The Book of Romans-Chapter 16

(1) I commend to you our sister (in the Lord) Phoebe, who is a servant (Greek “diakonos”= a deaconess) of the congregation which is at Cenchrea; (2) that you receive her (she possibly carried this letter to Rome as a courier, a runner of errands and an agent for that congregation. The people being mentioned from v1-15 were probably people who were some of Paul’s converts in Asia Minor who went to Rome. Paul knows these people, but he has never been to Rome)) in the Lord in a manner worthy of the saints (tzaddikim), and that you help her in whatever matter she may have need of you; for she herself has also been a helper (Greek “prostatis”=a woman set over others, exercising authority, a leader) of many, and of myself as well. (3) Greet Prisca and Aquila (Priscilla and Aquila-Acts 18.2,24; 2 Tim 4.19), my fellow-workers in Messiah Yeshua, (4) who for my life risked their own necks, to whom not only do I give thanks, but also all the congregations (Heb “kahal”, Greek “ecclesia”) of the Gentiles; (5) also greet the congregation that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who was the first convert to Messiah from Asia (Achaia). (6) Greet Mary, who has worked hard for you. (7) Greet Andronicus and Junia (possibly female) my kinsmen (according to the flesh and possibly from Benjamin), and my fellow prisoners (they may have been in prison with Paul during one of his many imprisonments-2 Cor 11.23), who are outstanding among the apostles (shaliachim=sent ones), who also were in Messiah before me (in the faith before Paul was). (8) Greet Ampliatus, my beloved in the Lord. (9) Greet Urbanus, our fellow-worker in Messiah, and Stachys my beloved. (10) Greet Apelles, the approved in Messiah. Greet those who are of the household of Aristobulus. (11) Greet Herodian, my kinsman (according to the flesh, Jewish or of the same tribe). Greet those of the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. (12) Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, workers in the Lord. Greet Persis the beloved, who has worked hard in the Lord. (13) Greet Rufus, a choice man in the Lord, also his mother and mine (in affection). (14) Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas and the brethren with him. (15) Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints (tzaddikim) who are with them. (16) Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the congregations of Messiah greet you. (17) Now I urge you, brethren, keep your eye on those who cause dissensions and hindrances contrary to the teaching (the Torah teaches righteous behavior for the Gentiles in the faith of Israel. These false teachers sow seeds that are contrary to what Paul is teaching in this book. Paul is against a “Torah-less” gospel) which you learned, and turn away from them (see also 2 Thes 2.15, 3.6). (18) For such men are slaves not of our Lord Messiah but of their own appetites; and by their smooth flattering speech they deceive the hearts of the unsuspecting (those trying to appeal to the Gentile believers in Rome are using the same tactics that Satan used in Eden with his deceptive speech. Notice the food reference like “appetites” and how the issue in Eden was food related). (19) For the report of your obedience has reached to all; therefore I am rejoicing over you, but I want you to be wise in what is good (to learn the doctrines of the Tanach), and innocent in what is evil. (20) And the God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet (Hebrew idiom from Gen 3.15, Hab 3.13 and Psa 74.13 meaning to “crush evil, give no regard to it”). The grace of our Lord Yeshua be with you. (21) Timothy my fellow-worker greets you; and so do Lucius and Jason (Hebrew name was “Yeshua” and is mentioned in Acts 17.5) and Sosipater, my kinsmen (according to the flesh). (22) I, Tertius, who write this letter, greet you in the Lord. (23) Gaius, host to me and to the whole church, greets you. Erastus, the city treasurer greets you, and Quartus, the brother (in the Lord). (24) The grace of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah be with you all. Amen. (25) Now to him who is able to establish you according to my Gospel (the same as the Gospel of God) and the preaching of Yeshua the Messiah (Yeshua taught the same Gospel Paul did), according to the revelation of the mystery (the sowd level, hidden, mystical) which has been kept secret (it was revealed in types, shadows and pictures that the Gentiles had a place in the Kingdom of God without becoming Jewish) for long ages past, (26) but now is manifested, and by the Scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the eternal God, has been made known to all nations, leading to obedience of faith (with the Torah as a foundation); (27) to the only wise God, through Yeshua the Messiah, be the glory forever. Amen.

Posted in Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Understanding the New Testament, Verse-by-Verse Bible Studies

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