Exo 13.21-22 tells us that a pillar of cloud guided them by day, and a pillar of fire by night. As a result, they could have traveled at night also. That brings us to some of the same terminology in Isa 4.1-6, where we have a marriage. The seven women alludes to the 7000 years. The “one man” is the Messiah. The righteous among the people over the years are becoming one with Yeshua.
The phrase “In that day” means “when Messiah comes” and the “Branch” is another term for the Messiah and he will be the adornment of those who have survived the Birth Pains. The Lord will wash away the filth and purge the blood from the midst of Jerusalem by the Spirit of Judgment and the Spirit of Burning. This phrase relates to a ceremony in the Temple at the beginning of the Sabbath. Water was brought into the Temple by a conduit called the “Amah” and it was “stopped up” so the water would back up into the Temple courts on the Sabbath. Then they would wash down all the blood that has accumulated for the last 6 days. They also whitewash the Altar. The first things that happens on the Sabbath is the Temple is cleansed.
The Birth Pains will do the same thing at the beginning of the Sabbath of God, or the Day of the Lord. Then the Lord will create a “cloud by night” and a “brightness of a flaming fire by night.” Over all the glory will be a canopy (Hebrew “chuppah” meaning a wedding canopy). There will be a shelter (sukkah) to give shade by day, and a refuge and protection from the storm and rain. Where does Isaiah get this terminology? From the Exodus from Egypt. Also in these verses we have direct references to Rosh Ha Shannah, Yom Kippur and Sukkot. So far, we have had the peshat (literal) story of the Exodus, then we have the “pakod yifkod” visitation when Yeshua comes. Then we have another level in the Messianic Redemption.
Exo 14.1-8 tells us about “two camps.” They left Sukkot and camped at Etham. From there they journeyed and camped at Pi-Hahirot, by the sea. This is the Gulf of Suez, called the Yom Suf (Red Sea) back then. Pharaoh doesn’t come after them because they have exceeded the three days, he comes after them because because he was told they had left (14.5). This is because he heard that the tomb of Joseph was emptied, and this is how they knew that they may be leaving Egypt for good. This has a messianic implication as well. How does Satan know he has been defeated? The tomb of Joseph (of Arimathea) is empty.
In Exo 14.9-12 we learn that the people have already forgotten their “lamb.” They have not even gone three days into the desert when they begin to be afraid and start complaining. Exo 19.4 gives us some insight into this situation by using the phrase “bore you on eagles’s wings.” This means things were not easy but God brought them through trouble. This same phrase is seen in Rev 12.14 because the Lord is going to protect Israel as they flee into the wilderness from the False Messiah (a type of Pharaoh). You don’t see how the Lord has to bring Israel “kicking and screaming” to where he wants them. You have the impression that bringing them out on “eagle’s wings” means it was a smooth ride, but that is not what that phrase means. Rev 12 is talking about a future level in the Birth Pains. By looking at the past we are seeing the future.
Exo 14.13-18 tells us Moses informs the people to stand by and see the salvation (Hebrew “yeshua”) of the Lord. He also tells them that the Egyptians they are seeing today will be no more. God will fight for Israel and to stop crying out to him, he is moving. They were to move forward. Psa 136.13 says that he divided the into “parts.” The midrashim says there were twelve “parts” or “paths” through the sea, one for each tribe. We don’t know for sure so we can’t take this literally. But, the idea was there.
Exo 14.19-25 says there was a cloud, along with darkness, yet it gave light at night. Yet the one did not come near the other all night. A strong east wind swept the sea back, and the sea was made into dry land, and the waters were divided (like in Gen 1). This rules out a strong wind blowing in a shallow sea because there was a wall of water on two sides, and they walked into the depths of the sea (Hebrew “tehomot” which means the subterranean depths-Exo 15.8). In other words they were very deep, and the waters were congealed on two sides looking like a mountain.
The “morning watch” in v 24 is about 4 am to sunrise, and Pharaoh and his army were in the sea going after them. John 6.16-21 takes place at Passover, and this tells us that there was a “strong wind” and the talmidim were on the Sea of Galilee in boats. Yeshua is seen walking on the water, or having dominion over the sea, and it was very dark. We know that they were all delivered, and this story alludes to Israel at the Red Sea. The sea is seen as the dominion of Leviathan (False Messiah) and Satan. Yeshua has dominion over the sea (Isa 57.20; Job 26.12-13) like Moses did, using a dead branch (his staff was a picture of Yeshua being lifted up over the sea, showing dominion). Matt 14.25 says that this incident was during the fourth watch, and this was the same time as the “morning watch” in Exo 14.24. This also alludes to the 4000 years, then Messiah came having dominion over unconverted humanity (Isa 57.20). See also Mark 7.48.
It is interesting to note that the same “road” that carried Israel to life carried the Egyptians to death. Yeshua walked on the water at the same time Israel and Pharaoh were in the sea. Moses held his staff (a dead branch) over the sea, showing dominance by the power of God (14.16). God caused the chariot wheels to swerve and made them drive with difficulty. The wheels were restrained, became stiff, locked and clogged.
Exo 14.26-31 tells us that Moses stretched out his hand and the waters came back over the Egyptians. This happened at dawn, and God overthrew Pharaoh and his army (Psa 106.6-11; Psa 74.12-13; Psa 136 15). The waters were like a wall on their right and on their left (14.29). Leviathan is mentioned in some of these verses, and this creature is a seven-headed beast rising out of the sea. This alludes to the future Messianic Redemption being mentioned in verses that are talking about the literal coming out of Egypt.
Israel is not the possession of a succeeding Pharaoh because this Pharaoh died with no successor, But, Egypt has just lost their king, 600 chariots and an army. This event caused a huge vacuum in Egypt militarily. Very little is known about the Pharaoh of the Exodus, but what is known is that with the fall of the 13th Dynasty in Egypt, there was a period of great instability and chaos. This will be termed the Second Intermediate Period. Some have suggested that the Amalekites were coming to Egypt after hearing of the chaos and the downfall of Pharaoh and his army when Moses and the Israelites ran into them in Exo 17. After the battle, the Amalekites went to Egypt and took over, being called “Hyksos” or foreign rulers.
So, there was the “Old Kingdom” and then we have the “First Intermediate Period” when Abraham came into Egypt. Then we have the “Middle Kingdom” period which is the 12th and 13th dynasties. The 12th dynasty is when Joseph came in. His Pharaoh was Amenemhat III. Then we read that there was a new Pharaoh who did not know Joseph. The scholars surmise that this was near the beginning of the 13th dynasty.
Now, we are going to have the 14th, 15th, 16th and 17th dynasties, and this is what is called the Hyksos Period, or “Second Intermediate Period, succeeded by the 18th dynasty, or “New Kingdom.” The 14th, 15th and 16th dynasty will be with the Hyksos (“foreign rulers”). The 17th dynasty will be when the Egyptians fought against the Hyksos, and then the 18th dynasty began. Seti I is part of that, and he was the father of Ramses II. We do not believe that Ramses II was the Pharaoh of the Exodus, contrary to what Hollywood says.
In Part 17 we will pick up here.