(1) And the Pharisees and Sadducees (they are Galilean, not the ones in chapter 15) came up, and testing him asked him to show them a sign from heaven (they asked the same question as in 12.38). (2) But he answered and said to them, “When it is evening, you say, it will be fair weather, for the sky is red. (3) And in the morning, ‘There will be a storm today, for the sky is red and threatening. Do you know how to discern the appearance of the sky, but cannot discern the signs of the times (Israel had a messianic expectation, based on the prophecies of Daniel, starting about a hundred years before Yeshua was born. His miraculous birth, his teachings and miracles, should have been enough “signs” to let them know what was going on. He did not “plainly” tell the Jews that he was the Messiah-John 10.24-but to the non-Jews he did-John 4.26-because they did not have the scriptures to study. Miracles alone do not prove that a person is from God. Their teachings must line up with the Torah. The purpose of a miracle is to draw your attention to what a person is teaching. That is why God allows false prophets to do miracles. The Lord is testing us as to whether we will listen to what that person is teaching or are we going to follow that person because of the miracles-Deut 13.1-5. Many are being deceived today just on this point)? (4) An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign (after all the information you had at your disposal), and a sign will not be given it, except the sign of Jonah (Matt 12.39-40).” And he left them, and went away. (5) And the talmidim came to the other side and had forgotten to take bread (no leftovers from chapter 15) (6) And Yeshua said to them, “Watch out and beware of the leaven (teachings, a catalyst) of the Pharisees and Sadducees (those teachings are still here today).” (7) And they began to discuss among themselves, saying, “It is because we took no bread.” (8) But Yeshua, aware of this, said, “You men of little faith (emunah=action, confidence), why do you discuss among yourselves because you have no bread? (9) Do you not understand or remember the five loaves (the Torah) of the five thousand, and how many baskets you took up (there were twelve, the number of teaching)? (10) Or the seven loaves (number of completion) and how many large baskets you took up (seven)? How is it that you do not understand that I did not speak to you concerning bread? But beware of the leaven (the teachings as a catalyst) of the Pharisees and Sadducees (Yeshua’s teaching is from the Torah and the prophets, not the tradition of the elders. His bread (teaching) is complete (seven) and does not need to be added on to by layers and layers of oral laws of the Pharisees and Sadducees. Leaven is symbolic of the influence that their teachings have as it works its way through a person). (12) Then they understood that he did not say to be beware of the leaven of bread, but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. (13) Now when Yeshua came into the district of Caesarea Phillipi (at the base of Mount Hermon, also called “Panias” in Greek. There was a cave and a shrine there dedicated to Pan and it was believed that the Gates of Hades, or Sheol (hell) where there. You can look this up on the Internet for pictures of it), He began asking his talmidim, saying, “Who do people say that the Son of Man is (this term is not “ben Adam” but “bar Enosh” which was a messianic title from Dan 7.13). (14) And they said, “Some say John the Baptist (Herod wasn’t the only one); some Elijah; and others Jeremiah (some saw a connection between the weeping prophet and the man of sorrows), or one of the prophets (in the first century, the resurrection was a common belief and also the idea that the “spirit” of a dead person could rest on someone else. The main issue here is that there was not a clear consensus yet that Yeshua was the Messiah).” (15) And he said to them, “But who do you say that I am (in Greek, it is in the imperative, which means he said this very sharply)?” (16) And Simon Peter answered and said, “Thou art the Messiah, the Son of the Living God (an idiom for king).” (17) And Yeshua answered and said to him, “Blessed are you (happy), Simon (means to hear) Bar (son ) Jona (Hebrew “Yonah”=dove), because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. (18) And I also say to you that you are Peter (meaning “rock”) and upon this rock (this is a word play…Peter means rock, but the “rock” Yeshua is referring to is another name for Messiah, and it is upon Yeshua as Messiah (like Peter just gave) that the “kahal” will be built upon. This has nothing to do with making Peter the first “pope.”) I will build my church (church is not used in the New Testament, but this word is from the Anglo-Saxon word “kirk” referring to a pagan temple. “Church” never appears in the New Testament and is based on the erroneous doctrine that the “church” replaced the faith of Israel. The word used would have been “kahal”=congregation, assembly, and he is meaning the eschatological congregation. The Greek word is “ecclesia.”); and the gates of Hades (hell, sheol) shall not overpower it (Hades had two compartments, Abraham’s Bosom and “torments”-Luke 16,22-23. The righteous were in Abraham’s Bosom and those gates were locked until Yeshua was crucified and died, and then he came and “set the captives free” after his resurrection. The gates of Hades could not stop him from “coming through” and taking his people). (19) I will give you the key (authority) of the kingdom of heaven and whatever you shall bind (prohibit in halachic decisions) on earth shall have been bound in heaven (prohibited in the Torah), and whatever you shall loose (allow in halachic decisions) on earth shall have been loosed in heaven (allowed in the Torah. Peter is given some authority by Yeshua to make “halacha” which means “how to walk” in regards to Torah because not everything is minutely clear. Traditions can be established as long as they do not violate the Torah). (20) Then he warned the talmidim that they should tell no one that he was the Messiah (at least not before the time. He says this because he doesn’t want the rulers to get angry even more, and Rome won’t think he is going to proclaim himself a king). (21) From that time Yeshua the Messiah began to show his talmidim that he must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things (as Messiah ben Joseph) from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up on the third day. (22) And Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him, saying, “God forbid it, Lord! This shall never happen to you.” (23) But he turned and said to Peter, “Get behind me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to me; for you are not setting your mind on God’s interests but man’s (“you are being an adversary (a satan) to my interests through your evil nature-2 Sam 19.22 says the same thing). (24) Then Yeshua said to his talmidim, “If anyone wishes to come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross (trials and afflictions, crucified people can’t do what they want), and follow me. (25) For whoever wishes to save his life (temporal, earthly) shall lose it (eternal life); but whoever loses his life (temporal, earthly) for my sake shall find it (eternal). (26) For what will it be profited, if he gains the whole world, and forfeits his soul (this is another way of saying v 25)? Or what will a man give in exchange for his soul? (27) For the Son of Man (an eschatological title from Dan 7.13) is going to come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and will then recompense every man according to his deeds. (28) Truly I say to you, there are some of those who are standing here who shall not taste death until they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom (several talimidim experienced the “Transfiguration” in Matt 17 and John saw Yeshua in a vision that became the Book of Revelation. Also, after the resurrection, greater power and glory was experienced in the Holy Spirit-John 7.39).