Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 15

Prov 15.1-33 continues with the contraast between the righteous nand the wicked.

v 1…A gentle (soft) answer turns away wrath (in response to wrath), but a harsh (painful) word stirs up anger )makes the situation worse).

v 2…The tongue os the wise makes knowledge acceptable (exporesses what he knows in a good manner), but the mouth of fools (kesilim) spouts (flows) folly (a fool is revealed by what they say).

v 3…The eyes of Yehovah are in every place (he is omniscient), watching the evil and the good.

v 4…A soothing (healing), wholesome) tongue is a tree of life (source of life), but a perversion (Hebrew “v’selef” is only used here and in Prov 11.3 and relates to false doctrine) in it crushes (breaks) the spirit (of others).

v 5…A fool rejects (despises) his father’s discipline (instruction), but he who regards reproof (correction) is prudent (astute, keen in judgment).

v 6…Much wealth is in the house of the righteous (not only physical, but spiritual wealth can be found because of godly wisdom and management), but trouble is in the income (revenue) of the wicked (they may have physical wealth but it will bring trouble because it will be used for sin).

v 7…The lips of the wise spread (dispense) knowledge (da’at or the knowledge of God in facts), but the hearts (innermost being) of fools does not do so (because wisdom is not there so he can’t dispense any).

v 8…The sacrifice (zevach) of the wicked (rashim) is an abomination (hateful thing) to Yehovah (because it is brought with the wrong heart and motives), but the prayer of the upright is his delight.

v 9…The way (derek) of the wicked is an abomination (hateful thing) to Yehovah, but he loves him who pursues righteousness (as defined by the Torah, he searches after the will of Yehovah).

v 10…Stern discipline is for him who forsakes the wrong way (does not follow the Torah and sharp correction will find him), he who hates reproof (from God’s word) shall die (seals his fate, he is on the way to death and will stay there).

v 11…Sheol (abode of the dead) and Abaddon (destruction) lie open before Yehovah (he has a plan for them), how much more the hearts of men (the heart is open to Yehovah, too).

v 12…A scoffer does not love one who reproves him (because they hate correction), he will not go to the wise (to get good advice and guidance in the truth).

v 13…A joyful heart makes a cheerful (good) face, but when the heart is sad, the spirit is sad (heart, mind, soul, spirit, bowels, kidney are synonymous in Hebrew thought, denoting the innermost being).

v 14…The mind (Hebrew “lev” is the word for heart) of the intelligent seeks knowledge (da’at or the knowledge of God in facts), but the mouth of fools (kesilim) feeds on folly (“pastures” on foolishness like cattle feed on grass).

v 15…All the days of the afflicted are bad (evil of this life and their attitude makes every day a burden), but a cheerful (good) heart has a continual feast (their attitude sees life as enjoyable).

v 16…Better is a little with the fear (reverence) of Yehovah than great treasure with turmoil with it (not very enjoyable to have all the trouble great riches bring without Yehovah).

v 17…Better is a dish of vegetables where love is (love makes up for any deprivation), than a fattened ox and hatred with it (hate spoils everything).

v 18…A hot-tempered man (who can’t control himself) stirs up strife (contention, quarrels), but the slow to anger pacifies (appeaases) contention.

v 19…The way of the sluggard (lazy) is a hedge of thorns (trouble, hindrances), but the path (way) of the upright is a highway (easier, more efficient, no stops or obstacles).

v 20…A wise son makes a father glad, but a foolish man despises his mother (shows contempt).

v 21…Folly is a joy to him who lacks sense (Hebrew “lev” or heasrt, also translated as “mind” in v 14), but a man of understanding walks straight (upright in the Torah, orderly-Acts 21.24).

v 22…Without consultation (counsel not considered) plans are frustrated (disappointed, go wrong), but with many counselors they succeed (are established, trouble has been factored in).

v 23…A man has joy in an apt answer, and how delightful (good it is) is a timely word (in due season, a word at the right time).

v 24…The path of life leads upward (gets better as you go) for the wise, that he may keep away from Sheol below (eternal destruction).

v 25…Yehovah will tear down (pulls it down) the house of the proud, but he will stablish the boundary (border) of the widow (she is symbolic of the humble and helpless as opposed to the proud. God will safeguard her property).

v 26…Evil plans are an abomination (hateful) to Yehovah (because wickedness begins there), but pleasant words are pure (unblemished with deceit).

v 27…He who profits illicitly (is greedy and will do anything for money) troubles (brings bad consequences) on his own house (they justified it by saying, “Do it for the family”, etc, but it will ultimately destroy it), but he who hates bribes (gifts to influence) will live (have the blessing of God in their life).

v 28…The heart of the righteous (lev tzadik) ponders (studies) how to answer, but the mouth of the wicked pours out (makes flow with no thought) evil things.

v 29…Yehovah is far from the wicked (they have separated themselves from him spiritually), but he hears the prayer of the righteous (in a spiritual sense, “near and far” does not relate to measurable distances, as in the physical. “Near” means “similar to” and “far” means “different or opposite”-Jer 7.24; Ezek 1.14).

v 30…Bright eyes (the light of the eyes, what the eyes see, like the mountains, rivers, animals and the creation) gladden the heart, and a good report puts fat on the bones (makes the body healthy).

v 31…He whose ear listens to the life-giving reproof (shows the way to life) will dwell among the wise (becoming wise himself).

v 32…He who neglects discipline (refuses instruction, neglects it) despises himself (does not take into account his soul), but he who listens to reproof (correction, rebuke) acquires understanding (Hebrew “lev” or heart as the seat of wisdom).

v 33…The fear (reverence) of Yehovah is the instruction for wisdom (leads to wisdom), and before honor comes humility (when we properly have reverence for Yehovah and see him for who he really is, we will see ourselves as we really are, producing humility).

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Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 14

Prov 14.1-35 again carries the contrast between the rishteous and the wicked.

v 1…The wise woman (the vituous woman) builds her house (makes it better by being a good woman, knowing how to handle money and looking after her house with virtue), but the foolish tears it down with her own hands (by supporting and building folly and makes the home a worse place).

v 2…He who walks in his uprightness (as defined by the Torah) fears (has reverence for) Yehovah, but he who is crooked in his ways (is not Torah observant) despises him (Yehovah, doesn’t care).

v 3…In the mouth of the foolish is a rod of pride (their words bring judgment on themselves), but the lips of the wise will preserve them (they will be resued by their own words).

v 4…Where no oxen are, the manger is clean (empty, no work being done and no mess), but much increase comes by the strength of the ox (the mess of the ox is worth it because it brings increase and good).

v 5…A faithful witness will not lie (bear false witness against his neighbor), but a false witness speaks lies (he is disposed to lying, its a regular thing).

v 6…A scoffer seeks wisdom, and finds none (because he mocks the only source of true wisdom, the Scriptures), but knowledge is easy to him who has understanding (he wants to know the truth of the Scriptures and desires it; he wants comprehension).

v 7…Leave (go) the presence of a fool (“kesil” or a person who takes pleasure in causing contention) or you will not discern (know) words (lips) of knowledge (“da’at” or the knowledge of God in facts).

v 8…The wisdom (chachmah) of the prudent (astute) is to understand his way (to know where he is going), but the folly of fools is deceit (self-deception, blind to their actions thinking it is acceptable).

v 9…Fools (“evilim” and the same as “kesilim”) mock at sin )”assham” or guilt), but among the upright there is good will (the favor of God).

v 10…The heart knows its own bitterness (best acquainted with the pain it has been through), and a stranger does not share its joy (because others cannot enter into the heart. What is true of bitterness is true of joy).

v 11…The house of the wicked will be destroyed (not built on a good foundation of a Torah-based faith in Yeshua), but the tent (smaller and more humble than a house) of the upright will flourish (with the blessings of God).

v 12…There is a way that seems right to a man (sin at first always seems smooth and correct, and they wonder why others don’t follow), but its (sin) end is death )the Second Death-does not always appear that way at first-Matt 7.14-15).

v 13…Even in laughter the heart may be in pain (he hides it), and the end of joy may be grief (because trouble will come and cut short any outward displays of joy).

v 14…The backslider in heart will have his fill of his own ways (the punishment of their sin), but a good man will be satisfied with his (the results of his own works, blessed in his deeds).

v 15…The naive (simple, inexperienced) believes everything (like a sponge), but the prudent man considers his steps (considers well the words or doctrines he hears, whether they are in line with the Scriptures-Isa 8.20).

v 16,,, A wise man is cautious (fears) and turns away from evil (does not want to offend Yehovah), but a fool (“kesil”) is arrogant (rage, with a temper) and careless (self-confident).

v 17…A quick-tempered man acts foolishly (rushes into a passionate fit quickly) and a man of evil devices is hated (since he is more crafty and devious, he is more dangerous than the quick-tempered man because he takes his time).

v 18…The naive (simple, inexperienced, sponge) inherit folly (because they don’t learn from others), but the prudent are crowned (surrounded) with knowledge (that they have gathered around them through experience).

v 19…The evil will bow down before the good, and the wicked at the gates of the righteous (in the Atid Lavo and the Olam Haba).

v 20…The poor is hated even by his neighbor (has few friends) but those who love the rich are many (and partake of his riches).

v 21…He who despises his neighbor sins (neglects them in their need), but happy is he who is gracious to the poor.

v 22…Will they not go astray who devise evil (and bring destruction on themselves), but kindness and truth will be to those who devise good (we should plan to do good with the same passion as those who pan evil.

v 23…In all labor there is profit, but mere talk leads only to poverty.

v 24…The crown of the wise is their riches (it came through wisdom and hard work), but the folly of fools is foolishness (their crown).

v 25…A truthful witness saves lives (from false charges that could lead to death), but he who speaks lies is treacherous (deceitful).

v 26…In the fear (reverence) of Yehovah there is strong confidence (reliance), and his children will have refuge (they will benefit because they follow the ways of their father/parents).

v 27…The fear (reverence) of Yehovah is a fountain (source) of life (Deut 30.6), that one may avoid the snares of death (where there is no fear of Yehovah, sin abounds).

v 28…In the multitude of people is a king’s glory (they will serve him to establish his kingdom), but in the lack of people is a prince’s ruin (will bring about his downfall).

v 29…He who is slow to anger has great understanding (able to control himself at all times), but he who is quick tempered (short of spirit) exalts folly (makes a fool of himself).

v 30…A tranquil heart (desires, innermost being) is life (health) to the body, but passion (envy) is rottenness (poison) to the bones).

v 31…He who oppresses the poor reproaches his maker (it is a sin against the poor and an insult to God), but he who is gracious (merciful) to the needy honors him.

v 32…The wicked is thrust down (being of no benefit) by his wrong doing (calamity), but the righteous has a refuge when he dies (the Olam Haba).

v 33…Wisdom rests in the heart (innermost being) of one who has understanding (“binah” or comprehension), but in the bosom (among, in the midst) of fools (kesilim) it is made known (the emptiness of their intellect. In other words, it is better to say nothing and look like you don’t know anything then to open your mouth and remove all doubt).

v 34…Righteousness (tzedekah as defined by the Torah) exalts a nation, but sin (as defined by the Torah) is a reproach (insult) to any people.

v 35…The king’s favor is toward a wise servant (prefers someone who has discretion), but his anger is toward him who acts shamefully (in the king’s affairs).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 13

Prov 13.1-25 continues with the contrast between the righteous and the wicked.

v 1…A wise son accepts his father’s discipline (it makes an impression on him), but a scoffer does not listen to rebuke (rejects all guidance, never learns).

v 2…From the fruit of a man’s mouth he enjoys (eats) good (enjoys the fruits of his work), but the desire (heart, soul) of the treacherous is violence (only satisfied with doing evil to others).

v 3…The one who guards his mouth (talks less) preserves his life (keeps himself out of trouble); the one who opens wide his mouth comes to ruin (he talks too much, opens himself up to destruction).

v 4…The soul of the sluggard (lazy) craves (desires) and gets nothing (because they will not apply themselves), but the soul of the diligent is made fat (rich with earthly things, as well as spiritual).

v 5…A righteous man (tzadik) hates falsehood (lying), but a wicked man acts disgustingly and shamefully (spreads an odor in the nostrils of the righteous).

v 6…Righteousness (tzedekah) guards the one whose way is blameless (one who keeps the commandments (Psa 84.9, 119.114; Prov 30.5-6; Song 8.2), but wickedness subverts (overthrows) the sinner.

v 7…There is one who pretends to be rich but has nothing (his show of wealth is a pretense to impress others), another pretends to be poor, but has great wealth (makes no show of his wealth so that others don’t ask for money or cause robbers to come).

v 8…The ransom of a man’s life is his riches (an advantage, can redeem himself from problems), but the poor hears no rebuke (nobody notices him because there is nothing to get from him).

v 9…The light of the righteous rejoices (their lifestyle shines brightly), but the lamp of the wicked goes out (put out by God’s judgment, causing darkness).

v 10…Through presumption (pride) comes nothing but strife (self focus generates contention), but with those who receive counsel is wisdom (they are well-advised).

v 11…Wealth obtained by fraud dwindles (because their habits waste their wealth, and God’s blessing is not on those who get it by fraud and deceit), but the one who gathers by labor increases it (Yehovah blesses them and their lifestyle, they do not waste it).

v 12…Hope deferred (put off, postponed) makes the heart sick, but desire fulfilled (realized) is a tree of life (living, fresh, has vitality).

v 13…The one who despises the word (Torah) will be destroyed, but the one who fears (has a reverence for) the commandment (mitzvah) will be rewarded (blessed in this life and in the Olam Haba).

v 14…The teaching (Hebrew “Torah”) of the wise is a fountain of life (a continuing source of living water-John 7.17, 38), to turn aside from the snares of death (there is only one fountain of life, and many snares of the devil-Jer 17.13; 2 Tim 2.24).

v 15…Good understanding produces favor (are welcome among others), but the way of the treacherous is hard (unpleaasant to themselves and others).

v 16…Every prudent man acts with knowledge (he is cautious, considers people, place, time and does not act without information), but a fool displays (speaks out) folly (exposes it to everyone).

v 17…A wicked messenger falls into adversity (his errand fails, loses his master’s favor), but a faithful envoy brings healing (performs well, profitable to the message. The word “envoy” means “hinge” meaning his negotiations is the hinge for what happens at home).

v 18…Poverty and shame will come to him who neglects discipline (chastisement), but he who regards reproof will be honored.

v 19…Desire realized is sweet to the soul (gratifying), but it is an abomination to fools to depart from evil (because they desire wickedness and and it is offensive to consider otherwise).

v 20…He who walks with wise men will be wise (listens to their counsel), but the companions of fools will suffer harm (they chose companions that proved they were foolish and will share their destiny).

v 21…Adversity pursues sinners (their punishment), but the righteous will be rewarded with prosperity (reap what they have sowed-Gal 6.7).

v 22… A good man leaves an inheritance to his children’s children (God’s blessing extends to his grandchildren), and the wealth of the sinner is stored up for the righteous (the righteous will obtain what the sinner wastes).

v 23…Abundant food is in the fallow ground of the poor (who works the land and knows what kind of harvest he can have), but it is swept away by injustice (or lack of discretion and wisdom. He mismanages the land and does not do what is right).

v 24…He who spares his rod hates his son (he will not discipline his children, he feels he is avoiding out of compassion but they are wrong. The harm can be great and it can be said he hates his children because of the damage it caused), but he who loves him (his children) disciplines (chastises) him diligently (or “in the morning” meaning before any bad habits can develop).

v 25…The righteous (tzadik) has enough )eats) to satisfy his appetite (he is blessed with sufficient food), but the stomach of the wicked is in want (their lifestyle creates necessity).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 12

Prov 12.1-28 is a contrast between the upright and the wicked.

v 1…Whoever loves discipline (instruction) loves knowledge (da’at), but he who hates reproof is stupid (like a beast, cattle).

v 2…A good man will find favor from the Lord, but he will condemn a man who devises evil (wicked devices, intentions).

v 3…A man will not be established by wickedness (so that he cannot be moved out of it), but the root of the righteous will not be moved (because it is grounded, firm and deep).

v 4…An excellent wife (the virtuous woman) is the crown of her husband (she fulfills his life), but she who shames him is as rottenness to his bones (drains his strength, destroys him from within).

v 5…The thoughts (and purposes) of the righteous are just (right, influenced by God’s word which discerns man’s thoughts and intentions-Heb 4.12), but the councils of the wicked are deceitful (the purposes are to trick, trap and take advantage of others).

v 6…The words of the wicked lie in wait for blood (plot violence, to entrap the innocent), but the mouth (words) of the upright will deliver them (the innocent will be saved by the words of the righteous).

v 7…The wicked are overthrown and are no more (like Sodom, they will perish), but the house of the righteous (Beit Yehovah or “House of the Lord”) will stand (forever-Psa 23.6).

v 8…A man will be praised according to his insight (recognized for it), but one of perverse mind (heart, desires, thoughts) will be despised.

v 9…Better is he who is lightly esteemed and has a servant (has enough substance to have a servant), than he who honors himself and lacks bread (thinks more highly of himself than he should but doesn’t work).

v 10…A righteous man has regard (considers) for the life of his beast (is not cruel to his animals), but the compassion of the wicked is cruel (even in his supposed kindness because it is based on self-interest).

v 11…He who tills his land will have plenty of bread (works hard), but he who pursues vain things (loiters away his time with things of no purpose) lacks sense (void of understanding and comprehension).

v 12…The wicked desires the net (to catch) of evil men (the spoil which is taken), but the root of the righteous yields fruit (more desirable than the catch of evil men that the wicked desire).

v 113…An evil (ra, wicked) man is ensnared by the transgression of his lips (he talks too much, lies and deceives, and it gets him in trouble), but the righteous (tzadik) will escape from trouble (the snare set for him).

v 14…A man will be satisfied with good by the fruit of his words (mouth), and the riches of a man’s hand will return to him (what he deserves will come to him, both good and bad).

v 15…The way of a fool is right in his own eyes (in his own judgment), but the wise man is he who listens to counsel (good advice from the Torah).

v 16…A fool’s vexation (wrath) is known at once (breaks out quickly), but a prudent man conceals dishonor (his anger, resentment).

v 17…He who speaks (breathes) truth tells what is right, but a false witness, deceit.

v 18…There is one who speaks rashly like the thrusts of a sword (sharp, piercing), but the tongue of the wise brings healing (heals the wounds of the foolish and their words).

v 19…Truthful lips will be established forever (in his reputation, what he says people will believe), but a lying tongue is only for a moment (has lost all credibility, will cease).

v 20…Deceit is in the heart of those who devise evil, but the counselors of peace have joy (they know that what they said was right and good).

v 21…No harm befalls the righteous (especially in an eternal sense), but the wicked are filled with trouble (evil and calamity in this life and in the next).

v 22…Lying lips are an abomination to Yehovah (he is the God of truth and lies are offensive), but those who dal faithfully (truly) are a delight).

v 23…A prudent man conceals knowledge (doesn’t needlessly speak it), but the heart of fools (“kesilim”) proclaims folly (contentions, grief).

v 24…The hand of the diligent will rule (be in a position of power), but the slack hand (lazy) will be put to forced labor (to serve another, be under others).

v 25…Anxiety in the heart of a man weighs it down (makes it heavy, bowed down), but a good word makes it glad (brings new courage and life).

v 26…The righteous is a guide to his neighbor (concerned about leading him in the right way), but the way of the wicked (rashim) leads them astray (bad company corrupts good morals).

v 27…A slothful (lazy) man does not roast his prey (he is too lazy to do it), but the precious possession of a man is diligence (makes the most of his opportunity).

v 28…In the way of righteousness is life (eternal life-Deut 30.6), and in its pathway there is no death (no second death).

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Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 11

Prov 11.1-31 tells us about the blessings of the righteous.

v 1…A false balance (cheating in business or anything) is an abomination to the Lord, but a just weight is his delight (bringing balance into any situation is one of the goals of the Torah-Prov 20.10; Lev 19.35-36).

v 2…When pride comes (to a person), then comes dishonor (will make a fool of themselves); but with the humble (the opposite of pride) is wisdom (willing to grow wise).

v 3…The integrity of the upright will guide them (they are trustworthy and this will lead them on the right path), but the falseness (the Hebrew word “v’selef” for falseness is only used here and in Prov 15.4. It relates to the tongue and speech, so it may allude to false doctrine) of the treacherous will destroy them (lead to destruction and the Lake of Fire).

v 4…The righteousness of the blameless will smooth his way (direct his way to follow the Torah), but the wicked will fall by his own wickedness (his own lust will trap him).

v 6…The righteousness of the upright will deliver them (On Yom Ha Din or the Day of Judgment), but the treacherous will be caught by their own greed.

v 7…When a wicked man dies his expectation (hope) will perish (of a longer life, more riches, etc), and the hope of strong men perishes.

v 8…The righteous is delivered from trouble, but the wicked comes in his place (trouble comes to the wicked instead).

v 9…With his mouth the godless man destroys his neighbor (corrupts him through lies, flattery and false doctrine), but through knowledge (da’at or the knowledge of God in the Scriptures) the righteous will be delivered (the opposite of what happens to those who do not have the knowledge of God in the Torah-Hos 4.6).

v 10…When it goes well with the righteous, the city rejoices (because of all the benefits the city enjoys becausse they are prosperous), and when the wicked perish there will be glad shouting (because their tyranny has been taken away, like whn Babylon the Great is destroyed in Rev 18.20).

v 11…By the blessing of the upright a city is exalted (hard work, prayers and good deeds), but by the mouth of the wicked it is torn down (ruined as a result of their slanders and blasphemies against the righteous and the Lord).

v 12…He who despises his neighbor lacks sense (in his heart and mind), but a man of understanding (comprehension of the things of God) keeps silent (guards against speaking evil of him, is wise and prudent).

v 13…He who goes about as a talebearer reveals secrets (is a gossip and used that to gain power over others), but he who is trustworthy conceals a matter (protects the privacy of others).

v 14…When there is no guidance (wise counsel) the people fall, but in abundance of counselors there is safety (because no man has all the answers).

v 15…He who is a surety for a stranger will surely suffer for it (promises to pay the debt of another), but he who hates going surety is safe (pays his own debts).

v 16…A gracious woman attains honor (because of her pleasant manner), and violent men attains riches (they don’t care about honor, just wealth).

v 17…The merciful man does himself good (because Yehovah shows him mercy), but the cruel man does himself harm (measure for measure-Matt 7.2).

v 18…The wicked earns deceptive wages (they are dishonest), but he who sows righteousness gets a true reward (honesty is rewarded by God).

v 19…He who is steadfast in righteousness (as defined by the Torah) wilol attain life (by faith), and he who pursues evil will bring about his own death (the second death).

v 20…The perverse in heart are an abomination to Yehovah (they follow a crooked path), but the blameless (upright) in their walk are his delight (by faith, following the Tortah).

v 21…Assuredly (literally “hand to hand”) the evil man will not go unpunished (not strong enough even when united), but the descendants (seed) of the righteous will be delivered (by God’s blessing).

v 22…As a ring of gold is a swine’s snout (an absurd thing to do), so is a beautiful woman who lacks discretion (taste, virtue, honor).

v 23…The desire of the righteous is only good (their character desires good), but the expedctation of the wicked is wrath (that is what is coming to them).

v 24…There is one who scatters (dispenses his wealth here and there) yet increases all the more (by God blessing them) and there is one who withholds what is justly due, but results only in want (if we are stingy or have an “evil eye” God gives less).

v 25…The generous man (soul of blessing) will be prosperous (make fat), and he who waters (shares) will himself be watered (by God, the fountain of abundance will flow to him).

v 26…He who withholds grain (waiting for a better price to sell at market), the people will curse him (because he is manipulating the market for a higher price), but a blessing will be on the head of him who sells it (at a price all can afford).

v 27…He who diligently seeks good seeks favor (rises early to do it will obtain favor and good from Yehovah and men), but he who searches (seeks) after evil (mishchief), it (evil) will come to him (on his own head).

v 28…He who trusts in his riches will fall, but the righteous will flourish like the green (has life) leaf (because they trust God not wealth).

v 29…He who troubles his own house (by bringing trouble on them) shall inherit the wind (have future trouble and storms), and the foolish will be servant to the wise-hearted (end up working for the wise of heart).

v 30…The fruit of the righteous (his deeds, life, works) is a tree of life (a bvlessing) and he who is wise wins (takes, gains) souls (like a person who catches birds, he makes it his work and business, uses his skills).

v 31…If the righteous (tzadik) will be rewarded in the earth (for his sins, chastened), how much more the wicked (rasha) and the sinner (chata…this verse gives us the three categories of people in the earth. 1 Pet 4.18 quotes this verse in the NASB as, “And if it is with difficulty that the righteous is saved, what will become of the godless man and the sinner”).

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Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 10

Prov 10.1-32 is a contrast between the righteous and the wicked in one verse proverbs that make perfect sense. This style will continue to Prov 25, contrasting the wise and the foolish. Prov 10.1 begins the second part of this book and it continues to Prov 22.16 with two-phrase, single verses that do not seem to be connected by a common theme.

v 1…The proverbs of Solomon. A wise son makes a father glad (because he is following the teachings of wisdom he has taught them), but a foolish son is a grief to his mother (causes her distress).

v 2…Ill-gotten gains (treasure gained by wickedness) do not profit (don’t make you happy), but righteousness delivers from death (show your faith by your works-Jam 2.18).

v 3…Yehovah will not allow the righteous to hunger (suffer want), but he will thrust aside the cravings (greedy desires) of the wicked.

v 4…Poor is he who works with a negligent hand (fails in its purpose; lazy), but the hand of the diligent makes rich (hard work is rewarded).

v 5…He who gathers in summer (harvest) is a wise son (does wisely), but he who sleeps in harvest is a son who acts shamefully (causes shame, brings ruin on himself).

v 6…Blessings are on the head of the righteous (as a reward by faith), but the mouth of the wicked concerns violence (excuses it, calls it something else).

v 7…The memory of the righteous is blessed (people speak well of them-Heb 11), but the name of the wicked will rot (is forgotten and buried).

v 8…The wise of heart will receive commands (attends to the Torah of God), but a babbling fool will be thrown down (fall into sin and disgrace).

v 9…He who walks in integrity walks securely (sincerely, upright, no guile-John 1.47); but he who perverts his ways will be found out (exposed, laid open-Matt 10.26).

v 10…He who winks the eye (a fraud) causes trouble (to himself and others he has deceived), and a babbling fool will be thrown down (fall, taken down).

v 11…The mouth of the righteous is a fountain of life (profitable, comforting, has life-giving words), but the mouth of the wicked conceals violence (excuses it, nothing good comes out of it).

v 12…Hatred stirs up strife (quarrels, contentions). But love covers all treansgressions (brings healing to others, overlooks them, forgives-1 Pet 4.8)

v 13…On the lips of the discerning wisdom is found (the wisdom of God in spiritual things), but a rod is for the back of him who lacks understanding (of spiritual things, who speaks foolish things, lacks heart).

v 14…Wise men store up (lay up) knowledge (da’at by reading, taking notes, studying), but the mouth of the foolish, ruin is at hand (Hebrew “karava” meaning here).

v 15…The rich man’s wealth is his fortress (strong city, he can support himself from others who may try to harm him), the ruin of the poor is their poverty (can’t defend themselves or support themselves in times of trouble).

v 16…The wages (labor) of the righteous is life (supports life, has earnings to be used for living), the income of the wicked, punishment (brings ruin on himself and used wickedly).

v 17…He is on the path of life (true physical and spiritual life) who heeds instruction, but he who forsakes reproof (correction) goes astray (from the Torah, the way, the truth).

v 18…He who conceals hatred with lying lips (who does not reveal the true condition of their heart), and he who spreads slander is a fool (because God sees and knows it all and will judge it in righteousness).

v 19…When there are many words, transgression is unavoidable (excessive talking has more potential of sin), but he who restrains his lips is wise (shows discretion, silence is good).

v 20…The tongue of the righteous is as choice silver (of great value), the heart of the wicked is worth little (no good).

v 21…The lips of the righteous feed many (communicates spiritual things, is nourishment for the heart), but fools die for the lack of understanding (the heart does not accept the truth).

v 22…It is the blessing of Yehovah that makes rich (prosperity), and he adds no sorrow (because it is not ill-gotten gains and there is no worrying or anxiousness).

v 23…Doing wickedness is like a sport to a fool (he likes it, it agrees with his desires), and so is wisdom to a man of understanding (who avoids wickedness because he sees no value in it).

v 24…What the wicked fears will come upon him (that which he dreads), and the desire of the righteous will be granted (the things that the righteous want will be given).

v 25…When the whirlwind passes by (troubles) the wicked are no more (because they have no foundation, they are unstable), but the righteous have an everlasting foundation (rooted in the Torah-Psa 1.2-3).

v 26…Like vinegar to the teeth and smoke to the eyes (hurtful and irritating), so is the lazy one to those who send him (to do any work, they are lazy and not very diligent).

v 27…The fear of the Lord prolongs life (not beyond what God has decreed for each person, but in the Olam Haba), but the years of the wicked will be shortened (will not have life in the Olam Haba).

v 28…The hope (expectation) of the righteous is gladness (in the future), but the expectation of the wicked perishes (doesn’t work out because it is not based on the promises of God).

v 29…The way of the Lord is a stronghold to the upright (because they follow the Torah), but ruin to the workers of iniquity (the “lawless” or the ones who are “Torah-less”).

v 30…The righteous will never be shaken (from the love of God, removed from the Olam Haba-Matt 5.5), but the wicked will not dwell in the land (or the Olam Haba).

v 31…The mouth of the righteous flows with wisdom (from his heart), but the perverted tongue will be cut out (left without a word, cut off like a dead tree or shrub).

v 32…The lips of the righteous bring forth what is acceptable (discernment in what they say), but the mouth of the wicked what is perverted (because that is what is in their heart and what they are good at).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 9

Prov 9.1-18 tells us that wisdom is again personified as the virtuous woman and she invites us to her “house” which alludes to the Temple, the throne of God, to feast on her provisions. It also discusses those who reject her offer. It discusses the advantages of wisdom and it ends with a description of the foolish woman, or the harlot, and those who feast on her “provisions.”

Prov 9.1-6 talks about the provisions of the virtuous woman.

v 1…Wisdom (chachmah) has built her house (alluding to the Temple dwelling with men), she has hewn out her seven pillars (alluding to the pillars of the court of the Temple and denotes complete stability, and seven is the number of completion and refers to the main attributes of Yehovah-Isa 11.2).

v 2…She has prepared her food (literally “slaughtered her slaughter” in preparing her great feast), she has mixed her wine (symbolizing teaching, covenant, Messiah, banquet, joy, the Torah, marriage, blood and redemption); she has set her table (this is imagery associated with a meal consecrated to God or a “Lord’s Supper”).

v 3…She has sent out her maidens (with invitations), she calls from the tops of the heights of the city (the Temple Mount where the throne of God is on earth).

v 4…Whoever is naive (simple, inexperienced) let him turn in here (into wisdom’s house)! To him who lacks understanding (comprehension) she says,

v 5…”Come eat my food (make wisdom a part of you, learn) and drink the wine I have mixed (the free offer of salvation, marriage, the blood, the Torah, joy, Messiah, etc).

v 6…Forsake your folly (leave the simple ones, the foolish) and live (Deut 30.6; Matt 19.17), and proceed in the way of understanding (by following Torah).”

Prov 9.7-12 tells us the fruitlessness of trying to teach wisdom to those who don’t want to learn, and the benefits of fearing (have an awe for) Yehovah.

v 7…He who corrects the scoffer gets dishonor for himself (his efforts are met with insults and mockery), and he who reproves (corrects) a wicked man gets insults for himself (discredit).

v 8…Do not reprove a scoffer, lest he hate you (he believes he is always right). Reprove a wise man , and he will love you (because he knows he is human and makes mistakes).

v 9…Give instruction to a wise man; and he will be still wiser, teach a righteous man and he will increase his learning.

v 10…The fear (reverence) of Yehovah is the beginning of wisdom (the source, the basis), and the knowledge (da’at) of the Holy Ones (plural, alluding to the triune nature of Yehovah-Ecc 12.1; Job 35.10; Psa 149.2) is understanding (comprehension).

v 11…For by me your days will be multiplied (in this life and in the Olam Haba) , and years of life will be added to you.

v 12…If you are wise, you are wise for yourself (for your own good), and if you scoff, you alone will bear it (scoffing only harms the scoffer).

Prov 9.13-18 tells us the “provisions” of the harlot and what she has to offer.

v 13…The woman of folly (the harlot) is boisterous (noisy with a mouth that speaks great words, blasphemies and boasting, like the False Messiah will-Dan 7.20, 11.36), she is naive (simple, inexperienced) and knows nothing (that is good).

v 14…She sits at the doorway of her house (doing nothing but looking for victims) on a seat by the high places of the city (fools are not only in a house, but can be found in the highest places of the city),

v 15…Calling to those who pass by, who are making their paths straight (travelers using the highways and roads to conduct business, etc)

v 16…”Whoever is naive (simple), let him turn in here,” (to the harlot’s house) and to him who lacks understanding (comprehension, heart) she says,

v 17…”Stolen water is sweet; and bread eaten is secret is pleasant (things gained by sin are more sweet than what is legally obtained and this is seen in the multitudes that follow that proverbial saying).”

v 18…But he does not know that the dead are there (the allure and excitement of sin has its excitement for awhile, but in the end, the children of death are there), and that her guests are in the depths of Sheol (sunk down in the pit).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 8

Prov 8.1-36 is a chapter that tells us that God was always wise, and wisdom is seen as a person in this chapter, as we like to call her, the Virtuous Woman. Historically, Messiah is seen as wisdom in Proverbs also. Wisdom is also seen as a manifestation of Yehovah in 1 Cor 12.8.

Prov 8.1-11 tells us that wisdom (chachmah or inspired intellect and input and knowing what to with it all) calls out and has promises. It talks about what wisdom has. Again, we see wisdom as the virtuous woman contrasted with the adulterous woman of the previous chapter.

v 1…Does not wisdom call and understanding (binah or comprehension) lift up her voice (bat kol or “daughter of the voice”-Mic 6.9).

v 2…On top of the heights (to be seen and heard), beside the way where the paths meet (a crossroad) she takes her stand.

v 3…Beside the gates (where the courts sat), at the opening to the city, at the entrance of the doors, she cries out (publicly).

v 4…To you, O men, I (wisdom) call and my voice is to the sons of men (everyone has heard the message and there are none who has an excuse-Rom 1.18-32. There is a saying that goes along with this. Anyone can be honestly mistaken, but once they hear the truth they will either stop being mistaken or stop being honest).

v 5…O naive (simple) ones, discern prudence (self-control and apply it), and O fools, discern wisdom (be of an understanding heart or “lev” in Hebrew).

v 6…Listen (root is “shema”) for I shall speak of noble (excellent) things; and the opening of my lips will produce right things (agreeable to reason and the Torah of Yehovah).

v 7…For my mouth will utter truth (in line with the Torah); and wickedness is an abomination to my lips (as opposed to the truth; it is detestable).

v 8…All the utterances of my mouth are in righteousness (connected with the righteousness in the Torah of God, in line with it); there is nothing crooked (perverted) in them.

v 9…They are all straightforward to him who understands (in heart, desires, thoughts); and right to those who find knowledge (Hebrew “da’at” meaning the knowledge of God in facts).

v 10…Take my instruction (receive it) and not silver, and knowledge (da’at) rather than choice gold (it is to be preferred over these).

v 11…For wisdom (chachmah) is better than jewels (precious stones); and all desirable things cannot compare with her.

Prov 8.12-21 tells us that Torah wisdom just became a person and speaks.

v 12…I, wisdom (chachmah), dwell (Hebrew “shkanti”) with prudence (self-control), and I find knowledge (Da’at or the knowledge of God in Torah facts) and discretion (God knows all the plans that are in the hearts of men, including wicked designs and secret thoughts).

v 13…The fear (awe) of Yehovah is to hate evil (all evil in general), pride and arrogance and the evil way (“Hebrew “derek ha ra” or evil in a person’s ways), and the perverted mouth (contrary to the truth of the Torah).

v 14…Counsel is mine and sound wisdom (that which gets to the heart of the matter); I (wisdom) am understanding (binah or comprehension); power is mine (the strength to energize wisdom).

v 15…By me kings reign (exercise their wisdom to rule, make decisions and stay in power) and rulers decree (administer) justice).

v 16…BY me princes rule, and nobles, all who judge rightly (other officers of the government).

v 17…I (wisdom) love those who love me (and will be rewarded); and those who diligently seek me will find me (and the benefits it brings).

v 18…Riches and honor are with me, the enduring wealth and righteousness (increasing them them, as opposed to those who seek wealth because that corrupts and will not endure).

v 19…My fruit is better that gold, even pure gold (which is forgiveness, pardon, grace, mercy, adoption, justification, sanctification, salvation and life), and my yield (revenue) than choicest silver (exceeds it in real valuse).

v 20…I walks in the way of righteousness, in the midst of the paths of justice (like a shepherd leading the flock; God leads his people in the Torah, called “The Way.”)

v 21…To endow those who love me (wisdom personified in Yeshua in John 15.15) with wealth (substance, blessings), that I may fill their treasuries (it gives spiritual knowledge to our hearts, the treasury-Matt 12.35).

Prov 8.22-31 tells us that wisdom has been eternal with Yehovah and there from the beginning.

v 22…Yehovah possessed me at the beginning of his way, before his works of old (eternal, before the world was and God used wisdom when he created the universe. This verse was perverted by Arius of Alexander to say that Yeshua was not God, but a created being. Why? Because the Septuagint translates “qanah” as “created one.” This error was one of many by Arius. Many correlate the wisdom in Prov 8 to be Yeshua, but it is an error to say this describes him here because it has been referred to in feminine terms. Yeshua is God and he possesses wisdom. Qanal can be translated “create” but God did not create wisdom at the beginning because that would mean he lacked it at that point, and that is a fatal flaw of Arianism).

v 23…From everlasting (olam) I (wisdom) was established (set up), from the beginning, from the earliest times of the earth (origin of creation; before anything existed).

v 24…When there was no depths (oceans were not made yet) I was brought forth, when there was no springs abounding with water (the hidden springs from which the waters of the flood “cleaved” or “knifed” out-Gen 7.11).

v 25…Before the mountains were settled (put into position by Yehovah), before the hills, I (wisdom) was brought forth (existed before world was otherwise it could not have been brought forth; but now wisdom will be seen in the creation and endowed).

v 26…While he (Yehovah) had not yet made the earth and the fields (literally “open spaces, deserts”) nor the first dust of the earth.

v 27…When he (Yehovah) established the heavens (shamayim meaning “there is water”) I was there; when he inscribed a circle (horizon) on the face of the deep (as aboundary for the eyes of man).

v 28…When he made firm the skies (clouds) above, when the springs of the deep became fixed (set their boundaries, holding them in place by his word).

v 29…When he set for the sea its boundary, so that the water should not transgress his command (Gen 1.9), when he marked out the foundations of the earth (the earth’s mantle under the continents called the “Asthenosphere”).

v 30…When I (wisdom) was beside him (Yehovah) as one brought up with him (co-existing with him), and I was daily his delight (in creating the universe), rejoicing always before him (a pleasure to each other).

v 31…Rejoicing in the world (the created world), his earth (Hebrew “eretz” or land) and having amy (wisdom’s) delight in the sons of men (at the creation of Adam and Chava).

Prov 8.32-36 tells us that wisdom wants us to listen.

v 32…Now, therefore, O sons, listen to me (after wisdom has given her impressive accomplishments, she can now call on us to hear and obey her), for blessed (empowered to be a success) are they who keep my ways (as defined in the Torah).

v 33…Heed (hear) instruction and be wise, and do not neglect it (refuse it like a fool).

v 34…Blessed (empowered to be a success) is the man who listens to me (wisdom), watching daily at my gates (the gates of wisdom in the Torah where judgment comes forth-Psa 87.2), waiting at my doorposts (same as gates).

v 35…For he who finds me finds life (eternal life in the Messiah by emunah or faith, and keeping the Torah as a way to live-Matt 19.17; Rev 12.17), and obtains favor from Yehovah .

v 36…But he who sins against me (wisdom) injures himself (misses the mark, and Messiah is the goal of the teaching-Rom 10.4); all those who hate me (by throwing off the yoke of the Torah, despise the doctrines) love death (brings death upon them).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 7

In Prov 7.1-27 we have the seduction of the harlot. The word for marriage is “kiddushin” and it is related to kedusha, a sanctification by formal and legal restrictions. The opposite of marriage is harlotry, and one of the words for harlot is “kadesha” which means a woman who has defiled her kedusha. As we said before, keep in mind that we will have a contrast between the virtuous woman (a Torah-based faith in Yeshua) and the harlot (lawlessness or “Torah-less-ness”).

Prov 7.1-5 tells us to keep the Torah and to guard and protect the words of a Torah observant father who is advising his son to beware of the harlot and her schemes. This can be applied literally but also spiritually.

v 1…My son, keep my words (doctrines, instructions) and treasure my commandments (mistvot) within you (in your heart, thoughts and desires).

v 2…Keep my commandments (guard them, incorporate them into your life and stay true to the blueprint God has given to do certain things, at certain times, by certain people, at certain places) and live (Deut 30.6; John 14.15), and my teaching (Torah) as the pupil of your eye (when someone or something tries to touch them we react quickly).

v 3…Bind them on your fingers (don’t lose them and the same metaphor as in Deut 6.4-9); write them on the tablet of your heart (desires-Jer 31.33).

v 4…Say to wisdom (personified here), “You are my sister (familiar with) and call understanding your intimate friend (greatly beloved; kinsman).

v 5…That they may keep you from the adulterous woman (literally, but also this refers to false prophets and doctrine, heresies and replacement theology), from the foreigner who flatters with her words (of seduction, like the False Messiah will do).

Prov 7.6-23 gives us the story of seduction between the harlot and her victim. Keep in mind, this is not only literal but can also be applied to the spiritual seduction that happens when one is deceived by the teaching and words of the harlot (Prov 9.13-18) as opposed to the virtuous woman (Prov 8.1-36 and 9.1-12).

v 6…For at the window of my house I looked out through my lattice (the cunning deception of the harlot begins)

v 7…And I saw among the naive (simple, gullible, inexperienced; also in Torah truth); I discerned among the youths (not mature or complete) a young man lacking sense (understanding),

v 8…Passing through the street near her corner (a corner takes in people coming in numerous directions), he takes the way to her house (first he was a fool for going on her street, then her corner, then to her house. This is his intention. People decide to go to a false house of worship and study-Matt 6.13).

v 9…In the twilight, in the evening (erev), in the middle (Hebrew “pupil” and the same word as in Prov 7.2) of the night and in the darkness (he is involved in works of darkness with the harlot)

v 10…And behold (see), a woman comes to meet him dressed as a harlot and cunning of heart (two-faced ,a flatterer).

v 11..She is boisterous (loud) and rebellious (can’t control her); her feet do not remain at home (she is looking for victims).

v 12…She is now in the streets, now in the squares, and lurks by every corner.

v 13…So she seizes him (caught) and kisses him (the trap), and with a brazen face (impudent) she says to him:

v 14…Sacrifices of peace offerings are with me; this day I have paid my vows (she had a meal to share with him and it had to be eaten by the second day-Lev 7.16),

v 15…Therefore I have come out to meet you, to seek your presence earnestly, and I have found you (she had none to eat with her she says).

v 16…I have spread my couch with coverings her bed had upholstery and pillows), with covered linens of Egypt (very soft and comfortable).

v 17…I have sprinkled my bed with myrrh, aloes and cinnamon (sweet smelling spices).

v 18…Come, let us drink our fill of love until morning; let us delight ourselves with caresses (illicit love can be intoxicating).

v 19…For the man (my husband) is not at home, he has gone on a long journey (far away so he won’t catch us-alludes to Yeshua in Mark 13.34);

v 20…He has taken a bag of money with him (his business will take time), at the full moon (Hebrew is “kiseh” meaning the hidden or covered moon, as in Psa 81.3. The day appointed for his return is a new moon and this alludes to the coming of Yeshua on Rosh Ha Shanah) he will come home.

v 21…With her many persuasions she entices him; with her flattering lips she seduces him (keep in mind everything up to this point can also allude to how a person can be seduced into a false religion and its doctrine).

v 22…Suddenly (at once) he follows her as an ox goes to the slaughter, or as one in fetters to the discipline of a fool (in other words, as one who has lost his mind and is caught and put in stocks),

v 23…Until an arrow pierces through his liver (certain death); as a bird hastens to the snare (flies quickly with its eyes on the bait but doesn’t notice the snare) so he does not know that it will cost him his life (the bird doesn’t know that the snare is placed there to take its life).

Prov 7.24-27 tells us to learn a lesson from the harlot.

v 24…Now, therefore, my sons, listen to me, and pay attention to the words of my mouth (his doctrines and instructions).

v 25…Do not let your heasrt (desires) turn aside to her ways )or turn away from the right way), do not stray into her path (or go where she is, the “lawless” path).

v 26…For many are the victims (mortally wounded literally) she has cast down (had their reputations, wealth, health and lives ruined), and numerous are all her slain (not only physically but spiritually also).

v 27…Her house is the way to Sheol (or literally the “ways of Sheol is in her house”), descending to the chambers of death (the grave; spiritually, false houses of worship and study are the same way. They teach false doctrine and will lead one to the second death).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 6

Prov 6.1-35 tells us about how a father gives his son parental counsel about taking on the debts of others; the sin of not working; who is a worthless man; seven things God hates; an exhortation to listen to parental instructions and to stay away from the harlot.

Prov 6.1-5 is advice against being a surety for another’s debt.

v 1…My son, if you become a surety (to pay a debt) of your neighbor, have given a pledge for a stranger (someone you know even less)

v 2…You have have been ensnared with the words of your mouth (entangled by your promise), have been caught with the words of your mouth (to pay the debt of another).

v 3…Do this (take this advice) then, my son, and deliver yourself (get out of your promise); since you have come into the hand (power) of your neighbor, go humble yourself (literally “offer thyself to be trodden down, throw thyself down”), and importune (plead with) your neighbor (plead with him to pay the debt quickly or to be released from the promise).

v 4…Do not give sleep to your eyes, nor slumber to your eyelids (until these things are done, leave no stone unturned).

v 5…Deliver yourself like a gazelle from the hunters hand (they will strive and struggle to get out of the trap or snare), and like a bird from the hand of the fowler (do whatever it takes to get free quickly).

Prov 6.6-11 speaks about the blessings of hard work and not being idle.

v 6…Go to the ant, O sluggard (lazy person), observe her ways (carefully examine) and be wise (as it makes provision for itself).

v 7…Which, having no chief, officer or ruler (needed to oversee the works)

v 8…prepares her food in the summer, and gathers her provision in the harvest (the work gets done before winter).

v 9…How long will you lie down, O sluggard? When will you arise from your sleep (there is work to be done).

v 10…A little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding of the hands to rest.

v 11…And your poverty (the result of being lazy and idle) will come in like a vagabond (a prowler that comes in quickly), and your need like an armed man (one with a shield).

Prov 6.12-19 speaks about the worthless and wicked person morally.

v 12…A worthless person (Adam Beliel), a wicked man (Ish Aven), is the one who walks with a false mouth (perverted speech, malicious lies).

v 13…Who winks with his eyes, who signals with his feet (as a signal for others to join in), who points with his fingers (to teach or convey to others their scorn).

v 14…Who with perversity in his heart devises evil continually (against the righteous, planning schemes to distress, disturb and ruin others).

v 15…Therefor his calamity (or breaking) will come suddenly; instantly he will be broken and there will be no healing (it does say God’s judgment does this but it alludes to it).

Prov 6.16-19 gives us a list of seven (the number of completion) Yehovah hates. Solomon does this several times in Proverbs (30.15 for instance).

v 16…There are six things Yehovah hates (in a Adam Beliel or a Ish Aven), yes, seven which are an abomination to him (also why zara’at or “leprosy” comes).

v 17…Haughty (proud) eyes, a lying tongue (because one of God’s attributes is justice. without truth there is no justice-Prov 12.22, 19.5), and hands that shed innocent blood (1 Kings 2.32),

v 18…A heart (desire) that devises wicked plans (against God and man, thoughts of wickedness fabricated in their desires), feet that run rapidly to evil (to commit sin, especially murder and greed),

v 19…A false witness who utters lies, and one who spreads strife among brethren (these seven sins are connected to how we treat others).

Prov 6.20-35 speaks about the contrast between the vitruou woman and the harlot. This contrast should not only be seen in the Peshat (literal) level, but also in the the Sowd (secret, hidden) level. The virtuous woman is a Torah-based faith in Yeshua, and the harlot is false religion and doctrine which is called “lawless” in the Scriptures, or “no law, without Torah or Torah-less-ness.” The problem spiritually is the harlot goes around portraying herself as the virtuous woman.

v 20…My son, observe the commandment (mitzvah) of your father and do not forsake the teaching (torah) of your mother (the duty of parents is to teach the Torah to their children).

v 21…Bind them (don’t lose them) continually on your heart (again this is a metaphor as in Deut 6.3-8 and is not to be taken literally); tie them around your neck (like spiritual jewelry).

v 22…When you walk about (go your way), they will lead you (guide you); when you sleep (in your dreams) they will watch over you (keep you from having bad dreams and nightmares because God protects the believer); and when you awake, they (literally “she”) will watch over you; and when you awake, they (she) will talk to you (on how to behave, go with you to assist).

v 23…For the commandment (mitzvah) is a lamp (Psa 119.105; Matt 25.2), and the teaching (torah) is a light (Rom 10.4; 2 Tim 3.16; Zeph 1.12).

v 24…To keep you from the evil woman (the harlot, false doctrine-Prov 2.16-22, 3.15-18, 5.3-23, 7.1-27; Deut 17.1-5), from the smooth tongue of the adulteress (spiritual adultery is walking contrary to the Torah).

v 25…Do not desire beauty in your heart (lust after her), nor let her catch you with her eyelids (seductive glances to capture you).

v 26…For on account of a harlot one is reduced to a loaf of bread (brought to poverty), and an adulteress hunts for the precious life (by bringing him into the hands of her jealous husband).

v 27…Can a man take fire into his bosom, and his clothes not be burned (no, so don’t play with fire)?

v 28…Can a man walk on hot coals and his feet not get scorched (burning lust will hurt us, and unbelief will lead to the Lake of Fire).

v 29…So is the one who goes into his neighbor’s wife, whoever touches her will not go unpunished (be innocent or free from dishonor and punishment).

v 30…Men do not despise a thief if he steals to satisfy himself when he is hungry;

v 31…But when he is found, he must repay sevenfold (or completely-Matt 18.21-22), he must give all the substance of his house (to pay restitution).

v 32…The one who commits adultery with a woman is lacking heart (sense, principles, morals); he who would destroy himself (soul) does it (to himself, he can’t blame others).

v 33…Wounds and disgrace he will find (from the husband and relatives), and his reproach will not be blotted out (as long as he lives, and after, like with David).

v 34…For jealousy enrages a man (the husband) and he will not spare in the day of vengeance (which is the opportunity to avenge himself if he finds the adulterer in his house or in bed with his wife. He may even brings charges in court, etc).

v 35…He will not regard (accept) any ransom (no amount of money will satisfy him, unlike a thief who can pay restitution and be free. The adulterer took something that cannot be replaced), nor will he be content though you give many gifts (only the life of the offender will satisfy him or obtain some legal remedy through prosecution).

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Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 5

Prov 5.1-23 is a chapter that deals with the harlot, both literally and spiritually, and a warning to avoid the pitfalls of false doctrine that comes through the harlot (Rev 17.5; Mic 7.10). The harlot is contrasted with the virtuous woman-Prov 31.10).

Prov 5.1-14 is telling us to avoid the harlot both physically and spiritually.

v 1…My son, give attention (listen up) to my wisdom (spiritual not the flesh), incline your ear to my understanding (listen to what I have understood to be true).

v2…That you may observe discretion, and your lips may reserve knowledge (repeating them often).

v 3…For the lips on an adulteress (the harlot) drip honey (the harlot presents herself as the virtuous woman spiritually and she speaks seduction) and smoother than oil is her speech (oil symbolizes prosperity and joy-Deut 33.24; Isa 61.3).

v 4…But in the end she is bitter as wormwood (wormwood symbolizes poison), sharp as a two-edged sword (cuts more than one way).

v 5…Her feet go down to death (leads all who listen to her there), her steps lay hold on Sheol.

v 6…She does not ponder (think) the paths of life; her ways are unstable (moveable, unlike the ways of Torah and Yeshua-Isa 33.6 ), she does not know it (the way of life where she will end nor does she care).

v 7…Now then, my sons, listen to me (for caution) and do not depart from the words of my mouth (my warnings, admonitions and directions).

v 8…Keep (guard) your way far from her (keep your distance; also from false doctrine which is defined as anything contrary to the Torah-Rom 3.20), and do not go near the door of her house (do not enter a house of false teaching or even go near them).

v 9…Lest you give your vigor (life) to others and your years to the cruel one the harlot will take your health and your money).

v 10…Lest strangers (aliens) be filled with your strength (wealth) and your hard-earned goods go to the house of an alien (lose your wealth wasting money, and this can be applied to wasting money on false teaching).

v 11…And you groan at your latter end when your flesh and your body are consumed (by pain, sorrow, punishment and sickness because of your lifestyle).

v 12…And you say, “How I have hated instruction and my heart spurned reproof (of those who tried to warn him)!

v 13…And I have not listened to the voice of my teachers, nor inclined my ear to my instructors (a Hebrew parallelism)!

v 14…I was almost in utter ruin in the midst of the assembly and congregation (in public).

Prov 5.15-23 gives us a contrast between a wife and a harlot, spiritually alluding to choosing the virtuous woman (a Torah-based faith in Yeshua) and the harlot (false teachers and doctrine).

v 15…Drink water from your own cistern and fresh water from your own well (love your wife, the virtuous woman, and stay away from the harlot).

v 16…Should your springs be dispensed abroad, streams of water in the streets (life giving water is a type of proper sexual activity and it should be channeled in the right direction with your wife, bearing legitimate children).

v 17…Let them be yours alone (your children by her are yours) and not for strangers with you (if you have children by the harlot, you can’t be sure they are yours).

v 18…Let your fountain (virility) be blessed (with children), and rejoice in the wife of your youth (stay with her).

v 19…As a loving hind and a grateful doe (a deer, a clean animal), let her breasts satisfy you at all times (don’t seek satisfaction elsewhere), be exhilarated (ravished) always with her love).

v 20…For why should you, my son, be exhilarated (ravished) with an adulteress (the harlot), and embrace the bosom of a stranger (spiritually, why would we partake of the milk of a false teacher).

v 21…For the ways of a man are before the eyes of Yehovah (both those who stay with the virtuous woman and those who go with the harlot), and he watches all his paths (he not only observes them, but ponders them in the balance of justice).

v 22..His own iniquities will capture the wicked, and he will be held with the cords of his sin (he has been committing. They now have been twisted together by constant practice and now hold him to be brought to judgment).

v 23..He will die for lack of instruction, and in the greatness of his folly he will go astray (continue with the harlot instead of following the Torah/virtuous woman. His “folly” may be referring to his belief that he can free himself from the cords of his sin at anytime).

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Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 4

Prov 4.1-27 is a father’s instruction about the path of the righteous and the path of the wicked.

Prov 4.1-13 is about wisdom and her benefits. Keep in mind that wisdom is seen as the virtuous woman, and wickedness is seen as the harlot who goes around portraying herself as the virtuous woman.

v 1…Her, O sons, the instruction of a father (who had the experience to show them), and give attention that you may gain understanding (binah/understaanding).

v 2…For I give you sound (good) teaching (Torah-based); do not abandon my instruction (1 Tim 3.16-17).

v 3,,,When I was a son to my father (David), tender and only son in the sight of my mother (the one his mother Bathsheba gave most of her attention to-1 Chr 3.5).

v 4…Then he taught me and said to me, “Let your heart hold fast my words (to follow them at all times); keep my commandments and live (his commandments were based on the Torah).

v 5…Acquire wisdom! Acquire understanding (sum total of what he taught)! Do not forget, nor turn away from the words of my mouth (once wisdom is gained it can be lost, so don’t turn away).

v 6…Do not forsake her and she will guard you (against evil); love her and she will watch over you (wisdom is personified here, and is seen as the virtuous woman who will reward those who pursue and obtain wisdom).

v 7…The beginning of wisdom (the ability to discern the difference between right and wrong) is: Acquire wisdom; and with all your acquiring, get understanding (binah: the ability to comprehend how to use the wisdom).

v 8…Prize her (as valuable) and she will exalt you (promote you); she will honor you if you embrace her (as the virtuous wife of Prov 31).

v 9…She will place on your head a garland (ornament) of grace; she will present you with a crown (diadem) of beauty (tiferet).

v 10…Hear my son, and accept my sayings, and the years of your life will be many.

v 11…I have directed you in the way of wisdom (the way of conduct that is in agreement with the Torah); I have led you in upright paths.

v 12…When you walk, your steps will not be impeded (hindered by obstacles); and if you run, you will not stumble (plenty of room to move).

v 13…Take hold of instruction (correction), do not let it go. Guard her, for she is your life (Torah is a life and death matter-Deut 30.6).

Prov 4.14-27 is telling us to keep away from the harlot.

v 14…Do not enter the path of the wicked (rashim), and do not proceed in the way of evil men (their behavior is not consistent with the path of the virtuous woman).

v 15…Avoid it, do not pass by it (reject it); turn away from it and pass on (if you foolishly enter it).

v 16…For they (wicked) cannot sleep unless they do evil (they are committed to it); and they are robbed of sleep unless they make someone stumble (draw others into sin).

v 17…For they eat the bread of wickedness (it is like food to them, they hunger for it) and drink the wine of violence (it is like drink to them).

v 18…But the path of the righteous is like the light of dawn, that shines brighter and brighter (by the minute) until the full day.

v 19…The way of the wicked is like darkness (no understanding-Isa 8.20); they do not know over what they stumble.

v 20…My son, give attention to my words; incline your ear to my sayings (don’t ignore them).

v 21…Do not let them depart from your sight (write them down so you can read them anytime); keep them in the midst of your heart (your desires; meditate, speak and think about them).

v 22…For they are life (to revive) to those who find (cause to come forth) them and health (a medicine, a cure or remedy) to all his flesh.

v 23…Watch over your heart (desires, thoughts, intentions) with all diligence, for from it flow the springs (actions) of life (life or death proceeds from it-Matt 12.34, 15.18-19).

v 24…Put away from you a deceitful mouth (anything untrue, etc), and put devious lips far from you (so far away you can’t make use of them).

v 25…Let your eyes look directly ahead, and let your eyelids (your gaze) be fixed straight in front of you (not to the right or left; not distracted-Luke 9.62).

v 26…Watch the path of your feet (look where you are going), and all your ways will be established (be steady).

v 27…Do not turn to the right nor to the left (off the path of the Torah); turn your foot from evil (as defined by the Torah).

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Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 3

Prov 3.1-35 tells us about the rewards of wisdom

Prov 3.1-12 teaches us to walk in righteousness as defined by the Torah and to walk humbly in it.

v 1…My son, forget not my teaching (Torah), but let your heart (desires) keep my commandments (mitzvot; good works).

v 2…For length of days and years of life and peace shall they add to thee (there is a benefit to walking in the commandments).

v 3…Do not let kindness and truth leave you (be a part of your morals); bind them (like a necklace) around your neck, write them on the tablet of your heart (on your inward desires).

v 4…So you will find favor and good repute in the sight of God and man (what’s inside will come out).

v 5…Trust in Yehovah with all your heart your desire should lean on him for support), and do not lean on your own understanding (only Yehovah’s).

v 6… In all your ways acknowledge him (ask his counsel), and he will make your paths straight (upright, smooth).

v 7…Do not be wise in your own eyes (an act independently from Yehovah); fear (have a reverence for) Yehovah and turn away from evil (wickedness).

v 8…It will be healing to your body, and refreshment (moisture) to your bones.

v 9…Honor Yehovah from your wealth (possessions) and from the first (beginning) of all your produce.

v 10…So your barns will be filled with plenty (as a blessing from God) and your vats will overflow (burst forth) with new wine.

v 11…My son, do not reject the discipline (chastening) of Yehovah, or loathe his reproof (detest it).

v 12…For whom Yehovah loves he reproves (it is a sign of his love), even as a father, the son in whom he delights (clearly loves).

Prov 3.13-26 tells us about the benefits of the wisdom found in the Torah.

v 13…How blessed (empowred to succeed) is the man who finds wisdom (obtains it) and the man who gains understanding (digs it up, works to find it).

v 14…For its profit (merchandise) is better that the profit (merchandise) of silver (or any material gain) and its gain than fine gold.

v 15…She (wisdom is personified in Prov 5.3-23, 6.24-25, 7.1-27 and is seen as the virtuous woman, in contrast to the harlot) is more precious than jewels (costly gems; and nothing you desire compares with her (it surpasses it all-Job 28.18).

v 16…Long life is in her right hand (as a reward); in her left hand are riches and honor (esteem).

v 17…Her ways are pleasant (nothing disagreeable) ways and her paths are peace.

v 18…She (wisdom of the Torah) is a tree of life (etz chaim-Rev 22.2; Hos 4.6; John 14.6) to those who take hold of her (a Torah scroll is wrapped around two wooden spindles called the “Tree of Life”), and happy are they who hold her fast (retain her).

v 19…Yehovah by wisdom (chachmah-inspired intellect and knowing what to do with it all) founded the earth (creation showed his wisdom); by understanding (binah-comprehension) he established the heavens (made it just right to sustain life on earth).

v 20…By his knowledge (da’at-of the facts) the deeps (tehomot or subterranean deep) were broken up (this alludes to the flood of Noah when the water under the earth came knifing upward. God that this judgment was necessary and he knew how to do it. The massive changes after the flood set up our water cycle that creates dew, etc), and the skies drip dew (tal).

v 21…My son, let them (thee words of teaching) not depart from your sight; keep sound wisdom and discretion (wisdom applied correctly close to you).

v 22..So they will be life to your soul (spirit, mind, heart), and adornment (jewelry) to your neck (like a necklace in a metaphorical sense).

v 23…Then you will walk in your way securely (safely, free from fear), and your foot will not stumble (over an obstacle from the enemy trying to stop you).

v 24…When you lie down, you will not be afraid; when you lie down your sleep will be sweet (no distractions, fears or haunting thoughts).

v 25…Do not be afraid of sudden fear (anxiety), nor of the onslaught (storms) of the wicked (rashim) when it comes (not “if” but “when”).

v 26…For Yehovah will be at your confidence (at your side), and will keep your foot from being caught (taken in a snare because the righteous walk in the right path led by Yehovah).

Prov 3.27-35 is a set of warnings against wickedness and not walking in God’s wisdom.

v 27…Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due (by withholding their pay, or a widow in need, etc), when it is in your power to do it.

v 28…Do not say to your neighbor, “Go, and come back, and tomorrow I will give it,” when you have it with you.

v 29…Do not devise (plow up, dig up) harm against your neighbor, while he loves in security beside you (doesn’t suspect anything).

v 30…Do not contend with a man without a cause (have a foundation for it), if he has done you no harm (through fraud, real hurt or keeps what belongs to you).

v 31…Do not envy a man of violence (a person who gains riches of fame by injustice, violence or oppression), and do not choose any of his ways (in order to be successful).

v 32…For the crooked man is an abomination to Yehovah (he abhors them) but he is intimate (this word is “sowd” meaning hidden meaning, secret counsel or in this case an intimate association) with the upright.

v 33…The curse of Yehovah (empowered to fail) is on the house of the wicked (even though it looks like they are prosperous on the outside), but he blesses (empowers to succeed) the dwelling of the righteous.

v 34…Though he scoffs (scorns) at the scoffers, yet he gives grace to the afflicted.

v 35…The wise will inherit honor (kavod), but fools (kesilim-the hardened fool that takes pleasure in bringing grief) display (promote) dishonor.

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Tanak foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 2

Prov 2.1-22 speaks about how wisdom (the virtuous woman) brings security. The 22 verses are in acrostic form using all 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet. This is to indicate the completeness (from Aleph to Tav) of God’s word and the profitability of following the Torah

Prov 2.1-9 shows the advantages in observing God’s wisdom.

v 1…My son, if you will receive my sayings (doctrines, proverbs) and treasure (hide) my commandments (mitzvot) within you.

v 2…Make your ear attentive to wisdom (hear and obey it-Jam 1.5), incline (apply) your heart (desire, thoughts, intentions) to understanding (binah-comprehension);

v 3…For if you cry for discernment (insight), lift your voice (to Yehovah) for understanding (binah);

v 4…If you seek her (wisdom personified as the virtuous woman) as silver (with the effort it takes to dig for silver) and search for her as for hidden treasures (with the same effort it takes to dig for gold and jewels);

v 5…Then you will discern the fear (awe) of Yehovah (understand it is valuable) and discover the knowledge (da’at) of God (Hos 4.6 says, “My people are destroyed for lack of “the” knowledge or “ha da’at in Hebrew. That knowledge is the Torah).

v 6…For Yehovah gives wisdom (chachmah); from his mouth came knowledge (da’at) and understanding (binah-having the right judgment in life’s situations is a revelation that comes from his Torah and a blessing from God).

v 7…He stores up (in order to give it) sound wisdom for the upright; he is a shield (magen) to those who walk in integrity (wisdom shields us from evil and protects us. This “shield” is an allusion to the Messiah-Prov 30.4-5).

v 8… Guarding the paths of justice, and he preserves the way of his godly ones (guarding them from evil works and behavior-Jude 24).

v 9…Then you will discern (understand) righteousness and judgment and equity and every good course (a path or track wagons would make in the soft earth, then it hardens. Others that follow later will use these tracks. We should make good tracks for others to follow).

Prov 2.10-22 says wisdom will guard us from evil.

v 10…For wisdom will enter your heart (desires, thoughts, intentions), and knowledge will be pleasant (not distasteful) to your soul (synonymous with heart).

v 11…Discretion (good counsel) will guard you (if we reflect on good counsel), understanding will watch (keep) over you (all of this comes into play because the harlot has presented herself as the virtuous woman. We must be able to discern between what is of the harlot and what is of the virtuous woman. This will be the main contrast in Proverbs. Righteousness is seen as the virtuous woman, and wickedness is seen as the harlot. This can also be seen as true religion as found in the Scriptures in contrast with false religion. Remember, there are only two religions in this world, God’s and then all the others).

v 12…To deliver you from the way of evil (the harlot), from the man who speaks perverse things (contrary to the Torah).

v 13…From those who leave the paths of righteousness (the virtuous woman), to walk in the ways of wickedness (the harlot).

v 14…Who delight in doing evil (like it), and rejoice in the perversity of evil;

v 15…Whose paths are crooked (not in line with the Torah), and who are devious in their ways (full of lies);

v 16…To deliver you from the strange woman (the harlot is contrary to the virtuous woman, or wisdom-Prov 5.3-33, 6.24-30 with Prov 31.10 and Rev 12.1-17), from the adulterous who flatters with her words (a seduction away from the Torah/Scriptures);

v 17…That leaves the companion of her youth (Torah at Sinai) and forgets the covenant of her God (this can be literal, or it can mean the righteous and the unrighteous, or true religion and false religion. All of these applications work. The Hebrew word for marriage is “Kiddushin.” The Hebrew word for harlot is “Kedushin”).

v 18…For her house sinks down to death and her tracks lead to the dead (sinks down to the spirits of the dead).

v 19…None who go to her (the harlot) return again (to the path of wisdom and the virtuous woman) nor do they reach the paths of life.

v 20…So you will walk in the way of good men (follow their behavior, walk in the Torah with faith in Yeshua), and keep to the paths of the righteous (continue in it).

v 21…For the upright will live in the land (of the living in this world, Israel, but ultimately the Olam Haba) and the blameless shall remain in it (forever).

v 22…But the wicked (rashim) will be cut off from the land (of the living) and all treacherous (transgressors of the Torah) will be uprooted (no branch left, no descendants) from it (Mal 4.1).

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Tanak foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Chapter 1

Prov 1.1-33 will give us the author of this chapter and his instructions for his son. Wisdom is personified as the virtuous woman calls out for people to hear her voice.

Prov 1.1-6 gives us the title and introduces us to who wrote most of the book and why it was written.

v 1…The proverbs (sayings) of Solomon (“peace”) the son of David, king of Israel (all titles for Yeshua).

v 2…To know (“Hebrew “da’at” meaning knowledge of God as found in the Torah, the basic facts) wisdom (Hebrew “chachmah” meaning an inspired intellect and input into the mind to know what to do with it all) and instruction, to discern (perceive) the sayings of understanding (Hebrew “binah” meaning to discern, using the Scriptures, between good and evil, comprehension. Keep these terms in mind as we move along through Proverbs).

v 3…To receive instruction in wise behavior, righteousness, justice and equity (as defined by the Torah);

v 4…to give prudence to the naive (simple), to the youth knowledge an d discretion (these sayings will be accepted by those who want to have a Torah-based life).

v 5…A wise man (who realizes the value of a Torah-based life with faith in Yeshua) and increase in learning (adding to his knowledge and doesn’t think they know it all), and a man of understanding (has insight into the Torah/Scriptures) will acquire wise counsel (accept the guidance of the prudent).

v 6…to understand (have insight into) a proverb and a figure (an interpretation, an enigma), the words of the wise and their riddles (to another meaning of their dark sayings and parables, scripture and doctrine).

Prov 1.7-19 gives us a basic trait of wisdom which is the avoidance of evil.

v 7…The fear (reverence, to know him as Father) of Yehovah is the beginning (basis) of knowledge (da’at); fools (“evilim” or foolish) despise wisdom (chachmah) and instruction (there are basically four types of fools that we need to be familiar with, and when the word “fool” is used they don’t mean the same thing every time. The “Peti” is an open fool. The “evilim” or “kesil” thinks they are above instruction, but has self-control. The “letz” is a scoffer and ignites controversy. The “Naval” is a God-denying fool, arrogant and vile).

v 8…Hear, my son your father’s instruction (his literal son, or anyone who comes to him for advice) and do not forsake your mother’s teaching (“Torah”-don’t set it aside).

v 9…Indeed, they are a graceful wreath to your head (a diadem) and ornaments (chains) about your neck (these are metaphors and not to be taken literally. This is similar to Deut 6.8 and to be understood as “as if they are.” In other words, “don’t lose them.” We should treasure truth like valuable jewelry we wear. We will see this concept in other verses in Proverbs).

v 10…My son, if sinners entice you (habitual, non-Torah observant, “open the way for you”) do not consent (refuse them).

v 11…If they say, “Come with us, let us lie in wait for blood (out of a sense to kill, not revenge, etc), let us ambush (lurk) the innocent without cause;

v 12…Let us swallow them alive like Sheol (murder them and put them in the realm of the dead), even whole (living and full of blessings), as those who go down to the pit (to the grave);

v 13…We shall find all kinds of precious wealth (when they rob them after they are killed), we shall fill our houses with spoil.

v 14..Throw in your lot with us (join us), we shall all have one purse (have an equal share of the spoil).

v 15…My son, do not walk in the way with them (associate with them), keep your feet from their path.

v 16…For their feet run to evil (rush to it, but also to their own punishment), and they hasten (hurry) to shed blood (so they can get their money, spoil).

v 17…Indeed (surely), it is useless (no purpose) to spread the net in the sight (eyes) of the bird (they can see it and won’t get trapped, so be as wise as the bird and avoid their acts because it traps you in the end);

v 18…But they lie in wait for their own blood, they ambush their own lives (criminals can’t see the connection between their acts for monetary gain and the ruin and destruction that is going to entrap them, so avoid them).

v 19…So are the ways of everyone who gains (is greedy) be violence; it takes away the life of its possessors (brings the greedy down to punishment and destruction).

Prov 1.20-33 personifies wisdom as a person who is calling people to be wise, and is seen as a woman of virtue.

v 20…Wisdom (chachmot is feminine singular and is contrasted with the Harlot in Proverbs. She is the “essence” of the Torah) shouts in the square (plaza or the town square, publicly).

v 21…At the head of the noisy streets (chief concourse or gathering place) she cries out; at the entrance of the gates of the city (inside the gates, the courts, etc) she utters her sayings.

v 22…”How long, O naive (simple) ones will you love simplicity (inexperience, easily influenced), and scoffers delight themselves in scoffing (rejecting the truth), and fools (kesilim) hate knowledge (because they think they are above instruction).

v 23…Turn to my reproof (away from evil), behold (see for yourself), I will pour out my spirit on you (give you power and understanding, be under my control); I will make my words (the Torah/Scriptures) known to you.

v 24…Because I called you and you refused (here is the reproof of v 23); I stretched out my hand (to help), and no one paid attention (to my eager invitation to wisdom);

v 25…And you neglected all my counsels (didn’t use it), and did not want my reproof (declined it altogether);

v 26…I will ever laugh at your calamity (mocking their distress. Wisdom has nothing to offer when trouble comes); I will mock when your dread comes (measure for measure).

v 27…When your dread comes like a storm (desolation), and your calamity (destruction) comes like a whirlwind, when distress and anguish come upon you (not laughing at the disaster, but the victory of right over wrong).

v 28…Then they will call upon me (asking for wisdom to know what to do) but I will not answer (they don’t answer the call of wisdom, so Yehovah won’t answer them). They will seek me diligently (early), but they will not find me.

v 29…Because they hated knowledge, and do not choose the fear of Yehovah (when it was offered they refused the true wisdom of God found in his word).

v 30…They would not accept my counsel (yield to it), they spurned all my reproof (to turn away from evil).

v 31…So they shall eat of the fruit of their own way (suffer the consequences), and be satiated (filled) with their own devices (counsels that now dictate what is happening to them).

v 32…For the waywardness (turning away) of the naive (simple) shall kill them (the cause), and the complacency of fools shall destroy them.

v 33…But he who listens to me (the virtuous woman-wisdom) shall live securely (safely), and shall be at ease from the dread of evil (feel safe in the middle of any threat or trouble).”

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Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Proverbs-Introduction

The Book of Proverbs is a collection of wisdom given in short verse, mostly written by Solomon who is said to have written over 3000 proverbs (1 Kings 4.32). This book is called “Mishlei Shlomo” in Hebrew or the “Proverbs of Solomon, but there seems to be several other authors (Agur in Proverbs 30 and King Lemuel in Prov 31). This book gives us a clear sense of “cause and effect” in the universe. Bad choices reap negative consequences, and wise decisions lead to prosperity.

However, when all is said and done, it is not quite that simple. Wisdom literature in the Scriptures is made up by the Book of Job, Psalms, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon and Proverbs, and it is an interesting blend. Proverbs gives us a clear sense of cause and effect, as we have said. But Ecclesiastes (Kohelet in Hebrew) teaches us that it is not quite that simple. The righteous suffer and die like the wicked, and seasons come and go without regard to peoples choices. The Book of Job turns the Law of Harvest upside down. The righteous experience horrible problems with no visible cause one can point to. No sin or evil actions brought on the calamity. Behind the scenes we know it was Yehovah who decided to let Ha Satan touch Job negatively, and Job never does find out what was really going on. His troubles were the result of a dispute between Yehovah and Ha Satan as to whether the righteous Job would be faithful. We learn that we may never know why certain things happen.

Proverbs is a unique book because it seems to be a collection of thoughts without much context. It is more a concerned with practical wisdom than theology. It seems to be related to other collections of wisdom from other nations that were more secular in thought but carried the same concepts. They are short concepts that teach practical wisdom but should not be considered as “promises” or “laws” as such. They are meant to be remembered, meditated on, but not necessarily applied to every situation. But, its basis is the Torah without actually quoting it.

Interestingly enough, this book is seen as prophetic and Yeshua is revealed as the ultimate wisdom. For example, Prov 29.18 says, Where there is no vision (prophetic, revelation) the people are unrestrained (lawless, Torah-less).” When there is no prophetic vision the people cast off their fetters and the cords of the Torah and the laws of God (Psa 2.3). Solomon will be a picture of Yeshua in his wisdom and we see his titles also belong to Yeshua (Prov 1.1). The Redemption is seen when Proverbs points out that sin causes death, but there is life in the wisdom of God (Yeshua). Yeshua is also seen in Prov 30.4-5 when compared to John 3.5, 8, 13, 16-17.

We will also see the contrast between the “Virtuous Woman (the believer’s of the Kahal who believe in Yeshua and follow the Torah) and the Harlot in this book (an unbeliever who does not believe in Yeshua and/or is without the Torah, or “lawless.”).

So, as we go through this book we will point out concepts concerning the Messiah, the Redemption, and other teachings related to biblical eschatology, as well as practical wisdom. We will take each verse and bring out certain concepts so the reader can understand what is being communicated. Each verse is a nugget in and of itself.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Psalms 147-150

Psa 147.1-20 is similar to Psa 146 and it again has no heading or no author named, and it has a similar theme of praising Yehovah for his mercy and kindness. It is read on Rosh Ha Shanah and Yom Kippur. It begins and ends with “Hallelu Yah” or “Praise the Lord.”

Psa 147.1-6 tells us about why it is good to praise the Lord about his power and care, “Praise the Lord (Hallelu Yah)! For it is good to sing praises to our God; for it is pleasant and praise is becoming (fitting, or literally “beautiful” in Hebrew-v 1). Yehovah builds up Jerusalem (actively cares for it); he gathers the outcasts (exiles) of Israel (when Jerusalem will be finally rebuilt-Isa 66.20; Ezek 37.11-28-v 2). He heals the brokenhearted (in distress over what has happened to them in life) and binds up their wounds (pains-v 3). He counts the number of the stars (Yehovah not only cares for the nations and individuals, but he counts the stars. This means he can track the stars in the universe, which means he won’t lose track of those in exile either); he gives names to all of them (he knows each name of every star, which means he knows the name of every individual person, too-v 4). Great is our Lord (“adoneynu”) and abundant is strength (power); his understanding is infinite (beyond our calculations-v 5). Yehovah supports (relieves) the afflicted (humble); he brings down the wicked (rashim) to the ground (reverses the order of things-v 6).”

Psa 147.7-11 says that we should praise the Lord for his work in the universe and tells us what delights him, “Sing unto the Lord (Yehovah) with thanksgiving (a natural response when we realize what he has done); sing praises to our God (eloheynu) on the lyre (kinor-a musical instrument and a picture of the heart-v 7), who covers the heavens with clouds, who provides rain for the earth (dark clouds seem to be fateful and terrible, but they are a blessing), who makes grass to grow on the mountains (transforming a barren mountain into something fruitful-v 8). He gives the beast its food, and to the young ravens which cry (he feeds the animals-v 9). He does not delight in the strength of the horse (God helps the helpless animals and does not delight in haughty animals or war horses); he does not take pleasure in the legs of a man (to control the horse, man’s strength-v 10). Yehovah favors those who fear him, those who wait for his kindness (this is what he takes pleasure in-v 11).”

Psa 147.12-20 tells us that we should praise God for his care according to his great power, “Praise the Lord, O Jerusalem! Praise your God, O Zion (v 12)! For he has strengthened the bars of your gates (protection); he has blessed your sons within you (alludes to the future-v 13). He makes peace in your borders (so the kahal can grow without being disturbed by war); he satisfies you with the finest of wheat (troubles can be caused by the shortage of food-v 14). He sends forth his command to the earth (for rain); his word runs swiftly (to accomplish what was commanded-v 15). He gives snow like wool (like a fleece, it warms and insulates the earth); he scatters the hoarfrost like ashes (frost looks like ashes-v 16). He casts forth his ice as fragments (hail); who can stand before his cold (we are dependent on God’s merciful control of nature. he can take water and turn it into ice if he commands it-v 17). He sends forth his word and melts them (he can take the snow, hail and ice and melt them for moisture); he can cause his wind to blow and the waters to flow (dissolves the ice when warm winds blow to make water flow-v 18). He declares (relates) his words to Jacob (has also spoken to man and revealed himself and his Torah to Israel-Rom 3.1), and his ordinances to Israel (the ultimate purpose of his orderly laws in creation is to inspire man to put his life in order through the Torah and it revelation of Messiah and the redemption-Rom 10.4-v 19). He has not dealt thus with any nation (no other nation has a covenant with Yehovah-Deut 4.6-8); and as for his ordinances, they (the nations) have not known them (the oracles of God were given to Israel, as were the Messiah and the redemption (Rom 3.1; 9.4-5; Deut 4.32-33; John 4.22-v 20).”

Psa 148.1-14 again has no heading or author named, and it calls upon all the creation to praise yehovah, and in Rev 5.11-13 it will be fulfilled. This psalm is read on Rosh Ha Shannah and Yom Kippur.

Psa 148.1-6 tells us that the heavenly things should praise the Lord and gives the reasons why, “Praise the Lord! Praise the Lord from the heavens (God’s close attendants); praise him in the heights (distant cosmic heights-v 1). Praise him, all his angels (malakim or “messengers”-Rev 4.8); praise him, all his hosts (heavenly armies, very numerous-v 2)! Praise him, sun and moon (earth’s light bearers); praise him all stars of light (shining in radiance to give light to the earth-v 3)! Praise him, highest heavens (literally “heaven of the heavens” where God’s throne is -Deut 10.14; 1 Kings 8.27; Neh 9.6), and the waters (thick clouds) that are above the heavens (v 4). Let them praise the name of Yehovah, for he commanded and they were created (Psa 33.6-9-v 5). For he has established them forever and ever (l’ad l’olam); he has made a decree which will not pass away (by the will of mankind or anything he does. They obey Yehovah from the beginning and they will not defy God. So much for the myth of “climate change”-v 6).”

Psa 148.7-12 calls upon the earth and its inhabitants to praise Yehovah, “Praise Yehovah from the earth (earthly creatures), sea monsters (“taninim” or “dragons”) and all deeps (“tehomot” or subterranean deep. The sea is mentiones first because it was created before the dry land, and the sea monsters were in the waters before the land animals-v 7). Fire (lightning) and hail; snow and clouds; storm wind (earthly phenomena that can humble a person), fulfilling his word (subject to his commands-v 8); mountains and all hills; fruit trees (orchards) and all cedars (trees of the forest-v 9); beasts and all cattle (animal world); creeping things (reptiles, amphibians-v 10); kings of the earth and all peoples (nations); princes and all judges (who control mankind and crime-v 11); both young men and virgins; old men and children (people of every age and sex-v 12).”

Psa 148.13-14 give the reasons why all these should praise Yehovah, “Let them praise the name of Yehovah for his name alone is exalted, his glory is above earth and heaven (infinite, beyond limits-v 13). And he has lifted up a horn (power) for his people, praise for all his godly (chasid) ones; even the sons of Israel, a people near to him (intimate-v 14).”

Psa 149.1-9 is another psalm with no heading or author named. It exhorts Israel to praise Yehovah for his mercies in the past, as well as looking forward to future mercies and victories which are contained in his covenant promises. This psalm is also read on Rosh Ha Shannah and Yom Kippur.

Psa 149.1-4 speaks of praising Yehovah with a “new song” (“shir chadash” or renewed song alluding to “the Messiah has come”-see Psa 96.1 notes), “Praise the Lord! Sing to Yehovah a new song (restored, renewed song), and his praise in the congregation (“kahal”) of the godly (chasidim or devout) ones (v 1). Let Israel be glad in his maker (literally (makers” in Hebrew-Ecc.12.1, alluding to the Father, Son and Holy Spirit), let the sons of Zion (Israel and the kahal) rejoice in their king (Messiah-v 2). Let them praise his name with dancing (the word for “dancing” here is “machol” and it leterally means a “circle that encloses an open space.” It carries the idea of forming a circle around Yehovah and dancing). Let them sing praises (make music) with the timbrel (drum) and Lyre (kinor-v 3). For yehovah takes pleasure (favors) his people (nation); he will beautify (adorn) the afflicted (humble) ones with salvation (v 4).”

Psa 149.5-9 speaks of the power of God’s people and the victory they will have, “Let the godly ones exult in glory (because of their eternal salvation and deliverance); let them sing for joy upon their beds (commune and meditate with Yehovah, sleep peacefully-v 5). Let the high praises of God be in their mouth (literally “throat”-Psa 88.1), and a two-edged sword in their hand (ready for battle; alludes to the Word of God in the Torah- Eph 6.17; Heb 4.12; Rev 19.15-v 6), to execute vengeance on the nations (part of Israel’s calling), and punishment on the peoples (v 7); to bind their kings with chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron (all kingdoms will belong to the Lord and the Messiah-v 8); to execute on them the judgment written (in the Torah), this is the honor for all his godly ones (this is a clear allusion to Yom Ha Din Yom Kippur when Yehsua returns and subdues the False Messiah and the False Prophet, and the kings and rulers of the nations-Matt 24.29-31; Rev 19.1-21). Praise the Lord (v 9)!”

Psa 150.1-6 is the last psalm of the final five psalms and closes out the fifth book of the psalms, and this is considered a doxology for the whole book of Tehillim (Psalms). It again has no heading or author named and it was read on Rosh Ha Shannah and Yom Kippur, and as you entered the Temple courts. Praise is mentioned thirteen times and it alludes to the thirteen attributes of God contained in what is called the Midot in Exo 34.6-7.

Psa 150.1-2 speaks about the unlimited greatness of God and we should praise him everywhere and for every reason, “Praise the Lord! Praise God in his sanctuary (the Temple); praise him in his mighty expanse (the heaven above or “everywhere under the sun”-v 1). Praise him for his mighty deeds (in creation, sustaining the world, the redemption through Messiah, etc); praise him according to his excellent greatness (“gadol” which is above all else-v 2).”

Psa 150.3-6 tells us to praise him in various ways, “Praise him with trumpet sound (shofar on Rosh Ha Shannah for instance to assemble the people for worship and the festivals-Num 10.1-10; 1 Chr 16.6), praise him with harp (nevel) and lyre (kinor-v 3). Praise him with timbrel (drum) and dancing (“machol” which literally means “circle” or a circle dance); praise him with stringed instruments (literally “minnim” meaning “many kinds or parts” and the identity is unknown) and pipe (“ugav” is referenced in Gen 4.21 and may be a mouth organ or pipe-v 4). Praise him with loud cymbals (“tziltzelei shama” which were two copper plates that are struck together to make a crashing sound); praise him with resounding cymbals (“tziltzelei teruah” and may be smaller cymbals that one fastened to the thumb and middle finger. They produce a broken or “teruah” sound-v 5). Everything that has breath (“kol neshama” or “all your soul”) praise the Lord (Yah- a shortened form of Yehovah). Praise the Lord (Hallelu Yah-v 6)!”

The main theme of the Book of Tehillim is that man should acknowledge God’s mercy and kindness at all times, and praise him with all our hearts, mind, soul and spirit.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Psalms 144-146

Psa 144.1-15 simply has the heading “Of David” or “L’David” in Hebrew. It praises and thanks Yehovah at the beginning of his reign and after his enemies have been defeated.

Psa 144.1-4 expresses the Hebraic attitude towards warriors and war. The warrior has no right to think a victory was because of his ability or skill, but it was Yehovah who trains him, “Blessed (empowered to succeed) be Yehovah, my rock (to take refuge in and to get strength), who trains my hands for battle (to handle a sword) and my fingers for war (to handle a bow and slings. A sling and a rock were very important to David-v 1). My lovingkindness and my fortress (“matzudati” and it is related to the word “Masada”), my stronghold, my rescuer, my shield, in whom I take refuge (David gives titles to Yehovah that represent his help in warfare); who subdues my people (Israel) under me (v 2). Yehovah, what is man, that thous dost take knowledge of him (take an interest in)? Or the son of man (“ben enosh”-this became an eschatological based on its usage in Dan 7.13. It carries the idea of a frail, weak and mortal figure-Matt 16.13 uses it as the Messiah) that thou dost think of him (reckon with him, bother with him-v 3)? Man (“adam”) is like a mere breath (temporary, void of substance); his days are like a passing shadow (short life span-Ecc 6.12-v 4).”

Psa 144.5-8 is a prayer of deliverance, “Bow thy heavens (bend towards the earth), Yehovah, and come down (descend to help); touch the mountains (his enemies, kings and kingdoms) that they may smoke (destroy them visibly-v 5). Flash forth lightning and scatter them (his enemies); send out thine arrows (judgment in the form of famine, sword, disease, etc) and confuse them-Psa 18.15-v 6). Stretch forth thy hand from on high (to help); rescue me (save) and deliver me out of great waters (an army-Isa 8.6-8; Rev 12.15-16), out of the hands of aliens (foreigners-v 7) whose mouths speak deceit (vanity), and whose right hand (in an oath) is a right hand of falsehood (their word was meaningless-v 8).”

Psa 144.9-11 is a praise to Yehovah for his coming rescue, “I will sing a new song (“shir chadash” is masculine Hebrew alluding to the meaning “Messiah has come”-see Psa 96.1 notes) to thee, O God (elohim); upon a harp (nevel) of ten strings (the new song is a ten note scale, not the eight note scale we have today) I will sing praises to thee-v 9), who dost give salvation to kings; who dost rescue David his servant from the evil sword (war; of Goliath; of Saul and his enemies, etc-v 10). Rescue me, and deliver me out of the hands of aliens (foreigners); whose mouth speaks deceit, and whose right hand (in an oath) is a right hand of falsehood (their words are meaningless-v 11).”

Psa 144.12-15 is a prayer for Yehovah to defeat the enemy so Israel can grow, “Let our sons in their youth be as grown-up plants (thriving in young age) and our daughters as corner pillars fashioned for a palace (polished, tall, proportioned with a beautiful appearance, fit perfectly-v 12); our gardens (storehouses) be full, furnishing every kind of produce (good harvest), our flocks bring forth thousands and ten thousands in our fields (there are so many they can’t be corralled but must graze in wide open spaces-v 13); our cattle bear without mishap and without loss (strong and able to bear their burdens), that there is no outcry in our streets (no enemy breaking in to take the people into captivity), or into the storehouses to take the harvest, or into the fields to steal their livestock-v 14). How blessed (empowered to succeed) are the people who are so situated (see v 12-14); how blessed are the people whose God (elohim) is Yehovah (the greatest blessing a nation can have is to call Yehovah their God-v 15.”

Psa 145.1-21 has the “Tehilah L’David” or a “Praise of David.” The word “tehilah” is where we get the Hebrew name of this book, “Tehillim.” It is the only psalm in the entire book that is actually called a “praise” or “tehilah.” It was written by David and it sums up the Jewish doctrine about Yehovah. It is an acrostic of the Hebrew alphabet, except for the letter “Nun” (life, continue) because understanding the doctrine of Yehovah is fundamental and basic, like the alphabet, and that God brings order to “life” and the universe. This psalm is read on Rosh Ha Shanah and Yom Kippur.

Psa 145.1-6 speaks about the greatness of God, and each verse begins with the next letter of the Hebrew alphabet in order, “I will extoll (exalt) thee; and I will bless thy name forever and ever (sing of your attributes throughout eternity, or “L’Olam Vaed”- v 1). Everyday I will bless thee (constanlty), and I will praise thy name forever and ever-v 2). Great (gadol) is Yehovah and highly to be praised (far greater than any words); and his greatness is unsearchable (beyond investigation-v 3). One generation shall praise thy works to another, and shall declare thy mighty acts (which are not a part of the natural order of things-v 4); on the glorious splendor of thy majesty (his divine rule and power), and on thy wonderful works I will meditate (to speak aloud, mutter in low tone-v 5). And men shall speak of the power of thine awesome acts (like the flood, the redemption out of Egypt, the Red Sea, etc); and I will tell of thy greatness (his acts cause believers to speak about them-v 6).”

Psa 145.7-13 speaks about the goodness of God, “They shall eagerly utter the memory (zekor) of thine abundant goodness (announcing it), and shall shout joyfully of thy righteousness (v 7). Yehovah is gracious and merciful; slow to anger and great in lovingkindness (Exo 34.6-v 8). Yehovah is good to all (of his creatures), and his mercies are aver all his works (v 9). All thy works shall give thanks to thee, Yehovah, and thy godly ones (“chasidaycha”-devout followers) shall bless thee (v 10). They (the believers) shall speak of the glory (kivod) of thy kingdom, and talk of thy power (part of the Avenu in Matt 6.13-v 11), to make known to the sons of men thy mighty acts, and the glory of the majesty of thy kingdom (a Hebrew parallelism with v 11-v 12). Thy kingdom (God’s rule over us) is an everlasting kingdom (spanning all eternities), and thy kingdom endures throughout all generations (similar to Dan 2.44. The letter “Nun” means “life and there is a missing nun at this point in the acrostic order in the Hebrew Bible, and the word for “fall” in Hebrew in this verse begins with a “nun.” Israel will “fall” as in Amos 5.2, but then come back to life-v 13).”

Psa 145.14-21 speaks about God’s love towards those who fear him, “Yehovah sustains all who fall and raises up all who are bowed down (with a heavy burden-Psa 113.7-v 14). The eyes of all (the Lord’s people) look to thee (for support), and thou dost give them their food in due time (as they need it-v 15). Thou dost open thy hand, and thou dost satisfy the desire of every living thing (beyond just mankind-Matt 6.26-30-v 16). Yehovah is righteous in all his ways (and knows what is best for all his creatures), and kind (benevolent) in all his deeds (v 17). Yehovah is near (“karav”, the root for the word “korban” or “offerings” meaning to “draw near) to all who call upon him, to all who call upon him in truth (sincerely-v 18). He will fulfill (give meaning to) the desire of those who fear him (possibly not in the manner they expect ); he will also hear their cry and will save them (Jam 5.16; Matt 21.22; Mark 11.24; 1 John 3.22-v 19). Yehovah keeps (preserves, protects) all who love him (serve him, keep the Torah); but all the wicked he will destroy (because they hurt the ones who love the Lord and he will defend them-v 20). My mouth shall speak the praise of Yehovah (he is determined); and all flesh will bless his holy (has a kedusha) name forever and ever (“L’Olam Vaed” and the third time this phrase is used in this psalm, and it alludes to the triune nature of Yehovah-v 21).”

Psa 146.1-10 is the first of the five final psalms in this book and they have no heading or author named. They are known by some scholars as the “Hallelu Yah Psalms” and they call the believer to praise Yehovah for how he shows us mercy and his power, especially in taking care of the poor and needy. It is read on Rosh Ha Shanah and Yom Kippur.

Psa 146.1-7 speaks about the blessings in trusting the Lord and not putting trust in man, “Praise the Lord! Praise the Lord O my soul (“being”-v 1)! I will praise Yehovah while while I live (before its too late-Psa 117.17); I will sing praises to my God while I have my being (exist-v 2). I do not trust in princes (earthly rulers and politicians-Jer 17.5-7), in mortal man, in whom there is no salvation (some will boast in being the “son of Abraham” but that will not save them-John 8.39-v 3). His spirit departs, he returns to the earth (on other words, he can’t even control his own spirit), in that very day his thoughts (plans) perish (v 4). How blessed (empowered for success) is he whose help is the God of Jacob (Yehovah is called this because he promised to be with Jacob in Gen 28.15), whose hope (believes his promises as a sure thing) is in Yehovah his God (v 5); who made heaven and earth, the sea and all that is in them (the creator); who keeps faith (emet or “truth”) forever (the truth is safeguarded-v 6); who executes (does) justice for the oppressed (the exploited-Jer 50.33); who gives food to the hungry. Yehovah sets the prisoners free (takes them from whatever yoke they have upon them-v 7).”

Psa 146.8-10 tells us about the power and love of Yehovah and how he will be praised forever, “Yehovah opens the eyes of the blind (physically and spiritually); Yehovah raises up those who are bowed down (with a heavy burden); Yehovah loves the righteous (even when they are being punished or corrected-v 8). Yehovah protects the strangers (“gerim” or non-Jewish and aliens to the covenant-Eph 2.11-22); he supports the fatherless and the widow (the helpless ones have their needs met); but he thwarts the way of the wicked (turns their plans upside down, impedes them-v 9). Yehovah will reign forever, thy God, O Zion, to all generations (manifest his glory in all the earth-Zech 14.9-v 10).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Tanak Foundation-Concepts in Psalms 141-143

Psa 141.1-10 has the heading “A Psalm of David” and was written during one of his dangerous moments, probably fleeing from Saul. Saul, as we know, has been energized by the slanderous lips of those who hated and were jealous of David, and David asks Yehovah for protection, as he himself is guarding his own lips from the evil tongue (Lashon Ha Ra).

Psa 141.1-4 is an urgent prayer because his enemies are so close, “O Yehovah, I will call upon thee; hasten (hurry) to me! Give ear to my voice when I call to thee(I don’t have time for formal prayers, my enemy is close behind and I am in a hurry-v 1)! May my prayer be counted (prepared) as incense before thee (all korbanot were likened to incense by Yehovah, as in Num 28.2. The korbanot atone for errors, but incense is offered to give God joy, as in Prov 27.9 and Num 28.2, and the smell was the only sense not involved in Adam’s sin. The breath of life was blown into his nostrils in Gen 2.7); the lifting up of my hands (innocence), as the afternoon (minchah) offering (a person needs to interrupt his affairs to pray this prayer at mid-afternoon, like Elijah in 1 Kings 18.36, and Daniel in Dan 9.21. because of that, Yehovah sees this prayer as precious-v 2). Set a guard (post a sentry), Yehovah, for my mouth (keep it from speaking any evil-Prov 16.1); keep watch over the door of my lips (the lips are like a door, it is either open or closed. David wants the discipline to control this-v 3). Do not incline my heart to any evil thing (do not turn me over to the evil designs in my heart), to practice deeds of wickedness with men who do iniquity (join them in their evil); and do not let me eat of their delicacies (in celebration of their evil successes-v 4).”

Psa 141.5-7 speaks of being corrected by the righteous and the destruction of the wicked, “Let the righteous smite me in kindness and reprove me (their rebukes are better than the delicacies of the wicked-Prov 27.6); it is oil upon the head (soothing balm); do not let my head refuse it, for still my prayer is against their wicked deeds (David is thankful for God’s correction, but he still prays for God to deal with the wicked-v 5). Their judges are thrown down by the sides of the rock (cast down, to be destroyed), and they hear my words, for they are pleasant (one day David will have victory over these judges, and the people will welcome the words of David-v 6) as when one plows and breaks open the earth (shattered), our bones (lives) have been scattered at the mouth of Sheol (at the door of death-v 7).”

Psa 141.8-10 is David’s prayer for deliverance, “for my eyes are turned toward thee, Yehovah the Lord (adonai); in thee I take refuge; do not let my soul slip away (be poured-I am still in danger, do not let my enemies take the breath of life from me-v 8). Keep (guard) me from the jaws of the trap which they have set for me (Saul’s traps reach out like hands to grab him), from the snares of those who do iniquity-v 9). Let the wicked fall into their own nets, while I pass by safely (slip through their net-v 10).”

Psa 142-1-7 is a “maskil” meaning “instruction or understanding of David when he was in the cave hiding from Saul. This would have been Adullam or En-gedi possibly. It begins, “I cry aloud with my voice to Yehovah (he is in mortal danger); I make supplication (plead) with my voice (out loud-v 1). I pour out my complaint (about those who persecute him) before him; I declare my trouble before him (he knows already-v 2). When my spirit was overwhelmed within me (this literally means to be bent over in great pain), thou dost know my path (he takes comfort in knowing that Yehovah knows his situation and it is a part of his plan for David). In the way where I walk they (Saul, his enemies) have hidden a trap for me (to destroy him-v 3). Look to the right (where a protector would be-Psa 109.31) and see; for there is no one who regards me (who I can depend on to protect me); there is no escape for me (to feel secure); no one cares for my soul (out of all of David’s friends and family, there is not one who tries to stop Saul. Some shared in his flight but never really understood David. He has no other place to go other than Yehovah-v 4). I cried out to thee, Yehovah; I said, ‘Thou art my refuge, my portion in the land of the living (Saul’s physical threats were not as powerful as God. The land of the living is an idiom for the land of Israel and the Olam Haba-v 5). Give heed to my cry, for I am brought very low (he is at his breaking point); deliver me from my persecutors, for they are too strong for me (how can I survive the pursuit of a great king and his army-v 6). Bring my soul (life) out of prison (the cave he was rapped in), so that I may give thanks to thy name (in appreciation for his rescue); the righteous will surround me (in joy), for thou wilt deal bountifully with me (reward David for relying on the promises to him and be an example on how God rewards the righteous-v 7).”

Psa 143.1-12 is a psalm written by David when he needed relief from his enemies, and it was Paul’s basis in Rom 3.10-18. It carries the same theme as Psa 142 but it is not clear as to who David had in mind here. Some believe it was written when he fled from Absalom, and others believe it was when he fled from Saul. But it is another plea for help to Yehovah at a time when he was afflicted by his enemies.

Psa 143.1-4 tells us about how David pleads for help and the nature of the problems, “Hear my prayer, Yehovah, give ear to my supplications (it is not enough to just pray, but David wants to be heard or he was dead)! Answer me in thy faithfulness (you said you would in Psa 89.28), in thy righteousness (because I do not deserve it-v 1)! And do not enter into judgment with they servant (or a beit din, house of judgment) for in thy sight (God sees everything) no man living is righteous (free from sin-v 2). For the enemy has persecuted my soul; he has crushed my life to the ground (very low, near death); he has made me dwell in dark places, like those who have been long dead (he was hiding out in caves that were gloomy and dark-v 3). Therefore, my spirit is overwhelmed (growing faint) within me; my heart (same as spirit) is appalled within me (cannot move because of fear and terror-v 4).”

Psa 143.5-6 talks about how David encourages himself, “I remember the days of old (the miracles you did for the fathers who were in trouble); I meditate (to speak out loud, to speak or mutter-Josh 1.8; 1 Sam 1.13) on all thy doings (in the Torah); I speak on the work of thy hands (notice the parallel between “meditate” and “speak”-v 5). I stretch out my hands to thee (in prayer, innocence); my soul longs for thee (thirsts), as a parched land (the strain of waiting is draining him-v 6).”

Psa 143.7-9 tells us that David needs a quick answer and guidance to be delivered from the wicked. “Answer me quickly, Yehovah, my spirit falls ( he is very disappointed), do not hide thy face from me (ignore me), lest I become like those who go down to the pit (doomed to Sheol-v 7). Let me hear (root is “shema”) thy lovingkindness in the morning (quickly the next morning); for I trust in thee; teach me the way in which I would walk (to escape); for to thee I lift up my soul (v 8). Deliver me, Yehovah, from my enemies; I take refuge in thee (literally “towards you I am covered”-v 9).”

Psa 143.10-12 tells us that David wants to do God’s will, “Teach me to do your will (as revealed in the Torah; train and guide me), for thou art my God; let thy good Spirit lead me (do a work in my heart) on level ground (no obstacles-v 10). For the sake of thy name (that will be glorified when everyone hears how you saved me), Yehovah, revive me (with life and vitality so that I can publicly speak of the miracles you did for me). In thy righteousness (to his promises) bring my soul out of trouble (all distress-v 11). And in thy lovingkindness (mercy) cut off my enemies (who, if they succeed, will kill me) and destroy all those who afflict my soul (persecute my life); for I am your servant (anointed to be king over your people and as a believer who follows the Torah-v 12).”

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Tanak Foundations-Concepts in Psalms 138-140

Psa 138.1-8 alludes to the coming of the Messiah. The heading in Hebrew merely say, “L’David” or “Of David.” In Psa 137, the people were silent, defeated and captive. In this psalm, the people are rejoicing over the fact that Messiah has come and Israel is a nation that has come under his benefits. It says, “I will give thee thanks with all my heart (with no reservations); I will sing praises to thee before the gods (powers, kings and judges-v 1). I will bow down toward thy holy temple (where the Ark was resting and where the Shekinah dwelt, whether it was at the Mishkan or the Ohel David), and give thanks to the name for thy lovingkindness and thy truth; for thou hast magnified thy word even beyond your name (the Scriptures exceeded all the other revelations of himself to mankind-v 2). On the day I called thou didst answer me; thou didst make me bold with strength in my soul (God’s quick response reinforced his faith to withstand his trials-v 3). All the kings of the earth (non-Jews) will give thanks to thee, O Yehovah, when they have heard the words of thy mouth (about the coming of Messiah in the Torah in Isa 2.2-v 4).” And they shall sing of Yehovah (his mercy, truth and peace) for great is the glory (kivod) of Yehovah (shown in creation, the redemption, salvation and his word-v 5). For though Yehovah is exalted (above all things), yet he regards the lowly and he notices those who are humble); but the haughty he knows from afar (He knows their ways and what they do-v 6). Though I walk in the midst of trouble (encircled by distress), thou wilt revive me (assure him of life); thou wilt stretch forth thy hand against the wrath of my enemies (hold back their evil intentions). And thy right hand will save me (his power will deliver him-v 7). Yehovah will accomplish what concern’s me (in delivering him); thy kindness, Yehovah, is everlasting; do not forsake the works of thy hands (let them go undone, especially God’s promises to David and ultimately Messiah-v 8).”

Psa 139.1-24 has the heading, “To the Chief Conductor, A Psalm of David .” It teaches us how impossible it is getting beyond God’s reach It also shows us how David was in God’s thoughts even in the womb, and he was created, along with the number of his days. This reveals the concepts of God’s omnipresence and omniscience. David appeals to God about his innocence and his abhorrence of the wicked.

Psa 138.1-6 talks about how God knows David, “Yehovah, thou hast searched (examined) me and known me (v 1). Thou didst know when I sit down and when I rise up (his conduct and affairs and their circumstances); thou dost understand my thoughts (long before he even thinks them-v 2). Thou dost scrutinize my path and my lying down, and art intimately acquainted with all my ways (God’s knowledge encompasses every phase of life-v 3). Even before there is a word on my tongue (you know what I am going to say-Prov 16.1), Behold (see for yourself, be occupied with), Yehovah, thou dost know it all (and the reason for it-v 4). Thou hast enclosed me behind and before (nothing escapes his eyes and there is nothing that David can do that is not known by Yehovah), and laid thy hand upon me (Yehovah is close to him-v 5). Such knowledge is too wonderful (hidden, concealed, unfathomable) for me; it is too high, I cannot attain to it (it is beyond human comprehension-v 6).”

Psa 139.7-12 tells us that David knew that Yehovah was always with him. It says, “Where can I go from your Spirit (and survive)? Or where can I hide from thy presence (like Adam and Jonah tried to do-v 7). If I ascend to heaven, thou art there; if I make my bed in Sheol, behold, thou art there (meaning there is no extreme location which is beyond his presence-v 8). If I take the wings of dawn (fly as fast as the morning light), if I dwell in the remotest part of the sea (in the farthest, most distant island-v 9), even there thy hand will lead me (omnipresent guidance) and thy right hand will lay hold of me (kindness and mercy will follow him- v10). If I say, ‘Surely the darkness will cover me (so Yehovah can’t see him), even the night around me will be light’ (no distinction between night and day with Yehovah-v 11). even the darkness is not dark to thee (only the wicked think so-Isa 29.15), and the night is bright as the day. Darkness and light are alike to thee (no difference-v 12).”

Psa 139.13-16 speaks of how wonderfully David (and us) were created and how all his days are ordained for him. This teaches portion shows us that a baby in the womb is a living, human being and it speaks against those who would say otherwise to justify abortion. It says, “For thou didst form my inward parts (literally “kidneys”); thou didst weave (fashion) me in my mother’s womb (v 13). I will give thanks to thee, for I am fearfully (awesomely) and wonderfully (distinctly, distinguished) made; wonderful (extraordinary) are thy works (of creation overall), and my soul knows it very well (but God’s ways are still hidden and beyond his capabilities to understand-v 14). My frame (bones, skeleton structure) was not hidden from thee, when I was made (conceived) in secret (in private), and skillfully wrought in the depths of the earth (David compares the womb to the earth where seeds grow-v 15). Thine eyes have seen my unformed substance (unshaped mass, the embryo) and in thy book they were all written (God’s eternal designs and plans and how David would fit in), the days that were ordained for me (Eph 1.4; Matt 6.27(, when as yet there was not one of them (v 16).”

Psa 139.17-18 speaks of how Yehovah knows and cares for David. It begins, “How precious (weighty) also are thy thoughts to me, O God! How vast is the sum of them (can’t be counted-v 17)! If I should count them, they would outnumber the sand. When I awake (after falling asleep in trying to count them), I am still with thee (still contemplating Yehovah-v 18).”

Psa 139.19-22 tells us that David longs for God’s justice on the rashim (wicked). He says, “O that thou wouldst slay the wicked (rasha), O God; depart from me, therefore, men of bloodshed (they opposed God-v 19). For they speak against thee wickedly (with evil intent), and thine enemies take your name in vain (emptily-v 20). Do I not hate those who hate thee, Yehovah (their works, heresies that poison others against the truth)? And do I not quarrel with those who rise up against thee (regard them as enemies; like he would if someone came against his earthly father-v 21)? I hate them with the utmost hatred (since they hate Yehovah and the Torah); they have become my enemies (v 22).

Psa 139.23-24 is a prayer of humility and David says, “Search me (examine), O God, and know my heart (his mind, soul, spirit, kidneys, bowels, etc); try me and know my anxious thoughts (know me at my deepest level-Heb 4.12-v 23); and see if there be any hurtful way in me (point out my character flaws and the things that need correcting), and lead me in the everlasting way (the Torah, his will, the righteous path-v 24).”

Psa 140.1-13 is another psalm for the Levitical Choir director written by David when he was in some distress, but the exact circumstances are unknown.

Psa 140.1-3 is a prayer to be delivered and he says, “Rescue (release) me, O Yehgovah, from the wicked man (“adam” or common man), preserve me from the violent man (“Ish” or prominentt man-v 1) who devise evil things (schemes) in their heart (planning it); they continually stir up (gather) wars (David’s enemies gave Saul status reports on where David was and caused Saul to gather his army for war for instance-v 2). They sharpen their tongues as a serpent (especially Doeg and Saul, who were responsible for the death of the priests at Nob, and then we have Absalom and Ahitophel later, but this also alludes to the False Messiah and the False Prophet); poison of a viper is under their lips (their fangs pump poison into a bite-v 3).”

Psa 140.4-5 is another prayer for Yehovah to protect him from the wicked, “Keep me (guard), Yehovah, from the hands of the wicked (rasha); preserve me from the violent man (like Saul, Absalom, Doeg, Ahitophel, etc), who have purposed to trip up (jostle) my feet (and not allow him to rest-v 4). The proud (arrogant) hid a snare (a trap) for me, and cords’ they have spread a net by the wayside (literally “circle” meaning the circuit where I walk); they have set snares (private and secret) for me (v 5).”

Psa 140.6-8 says David needs God’s help to avoid these things, “I said to Yehovah. ‘Thou art my God; Give ear, Yehovah, to the voice of my supplications (his appeals; it was humanly impossible to escape-v 6). Yehovah, the Lord (adonai), the strength of my salvation, thou hast covered (protected) my head in the day of battle (like armor, weapons-v 7). Do not grant, Yehovah, the desires of the wicked (to trap him and eradicate him); do not promote his evil devices (so that they succeed), lest they exalt themselves (and grow stronger). Selah (pause and think about what is said, prostrate-v 8).”

Psa 140.9-11 is a prayer to stop the wicked ones against David, “As for the head (rosh, chief) of those who surround me (Saul or some other leader), may the mischief of their lips cover them (the trouble they intended for me with their lips come upon their own heads -v 9). May burning coals fall upon them (like the wrath of God at Sodom the three other cities of the plain); may they be cast into the fire (that they ignited by their own lips), into deep pits (burial pits) from which they cannot arise (v 10). May a slanderer (literally “man of the tongue”) not be established in the earth (like Cain, not tolerated in any location); may evil hunt the violent man speedily (evil has ingrained his nature, it hunts them down and will eventually cause his destruction-v 11).”

Psa 140.12-13 shows David’s confidence in Yehovah, “I know (that you know what these evil men are thinking) that Yehovah will maintain the cause of the afflicted (and will deal with them) and justice (will be carried out) for the poor (who don’t have the means or influence to stand up to their lies and evil-v 12). Surely the righteous will give thanks to thy name (that the wicked have been defeated); the upright will dwell in thy presence (in the Messianic Kingdom and the Olam Haba-v 13).”

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