speaks of God visiting judgment on them) says the Lord (Yehovah).

v 18…Alas, you who are longing for the day of the Lord (for Israel to be redeemed out of their distress), for what purpose will the day of the Lord be to you (if you don’t call on the name of Yehovah in repentance-same with people today who think they will love it, but it will be a tough time especially if you don’t have a Torah-based faith in Yeshua. People think they are saved, especially those in replacement theology, but they are one of the reasons judgment comes)? It will be darkness and not light (unbelievers will be judged bringing harm and distress);

v 19…As when a man flees from a lion, and a bear meets him, or goes home, leans his hand against a wall, and a snake bites him (they will escape one danger, only to fall into another one).

v 20 Will not the day of the Lord be darkness instead of light (no deliverance to those who oppose Yehovah and the Torah), even gloom with no brightness in it (they thought the day of the Lord was a day Yehovah will destroy their enemies. The problem was, they were Yehovah’s enemies. It’s the same today).

v 21…I hate, I reject your festivals, nor do I delight in your solemn assemblies (they had a system of replacement theology set up where God’s festivals, priesthood, doctrines, and place to worship was set up-1 Kings 12.25-33. It’s the same thing today).

v 22…Even though you offer up to me burnt offerings (“olot”) and your grain offerings, (minchah) I will not accept them (they mixed paganism with true worship); and I will not even look at the peace offerings (shelemim) of your fatlings).

v 23…Take away from me the noise of your songs; I will not listen to the sound of your harps.

v 24…But let justice (as defined in the Torah) roll down like waters and righteousness (as defined in the Torah) like an everlasting stream (not just a little here and there, but a perpetual flow).

v 25…Did you present me with sacrifices (zevachim-a covenantal feast) and grain offerings in the wilderness for forty years, O house of Israel (even then they were idolatrous, so what they were doing was nothing new)?

v 26…You also carried along Sikkuth (related to “sukkot” meaning a portable shrine in which the image of their deity was kept; a small chapel) your king and Kiyyun (the stand it sat on); your images (this stand on which the portable shrine was placed; the “booth” or shrine and the stand were the things used to protect the carrying of their “star” gods-Deut 4.19; the stars represented the demons they worshiped, the idol; they were not looking to the true star and the Messiah-Num 24.17; Rev 22.16).

v 27…Therefore, I will make you go into exile beyond Damascus (to Assyria),” says the Lord (Yehovah, the God (Elohay) of hosts (“tzavaot” or armies) is his name.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Amos-Chapter 4

Amos 4.1-13 tells us the nobles are denounced (the evil women of Samaria are like the well-fed cows of the country) who are on the mountain of Samaria, who oppress the poor, who crush the needy, who say to their husbands, “Bring now, that we may drink (get us the means of debauchery).”

v 2…The Lord God (Adonai Yehovah) has sworn by his holiness (his kedusha-himself), “Behold (take note and see) the days are coming upon you when they will take you away with meat hooks (through the nose to control them), and the last of you with fish hooks(to pull them along).

v 3…You will go through breaches (in the walls; there were so many they didn’t need to use the gates), each one straight before her, and you will be cast to Harmonah (where they were led captive; an area beyond Damascus into Assyria-Amos 5.27),” declares the Lord (after the women are addressed, the prophecy turns to the nation).

v 4…Enter Bethel and transgress (go ahead, keep up with your idolatry); in Gilgal multiply transgression (another idol worship center)! Bring your sacrifices every morning, your tithes every three days (Amos is being facetious here; even if you offered burnt offerings every morning and tithes every three days, it would only increase their guilt).

v 5…Offer a thank offering also from that which is leavened (this was allowed in the Korban Shelem-Lev 7.12-14, but it was all empty ritual), and proclaim freewill offerings, make them known (Matt 6.1-4), for so you love to do, you sons of Israel.” declares the Lord God (Adonai Yehovah-their outward worship was only adding more guilt upon themselves because Yehovah can see their hearts, which were far away from him and his Torah).

v 6…But I gave you also cleanness of teeth in all your cities (famine, no food to chew), and lack of bread in all your places (a Hebrew parallelism), yet you have not returned to me,” declares the Lord (his punishment and chastisement had no effect on them).

v 7…And furthermore, I withheld the rain from you while there were still three months until harvest (which occurred in May and June). Then I would send rain on one city and on another I would not send rain (blessing and cursing are according to his will); one part would be rained on while the part not rained on would dry up.

v 8…So two or three cities would stagger to another city to drink water, but would not be satisfied (couldn’t get enough for their present use, let alone carry any back); yet you have not returned to me,” declares the Lord (this had no effect on them either).

v 9…”I smote you with scorching wind and mildew (a blight or too much moisture), and the caterpillar was devouring your many gardens and vineyards; fig trees and olive trees, yet you have not returned to me,” declares the Lord (Yehovah).

v 10…”I sent a plague among you after the manner of Egypt (plagues were common there), I slew your young men by the sword along with your captured horses (in wars with Syria); yet you have not returned to me,” declares the Lord.

v 11…”I overthrew you as God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah, and you (who barely escaped) were like a firebrand snatched from a blaze (not fully consumed-Zech 3.2), yet you have not returned to me,” declares the Lord.

v 12…Therefore (in conclusion), thus I will do to you, O Israel; because I shall do this to you, prepare to meet your God, O Israel (to stand before him in judgment, unless you avoid total destruction by teshuvah, or repentance-Yehovah is in control of all of this-Deut 32.39).”

v 13…For behold (see and take note of), he who forms the mountains and creates the wind and declares to man what are his thoughts (he can penetrate into the mind of every man-Psa 139.2; Jer 17.10), who makes dawn into darkness (quench the magnificence of his creation) and treads on the high places of the earth (Yehovah rules over the earth by his unlimited power), the Lord God (Adonai Yehovah) of hosts (the armies) is his name (the God of the universe).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Amos-Chapter 3

Amos 3.1-15 goes on with his prophecy against Israel and why judgment is being brought upon them and the nature of them.

v 1…Hear (has the alef-tav here in Hebrew; meaning “head of the covenant”) this word (“davar” in Hebrew and a term for the Messiah-John 1.1-3) which the Lord (Yehovah) has spoken against you, sons of Israel, against the entire family which he brought up from the land of Egypt (all twelve tribes are the ones threatened with destruction).

v 2…”You only have I chosen (Hebrew “yada” or known) among the families of the earth-Rom 9.1-5; Psa 147.19-26; therefore, I will punish you for all your iniquities.”

v 3…Do two men walk together without having met one another (a previous arrangement has been made or common ground; the two meeting here is Yehovah and Amos-v 8).

v 4…Does a lion roar on the forest when he has no prey (Yehovah has Israel and there is no escape)? Does a young lion growl from his den unless he has captured something (parallelism)?

v 5…Does a bird fall into a trap on the ground when there is no bait in it (No- so their sins drew them into this)? Does a trap spring up from the earth when it captures nothing at all (No)?

v 6…If a trumpet is blown in a city will not the people tremble (it forewarns of danger, but Israel was not alarmed although Yehovah threatened judgment)? If a calamity occurs in a city has not the Lord done it (Yes is the answer-Lam 3.37; Deut 32.39; Ecc 7.14)?

v 7…Surely the Lord God (Adonai Yehovah) does nothing unless he reveals his secret counsel (Hebrew “sowd” meaning hidden, secret, mystical deeper meaning) to his servants the prophets (so they can do nothing but prophesy what is going to happen).

v 8…A lion has roared (Yehovah)! Who will not fear? The Lord God has spoken, who can but prophesy (this alludes back to v 3 where the Lord and the prophet have met one another and are at the appointed place).

v 9…Proclaim on the citadels in Ashdod and in the citadels in the land of Egypt and say (the prophets were to make it heard), “Assemble yourselves on the mountains of Samaria and see the great tumults within her and the oppressions in her midst (see the violence and the abominations in the palaces of Samaria; to bear witness against Israel).

v 10…But they do not know how to do what is right (they are accustomed to doing evil),” declares the Lord, “these who hoard up violence and devastation (robbery) in her citadels (stored up trea1sures gotten by violent means).”

v 11…Therefore, thus says the Lord God, “An enemy (Assyria), even one surrounding the land, will pull down your strength from you and your citadels will be looted (plundered the unjust gain stored up in them).”

v 12…Thus says the Lord God, “Just as the shepherd snatches from the lion’s mouth a couple of legs or a piece of an ear (of the body of the creature being devoured), so will the sons of Israel dwelling in Samaria be snatched away (only a remnant will survive Assyria)-in a corner of a bed; and in Damascus in a couch (meaning all who lied luxuriously and at ease in Samaria and Damascus. They were on the routes of travel for the Assyrians so they would not escape the coming judgment).

v 13…Hear and testify (heathen nations) against the house of Jacob,” declares the Lord God (Adonai Yehovah), the God of hosts (Elohey Tzavaot-God of the armies),

v 14…For on the day that I punish Israel’s transgressions, I will also punish the altars of Bethel (the false worship of Jerobiam-1 Kings 12); the horns of the altar (where the blood was sprinkled) will be cut off (the main altar put up by Jeroboam), and they will fall to the ground.

v 15…I will smite the winter house (in the city for warmth) together with the summer house (in the country-destruction will reach the city and the country); the houses of ivory (1 Kings 22.39) will also perish and the great houses will come to an end (demolished in the coming ruin,” declares the Lord.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Amos-Chapter 2

Amos 2.1-16 tells us about the judgments that will come upon Moab, Judah, and Israel for their sins.

v 1…Thus says the Lord, “For three transgressions of Moab (seed of the father) and for four (idiom meaning numerous transgressions) I will not revoke (withdraw its punishment), because he burned the bones of the king of Edom to lime (as a show of contempt-2 Kings 3.25-27).

v 2…So I will send fire (judgment by Babylon) on Moab, and it will consume the citadel of Kerioth (the capital in the Arnon Valley); and Moab will die amid tumult (by Babylon), with war cries and the sound of a trumpet.

v 3…I will also cut off the judge (a term for a king in a rhetorical fashion) from her midst, and slay all her princes with him” says the Lord.

v 4…This says the Lord (Yehovah), “For three transgressions of Judah and for four (idiom for numerous transgressions) I will not revoke (withdraw its punishment) because they rejected the law (Torah) of the Lord and have not kept his statutes (chukim); their lies (false teaching, idols, etc) also have led them astray, those after which their fathers walked (this had been going on for generations, not new).

v 5…So I will send fire (judgment by Babylon) upon Judah and it will consume the citadels of Jerusalem.

v 6…Thus says the Lord (Yehovah), “For three transgressions of Israel and for four (idiom for numerous transgressions) I will not revoke (withdraw its punishment), because they sell the righteous for money and the needy for a pair of sandals (deprived the poor of justice through bribery).

v 7…These who pant after the very dust of the earth on the head of the helpless (trampling the poor into dust to humble them, to prostrate them in submission) also turn aside the way of the humble (by declining them justice, to pervert it); and a man and his father resort to the same girl (same harlot) in order to profane my holy name (it has a kedusha; this was done on purpose with intentional contempt for Yehovah).

v 8…And on garments taken as pledges they stretch out beside every altar (to sit on at their pagan altars; you can’t use pledged things and they must be returned at night to the poor to keep warm-Exo 22.26; Deut 24.12-13), and in the house of their God they drink wine of those who have been fined (unjustly by oppression).

v 9…Yet it was I who destroyed the Amorite before them (by Joshua-Num 21.24; Deut 2.31), though his height was like the height of cedars and he was strong as the oaks (powerful people); I even destroyed his fruit above and his roots below (like a mighty tree, Yehovah cut the whole nation down).

v 10…And it was I who brought you up from the land of Egypt, and I led you in the wilderness forty years that you might take possession of the land of the Amorite (Yehovah is reminding them of so many benefits).

v 11…Then I raised up some of your sons to be prophets and some of your young men to be Nazarites (both of these functions were acts of “chesed” or grace, which no other nation had. It was an example of being a people with a kedusha to God). Is this not so, sons of Israel?” declares the Lord (can you deny it).

v 12…But you made the Nazarites drink wine (contrary to their vow, to make drink by persuasion or forced them to do it), and you commanded the prophets saying, ‘You shall not prophesy (of judgment and vengeance, but only positive things. It seems this was said by people in authority)!”

v 13…Behold (take note and see), I am weighed down beneath you (grieved by the weight of their sins) as a wagon is weighed down when filled with sheaves (at harvest time).

v 14…Flight will perish from the swift (no time or place to go), and the stalwart (strong) will not strengthen his power (muster up enough strength to defend himself), nor the mighty man saves his life (deliver himself).

v 15…He who grasps the bow will not stand (at a distance to shoot his arrows because he will not feel safe), the swift of foot will not escape (this is repeated to break the confidence of any who think they can), nor will he who rides the horse save his life (no escape can be devised to avoid the coming disaster).

v 16…Even the bravest among the warriors will flee naked in that day (threw away his armor and clothes because they slowed him down),” declares the Lord.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Amos-Chapter 1

The book of Amos was written by Amos (to lift a burden), who was a shepherd and a dresser of trees. He prophesied about 750 BC and prophesied for a short time. He was from Judah and lived in Tekoa, which is about 12 miles south of Jerusalem. He prophesied in the northern kingdom for a while during the second half of the reign of Jeroboam II (785-744 BC), king of Israel, and during the reign of Uzziah (780-740 BC, king of Judah.

Amos is an eighth-century BC prophet so his prophecies allude to events in the first three and half years of the birth-pains. He speaks of the day of the Lord, but this period is not a vindication of Israel, as some believe. But it is an assertion of God’s moral character against those who have repudiated him. Amos is sent by Yehovah to the north to speak to the king about justice.

Amos 1.1-15 tells us about the sins and judgment on other nations

v 1…The words of Amos, who was among the shepherders (just one of the shepherds) from Tekoa, which he envisioned (saw) in visions concerning Israel (the ten northern tribes) in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joash, king of Israel, two years before the earthquake (when Uzziah was struck by leprosy and the Temple was torn-Zech 14.5).

v 2…And he (Amos) said, “The Lord (Yehovah) roars from Zion and from Jerusalem (the Temple) he utters his voice (in judgment against Israel); and the shepherds pasture grounds mourn, and the summit of Carmel dries up.”

v 3…Thus says the Lord, “For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four (this is going to be a rhetorical technique which means Damascus, or any offender, is guilty of numerous offenses. From 1.3 to 2.3 God begins with the enemies of Israel, and he is judging the “other guy.” But then he will judge Israel and they will try to silence Amos in 7.10-17), I will not revoke (withdraw its punishment), because they threshed (attacked) Gilead (in the Golan Heights today) with implements of sharp iron (their cruelty foretold by Elisha in 2 Kings 8.12).

v 4…So I will send fire upon the house of Hazael (Yehovah’s judgment upon his descendants), and it will consume the citadels of Ben-hadad (the name given to the kings of Syria).

v 5…I will also break the gate bar of Damascus (this bar kept the gates closed) and cut off the inhabitant from the valley of Aven (of an idol worshiped there-1 Kings 20.23), and him who holds the scepter from Beth-Eden, so the people of Syria will go exiled to Kir,” declares the Lord (this was fulfilled when Assyria conquered Damascus02 Kings 16.9).

v 6…Thus says the Lord, “For three transgression of Gaza (Philistines) and for four (idiom meaning they were guilty of numerous offenses) I will not revoke (withdraw its punishment), because they deported an entire population to deliver it up to Edom (they carried away the possessions found in the house of Jehoram king of Judah, and all his sons and wives. Not one son was left but the youngest-2 Chr 21.16-17. Edom would mistreat their captives).

v 7…So I will send fire upon the wall of Gaza, and it will consume her citadels.

v 8…I will also cut off the inhabitant of Ashdod, and him who holds the scepter from Ashkelon; I will even unleash my power on Ekron, and the remnant of the Philistines will perish,” says the Lord God (all the other towns and cities belonging to them-probably fulfilled in the times of the Maccabees).

v 9…Thus says the Lord, “For three transgressions of Tyre and for four (an idiom for numerous transgressions) I will not revoke (withdraw its punishment), because they delivered up an entire population to Edom (Israelites who fled to them) and did not remember the covenant of brotherhood (that Hiram made with David and Solomon-2 Sam 5.11; 1 Kings 5.2-6, 15-18, 9.11-14-no king of Israel or Judah made war on Phoenicia, but later they sold Israelites to others).

v 10…So I will send fire upon the wall of Tyre and it will consume her citadels (done by Nebuchadnezzar and later Alexander the Great).”

v 11…Thus says the Lord, “For three transgressions of Edom and for four (an idiom for numerous transgressions) I will not revoke (withdraw its punishment), because he pursued his brother with the sword (he never forgave Jacob), while he stifled his compassion; his anger also tore continually, and he maintained his fury forever.

v 12…So will send fire upon Teman (this city was near Petra and done by Nebuchadnezzar) and it will consume the citadels of Bozrah (sheepfold).”

v 13…Thus says the Lord, “For three transgressions of the sons of Ammon and for four (an idiom for numerous transgressions) I will not revoke (withdraw its punishment), because they ripped open the pregnant women of Gilead (very cruel and frequently done by enemies-2 Kings 15.16) in order to enlarge their border (taking the territory of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh east of the Jordan).

v 14…So I will kindle a fire in Rabbah (the capital), and it will consume her citadels amid war cries on the day of battle and a storm (whirlwind) on the day of tempest (judgment of God-Jer 49.2).

v 15…Their king will go into exile (Baalis, and he was an accomplice to the murder of Gedaliah in Jer 40.14-was taken by Babylon), he and his princes together,” says the Lord

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Joel-Chapter 3

Joel 3.1-21 gives us a prophecy about Yehovah’s judgments on the nations during the Messianic Kingdom and the glory coming to Judah and Jerusalem.

v 1…”For behold (take note and see), in those days and at that time (“b’ yamim” or when Messiah comes), when I restore the fortunes (bring back the captives) of Judah and Jerusalem (after Yeshua returns on Yom Kippur at the end of the birth-pains),

v 2…I will gather all the nations and bring them down to the valley of Yehoshaphat (meaning “Yehovah is judge” to the valley of Hinnom or “tophet”-Isa 66.15-24; Matt 25.31-46). Then I will enter into judgment with them there on behalf of my people and my inheritance, Israel (“you’ve done this, or not, to the least of my brethren, you did it, or not, to me”-Matt 25.40, 45), whom they have scattered among the nations (in various times of persecutions and dispersions); and they have divided up my land (for themselves as they saw fit-Assyria, Babylon, Greece, Romans, Moslems, Christianity, the UN, Palestinians, etc).

v 3…They have also cast lots for my people (after they were captured), traded a boy for a harlot, sold a girl for wine that they may drink (typical behavior of the enemies of God toward Israel).

v 4…Moreover, what are you to me, O Tyre, Sidon and all the regions of Philistia (you have no cause to do me or my people harm)? Are you rendering me a recompense (a repayment)? But if you do recompense me, swiftly and speedily I will return your recompense on your head (it will come back on you).

v 5…Since you have taken my silver and my gold (that I gave to Israel), brought my precious treasures to your temples (after plundering the Temple, the palaces, houses, etc),

v 6…and sold the sons of Judah and Jerusalem to the Greeks in order to remove them far from their territory,

v 7…behold (see for yourself), I am going to arouse them from the place where you have sold them, and return your recompense on your head (Israel will return and have dominion over them in the kingdom).

v 8…Also I will sell your sons and your daughters into the hand of the sons of Judah (when Tyre fell, for example, Alexander put some of them in Jewish hands), and they will sell them to the Sabeans, to distant nations (this typifies the uttermost of the nations),” for the Lord (Yehovah) has spoken.

v 9…Proclaim this among the nations (hostile to Israel); prepare a war; rouse the mighty men (get ready)! Let all the soldiers draw near, let them come up (for war in the birth-pains against Israel (Zech 14.1-8)!

v 10…Beat your plowshares into swords, and your pruning hooks into spears (equip yourselves for battle); let the weak say, “I am a mighty man (a hero; the nations are in a warlike frenzy against Yehovah and his people).

v 11…Hasten and come, all you surrounding nations, and gather yourselves there (the valley of Yehoshaphat). Bring down, O Lord, thy mighty ones (his army-Rev 19.14).

v 12…Let the nations be aroused and come up to the valley of Yehoshaphat (meaning “Yehovah is judge”-to the valley of Hinnom-Rev 14.14-20, 16.14, 19.17-18, 20.8; Jer 7.22-34, 49.1-15; Isa 66.23-24; Zech 14.1-8; Luke 17.33-37; Matt 24.29-31; Matt 25.31-46), for there I will sit to judge all the surrounding nations.

v 13…Put in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe. Come, tread, for the wine press (the valley) is full (of the wicked-Isa 63.1-6); the vats overflow, for their wickedness is great (has reached its height and calls out for vengeance).

v 14…Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision (the meaning of the valley of Yehoshaphat), for the day of the Lord is near (“karav” meaning here and confronting you) in the valley of decision (judgment; the valley of Hinnom and the Kidron; tophet).

v 15…The sun and moon grow dark, and the stars lose their brightness (by the smoke of war; foretelling the judgment of God).

v 16…And the Lord (Yehovah) roars from Zion (terrifying his enemies; he is up close to his enemies), and utters his voice from Jerusalem (as he returns there), and the heavens and the earth tremble. But the Lord is a refuge for his people and a stronghold to the sons of Israel.

v 17…Then you will know that I am the Lord your God (this will be the proof of it), dwelling in Zion my holy (has a kedusha) mountain (a term for the Kingdom of God). So Jerusalem will be holy (have a kedusha) and inhabited only by the righteous), and strangers (“zarim”- those with no relation to the believing community) will pass through it no more (Isa 60.21; Zech 14.21; Rev 22.27).

v 18…And it will come about in that day (when Messiah comes in the kingdom) that the mountains will drip with sweet wine, and the hills will flow with milk, and all the brooks of Judah will flow with water; and a spring will go out from the house of the Lord (the Temple-Ezek 47.1-22-Judah and Jerusalem are types of the kingdom of God) to water the valley of Shittim (this is a barren valley near the border of Moab, the farthest end of Canaan; shittim is “acacia” and taken from the last camp of Israel in Moab before they entered Canaan-Num 25.1; Josh 3.1).

v 19…Egypt will become a waste, and Edom will become a desolate wilderness (Egypt and Edom are types of the world who are against Yehovah and the kingdom), because of the violence done to the sons of Judah, in whose land they have shed innocent blood (Exo 1.16; Amos 1.11; Oba 1.10).

v 20…But Judah will be inhabited forever, and Jerusalem for all generations.

v 21…And I will avenge their blood (wipe out all the wrongs done to Israel) which I have not avenged (as yet; what remained unpunished), for the Lord dwells in Zion (his Shekinah will return when Yeshua comes and he dispenses his grace and mercy from there).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Joel-Chapter 2

Joel 2.1-32 tells us that even in judgment Yehovah seeks repentance or “teshuvah.” Yehovah also promises blessings when the people respond with true repentance. This chapter contains allusions to the birth-pains, Rosh Ha Shanah, Yom Kippur, and the coming day of the Lord in an eschatological sense.

v 1…Blow a trumpet in Zion (this alludes to the priests who call the people to assemble), and sound an alarm on my holy mountain (the Temple Mount). Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble, for the day of the Lord is coming; surely it is near (Hebrew “karav” meaning here now, confronting you; this verse is eschatological because we have a trumpet blowing and the day of the Lord begins. This alludes to Tishri 1, Year 6001 Rosh Ha Shanah and the beginning of the judgments of the birth pains).

v 2…A day of darkness and gloom, a day of clouds and thick darkness (this was caused by the locusts but also alludes to the birth-pains) as the dawn is spread over the mountains (the wings of the locusts reflecting the sun before they blot out the sun altogether), so there is a great and mighty people (a picture of the Assyrian or Babylonians, later Russia and the False Messiah); there has never been anything like it, nor will there be again after it. To the years of many generations (in Judea, none had caused the damage Assyria, Babylon and Rome did).

v 3…A fire consumes before them (this army consumed everything) and behind them a flame burns (the locust invasion is a picture of Assyria, Babylon, Rome, Russia, and the False Messiah; what is left behind burns). The land is like the garden of Eden before them (alive with vegetation, trees, plants, and vineyards), but a desolate wilderness behind them (everything is eaten up), and nothing at all escapes them (the locusts; and nothing escaped Assyria and Babylon).

v 4…Their appearance (the locusts) is like the appearance of horses (the locust head looks like a horse); and like war horses, so they run (swift).

v 5…With a noise as of chariots, they leap on the tops of the mountains, like the crackling of a flame of fire consuming the stubble (noisy), like a mighty people arrayed for battle (in their march they were like the Assyrian or Babylonian army who were heard before you could see them).

v 6…Before them (locusts, Assyria, Babylon, Rome, Russia, False Messiah, etc) the people are in anguish (at their presence); all faces turn pale (from fear).

v 7…They run like mighty men (carrying out God’s command), they climb the walls like soldiers (besieging a city-you can’t keep them out), and they each march in line (in proper order), nor do they deviate from their paths (do not break ranks).

v 8…They do not press his brother, they march every one in his path (planned), and when they shall fall upon the sword, they shall not be cut off (wounded, cut to pieces, were invincible).

v 9…They rush on the city (unhindered), they run on the wall (having climbed the wall they begin to go from tower to tower like Babylon and Rome will do); they climb into the house, they enter through the window like a thief (locusts did this in Exo 10.6, nothing was impenetrable).

v 10…Before them the earth quakes, the heavens tremble (the inhabitants on earth are in fear, and the sky is obscured by the vast numbers), the sun and the moon grow dark, and the stars lose their brightness (by the immense numbers of the locust).

v 11…And the Lord utters his voice before his army (of locusts, Assyria, Babylon, Rome, Russia, etc); surely His camp is very great (he is the power behind all this, they are his tools), for strong is he who carries out his word (to come against Judah-Isa 8.7, 10.5, 15; Mic 5.5). The day of the Lord (his coming) is indeed great and very awesome (the days between Rosh Ha Shanah and Yom Kippur are called the “days of awe” or the “Yamim Noraim” and is based on this verse), yet who can endure it (now it is plain that this entire description is symbolic of the judgments in the day of the Lord. For review, remember we have the six-thousand-year plan of God followed by a one-thousand-year period called the Day of the Lord, the Atid Lavo, the Sabbath of God, the Lord’s Day, and several other names. This period begins on Tishri 1 Rosh Ha Shanah when the Natzal will occur. Ten days later on Yom Kippur the 2520 days of the birth-pains begin)?

v 12..”Yet even now,” declares the Lord, “return to me with all your heart, and with fasting, weeping and mourning (external signs that speak about their desire to return to Yehovah);

v 13…and rend your heart and not your garments (don’t be content with just outward signs).” Now return to the Lord your God, for he is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger, abounding in lovingkindness, and relenting of evil (this alludes to what is called the “Midot” in Exo 34.6 and tells us that God does not rule with strict justice only).

v 14…Who knows whether he will not turn and relent (from the judgments promised), and leave a blessing behind him (not total desolation because of the locusts, leaving some fruits behind), even a grain offering and a libation for the Lord your God (enough for a grain offering and vines enough for a wine libation).

v 15…Blow a trumpet in Zion (to assemble the people for a religious activity), consecrate a fast, and proclaim a solemn assembly (this alludes to Yom Kippur because it is the only solemn festival with a trumpet and when people fast).

v 16…Gather the people (inhabitants of the land), sanctify the congregation (according to the Torah, become ceremonially clean), assemble the elders, gather the children and the nursing infants (nobody is left out, from the oldest to the youngest, all were guilty). Let the bridegroom come out of his room (chedar ), and the bride out of her bridal chamber (chupah-there is not time for a honeymoon-the newly married couple were to leave the wedding chamber and join in with the call to repent. Eschatologically, this may allude to the coming of Yeshua and his bride on Yom Kippur. They went into the wedding chamber, or heaven, in Isa 26.19-20, at the Natzal, or “rapture” on Rosh Ha Shanah. Now they are coming out of the wedding chamber on Yom Kippur-Matt 24.29-31).

v 17…Let the priests, the Lord’s ministers, weep between the porch and the altar (at the very door of the Temple they were to weep, pray and repent, and this is another allusion to Yom Kippur because a part of the ceremony on that day takes place there) and let them say, “Spare thy people, O Lord (from the devastation of the land), do not make thine inheritance a reproach, a byword among the nations. Why should they among the peoples say, “Where is their God (bringing disgrace on the name of Yehovah if they are reduced to famine by the locust army).”

v 18…Then the Lord will be zealous for his land, and he will have pity on his people (to deliver them out of their distress).

v 19…And the Lord will answer and say to his people, “Behold (see, take note), I am going to send you grain, new wine, and oil, and you will be satisfied in full with them; and I will no more make you a reproach among the nations (for want of food; God will not give them any more distresses related to famine).

v 20…But I will remove the northern army far from you (the swarms of locusts, but this also alludes prophetically to the northern armies of Assyria, Babylon, Rome, Russia, and the False Messiah who will come into the land from the north), and I will drive it into a parched and desolate land (driven away from his people and perish), and its vanguard (will fall) into the eastern sea (Dead Sea), and its rear guard into the western sea (Mediterranean). And its stench will arise (the decaying insects) and its foul smell will come up, for it has done great (evil, monstrous) things.”

v 21…Do not fear, O land, rejoice and be glad, for the Lord has done great things (good things, the opposite of the locusts).

v 22…Do not fear, beasts of the field, for the pastures of the wilderness have turned green (plenty of food for them now), for the tree has borne its fruit (like before the locusts came). the fig tree and the vine have yielded in full.

v 23…So rejoice, O sons of Zion, and be glad in the Lord your God, for he has given you the early rain (Hebrew “morey tzedekah” or teacher for righteousness) for your vindication, and he has poured down for you the rain, the former and the latter rain in the first month (this is a very eschatological verse. The “teacher for righteousness” is a title for the Messiah, who is seen as the rain-Hos 6.3; Jam 5.7. The former rain is in Tishri, when the fall festivals occur. These teach the second coming of the Messiah. The latter rain is in Nisan, when the spring festivals occur and these teach the first coming of Messiah. Tishri is the first month of the civil calendar, and Nisan is the first month of the religious calendar. Yeshua, the teacher for righteousness, came and fulfilled the spring festivals of Passover, Unleavened Bread, First Fruits and Shavuot. He is coming again in the fall to fulfill Rosh Ha Shanah, Yom Kippur and Sukkot in Tishri. This verse actually tells us what month Yeshua will come to eschatologically fulfill, or give meaning to, these festivals).

v 24…And the threshing floors will be full of grain (a new harvest), and the vats will overflow with the new wine and oil (a bright future).

v 25…Then I will make up to you the years that the swarming locust has eaten, the creeping locust, the stripping locust, and the gnawing locust (the locusts of 1.4 in reverse order), my great army which I sent among you.

v 26…And you shall have plenty to eat and be satisfied, and praise the name of the Lord (Yehovah) your God, who has dealt wondrously with you; then my people will never be put to shame.

v 27…Thus you will know that I am in the midst of Israel (his chosen people of the covenant), and that I and the Lord your God and there is no other; and my people will never be put to shame.

v 28…And it will come about after this (Hebrew “acherei” and in Jewish thought, this is the Messianic age or Messianic Kingdom, the Atid Lavo, after Yeshua returns), that I will pour out my spirit on all mankind (who believe that Yeshua is the Messiah and a part of the eschatological Kahal); and your sons and daughters will prophesy, your old men will dream dreams, your young men will see visions (a part of prophetic revelation).

v 29…And even on the male and female servants I will pour out my spirit in those days (all social distinctions are not relevant when it comes to the Ruach Ha Kodesh. The people expected these things to happen when the Messiah came, and it did beginning in Acts 2).

v 30…And I will display wonders in the sky and in the earth (judgment of the nations goes hand in hand with the outpouring of the RHK), blood, fire, and columns of smoke.

v 31…The sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood (from clouds of smoke rising from the burning cities, etc), before the great and awesome day of the Lord comes.

v 32…And it will come about that whoever calls on the name of the Lord (Yehovah) will be delivered (this includes the non-Jews); for on Mount Zion and Jerusalem there will be those who escape as the Lord has said, even among the survivors whom the Lord calls (the remnant, the elect by grace, the little flock, the chosen from all nations).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Joel-Chapter 1

Joel (Yoel) is the son of Pethuel and is the author of this book, and his name means “Yehovah is God.” Not much is known about him, but he may have been a resident of Jerusalem. A locust infestation has devastated Judah and Joel contemplates this calamity. It was at this time the word of Yehovah came to him and he becomes a great prophet explaining the implications of this distress. This plague is described as a human army moving on, leaving behind a devastated land. Joel knows that Yehovah is at work in this, and it is called his army. The day of this invasion is called the “Day of the Lord” with judgment coming upon sinful people. Joel urges the people to repent, with the hope God will withdraw this judgment.

This book has eschatological implications as well. The locusts may symbolize a human army that will invade Judah like Assyria or Babylon. Assyria is a picture of Russia who will invade Israel at the beginning of the fourth year of the birth-pains, between Tishri 1 Rosh Ha Shanah and Tishri 10 Yom Kippur. The date of its composition is unclear but many scholars believe it was written around 835 BC during the reign of King Joash, but he was very young. The priest Yehoida was ruling in his place until Joash came of age. Prophetically, Joel was an eighth-century prophet so he will be alluding to events during the first three and a half years of the birth pains.

This book discusses judgment of God’s people, the nations, and the restoration of God’s people through times of distress. The visions of the future in Joel will be similar to what we read in the book of Revelation.

v 1…The word of the Lord (Yehovah) that came to Joel, the son of Pethuel (be persuaded of God),

v 2…Hear this, O elders (who had seen much), and listen, all inhabitants of the land (Judah). Has anything like this happened in your father’s days (apparently, this plague of locusts was the worst ever)?

v 3…Tell your sons about it (all the particulars about what happened), and let your sons tell their sons, and their sons the next generation (let it be handed down from generation to generation as a caution).

v 4…What the gnawing locust has left, the swarming locust has eaten; and what the swarming locust has left, the creeping locust has left, the stripping locust has eaten (one swarm after another came in).

v 5…Awake, drunkards, and weep; and wail, all you wine drinkers, on account of the sweet wine that is cut off from your mouth (since the supply of grapes was not available to make wine).

v 6…For a nation (the locusts, but this also alludes to Assyria or Babylon in the future, so keep that in mind as we read) has invaded my land, mighty and without number; its teeth are the teeth of a lion, and it has the fangs of a lioness (denotes the strength of the Assyrians or Babylonians).

v 7…It has made my vine (Israel-Isa 5.1-2) a waste and my fig tree (Israel-Hos 9.10) splinters. It has stripped them bare and cast them away (Assyria and Babylon stripped the nation of wealth and treasure); their branches have become white (being gnawed off).

v 8…Wail like a virgin girded with sackcloth (he addresses the believing nation) for the bridegroom (Jer 2.2) of her youth (they were concerned over true worship; called to lament what was happening).

v 9…The grain offering and the libation are cut off (grain and wine were wanting so they could not be brought to the Temple) from the bouse of the Lord. The priests mourn, the ministers of the Lord (because their livelihood depended on these offerings, so did their families).

v 10…The field is ruined (by the locust “army”), the land mourns, for the grain is ruined, the new wine dries up, fresh oil fails (these are basics to sustain life, and the loss of them is a cause for lamentation).

v 11…Be ashamed, O farmers, wail, O vinedressers, for the wheat and the barley; because the harvest of the field is destroyed (their labor was in vain and lost-just as the locusts did it, so will the Assyrian or Babylonian army do in the future. All of that alludes to the coming Russian invasion during the birth-pains).

v 12…The vine dries up, and the fig tree fails (sickens); the pomegranate, the palm also, and the apple tree; all the trees of the field dry up. Indeed, rejoicing dries up from the sons of men (because there will be no bountiful harvest).

v 13…Gird yourselves with sackcloth, and lament, O priests; wail O ministers of the altar! Come, spend the night in sackcloth, O ministers of my God, for the grain offering and the libation are withheld from the house of your God (all the usual korbanot and worship of Yehovah had to be stopped).

v 14…Consecrate a fast (one of the jobs of the priests; set apart a time for special religious service), proclaim a solemn assembly (held in connection with certain festivals like Rosh Ha Shanah and Yom Kippur); gather the elders and all the inhabitants of the land to the house of the Lord your God (for earnest prayer), and cry out to the Lord (for Yehovah to remove his judgments-1 Kings 8.37-40).

v 15…Alas, for the day (alludes to the day of the Lord eschatologically, as the locust plague is a picture of greater calamities by the Assyrians, Babylonians, Romans, and ultimately the False Messiah)! For the day of the Lord is near (Hebrew “karav” meaning here or has confronted you), and it will come as destruction from the almighty (his visitation is bringing a scourge upon Judah).

v 16…Has not food been cut off (by the locust plague, but also by the Assyrians and Babylonians-this will happen in the birth-pains as well) before your eyes, gladness, and joy from the house of our God (since the korbanot cannot be offered)?

v 17..The seeds shrivel (is rotten) under their clods (due to drought), the storehouses are desolate (empty because of no harvest), the barns are torn down (falling to pieces in disrepair, no money to fix them), for the grain is dried up.

v 18…How the beasts groan (for want of food)! The herds of cattle wander aimlessly because there is no pasture for them; even the flocks of sheep suffer (they could find pasture anywhere, but larger animals could not, but even the sheep couldn’t find anything. Their cries should have awakened the people, but it didn’t).

v 19…To thee, O Lord, I cry (he cries for all the animals who are suffering because of the guilt of man); for fire has devoured the pasture of the wilderness, and the flame has burned up all the trees of the field.

v 20…Even the beasts of the field cry unto thee (maybe man should learn a lesson from them and cry to the Lord to remove these calamities); for the water brooks are dried up, and fire has devoured the pastures of the wilderness (all creation groans because of man’s sinfulness-Rom 8.19-22).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Hosea-Chapter 14

Hos 14.1-9 tells us about certain promises to those who repent and turn to Yehovah.

v 1…Return (shuvah) O Israel, to the Lord (Yehovah) your God, for you have stumbled because of your iniquity (but it is possible to repent).

v 2…Take words (of confession with heart) with you (not empty-handed) and return to the Lord. Say to him, “Take away all iniquity (renouncing earthly help and relying only on the mercy of God), and receive us graciously, that we may present the fruit of our lips (literally “we will render as bullocks our lips”; in Psa 69.30-31; Psa 141.2 and Heb 13.15 bulls are symbolized as deep repentance because its blood was sprinkled in the Kodesh Ha Kodeshim or Holy of Holies, and the Ha Kodesh or Holy Place; this means repentance that penetrates to the inner core of the person).

v 3…Assyria will not save us (they looked to them for help), we will not ride on horses (to seek help elsewhere), nor will we say again, ‘Our God’ to the work of our hands (idols); for in thee the orphan finds mercy (the hopeless and the helpless).”

v 4…I (the Lord answers) will heal their apostasy (all the damage which has been inflicted because of their relapses), I will love them freely, for my anger has turned away from them (been withdrawn).

v 5…I will be like the dew (to refresh the drooping spirit; also alludes to true teaching from the Torah-Deut 32.1-32) to Israel; he (Israel) will blossom like the lily (fruitful) and he (Israel) will take root like Lebanon (very deep foundations).

v 6…His shoots (branches) will sprout (as he nourishes and develops with life), and his beauty will be like the olive tree (with green leaves and fruit symbolic of life by the Ruach Ha Kodesh), and his fragrance like Lebanon (with its cedars and aromatic fragrances).

v 7…Those who live in his shadow (an idiom for ” in the land of Israel” or the “Messianic Kingdom” and under Yehovah’s protection, peace, and safety-Psa 91.1; it also alludes to the Garden of Eden or Gan Eden, and the Temple. Bezalel, who built the Mishkan, means “in the shadow of God”) will again raise grain (revived); and they will blossom like the vine (Israel will prosper). His renown (scent) like the wine of Lebanon (which was known to have great flavor, aroma, and medicinal benefits).

v 8…O Ephraim, what more have I to do with idols (Yehovah will have nothing more to do with idols)? It is I who answer and look after you (not the idols). I am like a luxuriant cypress (forever green and alive, righteous-Ezek 17.24, 20.47; Luke 23.31), from me comes your fruit.

v 9…Whoever is wise, let him understand these things (all that Hosea has written about concerning correction, warnings, and blessings); whoever is discerning, let him know them. For the ways of the Lord are right (as defined in the Torah-Psa 103.7; John 5.46-47; Isa 55.8; they are plain, straight, just, and equitable), and the righteous (by faith) will walk (why the Torah was called the way, the truth, and the life) in them (the commandments), but the transgressors (of the Torah) will stumble (fall and perish) in them.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Hosea-Chapter 13

Hos 13.1-16 tells us Israel was not going to stop in their idolatry because they forgot the goodness of God. As a result, their kingdom would be taken away, along with the throne and capital city.

v 1…When Ephraim spoke there was trembling (being the most powerful tribe, he spoke with authority), he exalted himself in Israel, but through Baal (his idolatry serving Baal) he did wrong and died (his demise was determined).

v 2…And now they sin more and more (one sin led to another), and making for themselves molten images (of their own device), idols skillfully made from their silver, all of them the work of a craftsman. They say (the false prophets, priests, etc) of them, “Let the men who sacrifice kiss the calves (do homage, worship).”

v 3…Therefore, they will be like the morning cloud, and like dew which soon disappears (passes away), like chaff which is blown away from the threshing floor, and like smoke from a chimney (all of these show how quickly and suddenly their destruction will come).

v 4…Yet I have been the Lord your God since the land of Egypt; and you were not to know any God except me, for there is no savior besides me (showing how faithless Ephraim is being now).

v 5…I cared (literally knew you; alludes to betrothal-Jer 2.2) for you in the wilderness (with food, water, the Mishkan, guidance, preservation, direction, protection, etc), in the land of drought (where you need and desire everything).

v 6…As they had their pasture (Canaan), they became satisfied, and being satisfied, their heart became proud (elated in their prosperity); therefore, they forgot me (didn’t thank him nor depend on him).

v 7…So I will be like a lion to them; like a leopard, I will lie in wait (shows God’s predatory nature against unfaithful Israel) by the wayside (both fierce, swift, and do not spare).

v 8…I will encounter them like a bear robbed of cubs (fierce), and I will tear them open their chests (what encloses the heart). They had closed their hearts to God and now it will be ripped open in the day of judgment, exposing all the cruelty and evil it had hidden-Heb 4.12-13); there I will also devour them like a lioness, as a wild beast would tear them (their chastisement as a people).

v 9…It is your destruction, O Israel (you did it to yourself-Prov 6.32), that you are against me, against your help (by opposing Yehovah).

v 10…Where now is your king (you asked for one) that he may save you in all your cities, and your judges of whom you requested, “Give me a king and princes (you asked for him but they can’t save you)?”

v 11…I gave you a king in my anger (Saul was over all Israel, but Yehovah saw it as a rejection of him), and I took him away in my wrath (Hoshea, the last king of Israel, the ten tribes).

v 12…The iniquity of Ephraim is bound up (not forgiven or “loosed”), his sin is stored up (in reserve for punishment).

v 13…The pains of childbirth (distress, trouble) come upon him; he is not a wise son (didn’t learn the lessons of his forefathers), for it is not the time that he should delay at the opening of the womb (he does not try to get himself out of his distress).

v 14…I will ransom them from the power of Sheol; I will redeem them from death (as the Goel or kinsman redeemer he will redeem). O death, where are your thorns (Paul quotes this in 1 Cor 15.54)? O Sheol, where is your sting? Repentance will be hidden from my sight (Yehovah will not repent about the destruction of death and Sheol, and salvation will be accomplished).

v 15…Though he (Ephraim) flourished among the reeds (other brothers) an east wind (Assyria) will come, the wind of the Lord coming up from the wilderness (Assyria must pass through a wilderness to get to Israel), and his (Ephraim) fountain will become dry, and his spring will be dried up (not just the fruitful land, but all sources of power and security).

v 16…Samaria (Hebrew “Shomron” meaning to guard; the main city but symbolic for the whole nation) will be held guilty, for she has rebelled against her God (by serving idols not Yehovah). They will fall by the sword (of the Assyrians), their little ones will be dashed to pieces, and their pregnant women will be ripped open (the children should have inherited the blessings of Yehovah, not death).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament