1 Chr 9.1-44 tells us about those who first settled in Jerusalem after they returned from the Babylonian exile. It concludes with the genealogy of Saul, the first king of Israel. 1 Chr 9.1 says, “All Israel was enrolled by genealogies” but we have already seen that two tribes were left off the rolls. Here is an important concept. In some cases, when the Scriptures say “all” it means “many” and is not to be understood as literally “all.” It says they were written in the “Book of the Kings of Israel” and this is not referring to the Book of Kings in the Tanak. This refers to the annals, journals and diaries of each king. They made sure these lists were accurate and used as references for scriptural books as a resource.
The first ones to return were Israelites (common people), priests, Levites and the Netharim (Temple servants). They were common people (Josh 9.27; Ezra 8.20) like the Gibeonites. In addition, others from Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim and Manasseh took advantage of the proclamation of Cyrus (Koresh). These are four classes had existed before the captivity (Israelites, priests, Levites, Netharim). The duties of the Levites (v 14) had been passed down from generation to generation.
Gatekeepers are discussed in the Mishnah, Tamid 1.1, and the priests were stationed in three places. They were at the Beit Avtinas, Beit Ha Nitzotz (the Flame) and the Beit Ha Moked (Hearth). The Levites were stationed in twenty-one places. The “Memunim” (supervisors) were placed over the work of the Avodah (services) and they were the keepers of the threshholds of the tent until the Temple was built.
1 Chr 9.20 says, “Phineas (Pinchas) the son of Eleazar was the ruler over them previously” so this goes back to when they entered the land (Num 3.32). There were 212 gatekeepers and that number was fixed by David. The Levites were enrolled by genealogy in their cities (v 22) and they lived in certain cities and they came to serve in courses, called a Mishmar, from the town they were assigned to, at their assigned times. The gatekeepers were on the four sides (north, south, east and west).
In the Temple, the north was seen as the Beit Ha Moked. The west was seen as Beit Ha Otzrot, the south was seen as Bait Avtinas and the east was seen as Beit Ha Nitzotz. The gatekeepers opened buildings and gates, and the Levites not assigned as musicians or gatekeepers did this. They could not go near the altar because they were not priests. For information on their ministry, go to the tractate “Tamid” in the Mishnah. 1 Chr 9.33 talks about the “singers” and they lived in certain chambers in the Temple (Beit Avtinas) where there were lockers, a bakery, and a chamber for the singers. In the northeast chamber called Beit Ha Nitzotz there was a choir chamber.
1 Chr 9.35-44 is a repetition of the family of Saul. It is placed here to connect the following history of the kings of Judah all the way to the Babylonian Captivity in Second Chronicles. It is also listed to show that God did not wipe out the line of Saul and that his descendants lived in the days of Ezra and the return from exile.
Now, all the previous nine chapters have established the history and genealogies of Israel. Now we are going to get into the history of the Jewish kingdom and what it can teach us spiritually.
1 Chr 10.1-14 begins to tell us about the last battle of King Saul and his death (1 Sam 31.1). He died because he committed a “sin unto death” (Ezra 3.20; Deut 32.39; 1 John 5.16). He did not keep the word of the Lord by not waiting for Samuel and for sparing the Amalekites. He also sought counsel form a medium rather than the Lord. As a result, Yehovah killed him (v 14) and turned the kingdom over to David. Saul was made king so he could save Israel from the Philistines (1 Sam 9.16) and failed. God used the Philistines as a tool when Saul had to die.
1 Chr 11.1-47 tells us about the anointing of David as king on Hebron (“communion”-1 Sam 15.1). Hebron is an idiom for “heaven” in Jewish thought and it is important because the Cave of Machpelah is there. Herod restructured the burial place of Abraham there (called “Abraham’s Bosom”, another idiom for heaven or paradise-Luke 16.22) according to the pattern of the Temple.
After the account of David we have his Givorim (mighty men) and other notable warriors and some of their exploits (v 10-25). We will also pick up three words for a Jewish king in 1 Chr 11.2. We have “king”, “shepherd” and “prince” (Zech 11.4-8, 13.7; Micah 5.5; Ezek 37.24, 44.3). We also have a list of David’s mighty men (Givorim) and some of them were non-Jews who followed the God of Israel, like Ithmah the Moabite and Zelek the Ammonite for instance. Uriah is called a Hittite because he either was a convert to the God of Israel, or he was a Jew who lived among the Hittites. In any case, this alludes to the fact that God has planned to include non-Jewish believers with a Torah based faith in Yeshua in the establishment of his kingdom, led by a descendant of King David.
As we enter 1 Chr 12.1-40 we need to keep in mind that the Messiah, the son of David, will also gather around him a diverse group of people, made up of Jews and non-Jews. 1 Chr 12.1-2 tells us that even the tribal relatives of King Saul came to David, and even among his mighty men. They chose David over their own relative because they knew God was with him.
1 Chr 12.8 gives us the warlike characteristics of the Gadites. These allude to how we should be in our spiritual battles. They were men of valor and courage, and they had the heart of a warrior. They were trained in battle, as we should be. They could handle a shield and a spear (short range weapons) and they had the temperament of a confident warrior. They were also “swift as gazelles” which means they were mobile and ready to move to the next battle.
1 Chr 12.15 says they crossed the Jordan at a very dangerous time, when the Jordan flooded in the spring (Nisan is the first month) to join David. They had a determination and a strong devotion to him, as we should be to our Messiah. We learn in 1 Chr 12.16-22 that David accepts many soldiers who came to him at Ziklag. David went out to meet them, especially the ones from Benjamin and Judah. He said if they came peacefully, he would accept them, but if they came to deceive him, then the Lord would judge them. Amasai, David’s nephew, prophesied and said that these people belonged to David and they knew God helped him, and that is why they came.
Many people defected from King Saul before he died because they knew Yehovah was not with Saul (v 19). This alludes to our decision to leave the false congregations and teachers we were with previously because we finally realized God was not with them either. Day by day men came to him until there was a great army, like “the army of God.”
1 Chr 12.23-37 gives us the numbers of those who were armed and ready for war when David was in Hebron. This alludes to “heaven” and “Abraham’s Bosom” as we have said before. David reigned there for seven years, and Yeshua will reign as king in heaven seven years, gathering his army together in the Naztal (Rapture) and they will go with him when he returns to reign in Jerusalem just like David did. 1 Chr 12.32 tells us something very interesting about the sons of Issachar. It says they “understood the times with knowledge of what Israel should do, their chiefs were two hundred and all their kinsmen were at their command. This verse tells us that they knew the “times and seasons” (1 Thes 5.1) because they studied the Torah. In a spiritual battle you want to be on the right side, even though the leader may be accused of being an “outlaw” (David).
1 Chr 12.38-40 tells us that the soldiers who came to David could “draw up in battle formation” or keep ranks (were well disciplined). They came with a complete heart to Hebron to make David king over all Israel. The people rejoiced together for three days, eating and drinking because the civil war was over and now they were united as one, with one king. It will be the same way when Yeshua is made king and he returns to reign in Jerusalem. Believers will be rejoicing when Yeshua is king over all the earth, and there will be one Lord and his name will be one (Zech 14.9).
1 Chr 13.1-14 deals with the same events already discussed in 2 Sam 6. The Ark is being brought to Jerusalem on a new cart. Evidently, they saw that the Philistines sent the Ark back to Israel on a new cart (1 Sam 6.7) so they thought this was the proper thing to do, but it wasn’t. It was not to be carried by Israel on a cart, but carried by the Levites, from the family of Kohath, with the poles provided. The cart was on rough ground, and when the Ark became unsteady on the cart, Uzzah (man’s strength) put out his hand to steady it and was struck dead. He was the son of Abinadab who had cared for the Ark up to this point (2 Sam 6.3).
Uzzah’s death angered David, but David did not understand what Yehovah was teaching. Man needed a mediator and that could not be accomplished by “man’s strength” (Uzzah). He was also showing that the Ark was a type of the Messiah and does not need man’s help. He was also showing that they were doing things contrary to what the Torah had instructed by bringing the Ark up on a cart. As a result, the Ark remained outside the city in the house of a man named Obed-Edom the Gittite. He was a Levite from the Levitical city of Gath-rimmon (Josh 21.20-25; 1 Chr 16.5, 26.4).
1 Chr 14.1-17 tells us about the message of King Hiram (the father of the Hiram in Solomon’s day), and then tells us about David’s wives and children. It also discusses two battles that David fought with the Philistines and his victories over them. The chapter concludes with the fame of David and how it spread to other nations, and how they were struck with fear on account of him.
1 Chr 15.1-29 is about how David prepared a place for the Ark and how he gathered the Levites and priests to help move it to Jerusalem. This was a cause of great celebration, even though David’s wife Michal (Saul’s daughter) disapproved of how David was acting. David had prepared a tent for the Ark, but this was not the Mishkan. That was in Gibeon (1 Chr 21.29).
David rebuked Michal and basically told her, “If you think my dancing was vile, I plan to be more so.” As a result, Michal, the daughter of Saul, had no child by David to the day of her death. The seed of Saul and the seed of David never mixed. Spiritually, this is what is being taught here.
As we have said before, Saul is a picture of the unbeliever and the first king over the kingdom of God, Adam. David is a picture of the believer and the second Adam, the Messiah, who will be given the kingdom. The seed of the unbeliever can never mix with the seed of the Messiah (Lev 19.19, Gen 3.15). The two kinds of seed (God’s kingdom and Ha Satan’s kingdom) can never mix. However, that hasn’t stopped Ha Satan from trying to mix his seed (corrupt teaching, Replacement Theology, etc) into God’s teaching (the Torah). God’s word is the only good, unmixed seed (Matt 13.1-30; Luke 8.4-15). The parable (aggadah) of the Sower and the Seed teaches this concept.
We will pick up here in 1 Chr 16.1-43 in Part 3.