In 1 Chr 23.1-32 we find that David turns over the kingdom to Solomon. There were other sons who had a claim to the throne (like Adonijah), but David knew that it was the will of Yehovah to have Solomon, and David favored him. David organized the priests (kohanim) and the Levites (Levi’im) to help Solomon with the Temple and the administration of the kingdom. These divisions did not come from David, but were organized by Yehovah (1 Chr 28.11-19). The Levites were numbered at first according to Num 4.1-3 (from 30 years and up), and there were 38,000 qualified Levites. They were also officers and judges in the civil government also. Gatekeepers numbered 4,000 and they provided security. They made sure that only those who were ready could come into the Temple. Another 4,000 were singers and musicians.
All of these were separated into “mishmarot” (divisions) among the sons of Gershon, Merari and Kohath. These family groupings had certain responsibilities. Gershon took care of the skins that covered the Mishakn, Kohath took care of the furniture including the Aron (Ark), the Shulchan Lechem Ha Pannim (Table of Bread) and so on. They also worked under the High Priest. Merari took care of the structural aspects of the Mishkan (boards, sockets, rings, etc). Now, according to the last words of David, the sons of Levi were counted from 20 years old and upward (v 24-27). They had finally reached the “rest” promised by the Lord and they did not need to carry the Mishkan anymore. The service of the Temple was elaborate and more Levites were needed now.
1 Chr 24.1-16 tells us that the priests were divided into 24 courses, or mishmarot. Lots were cast to see when each mishmar came to serve in the Temple. The first lot began to serve at the beginning of Nisan and each mishmar served one week, coming in and leaving on the Sabbath (2 Kings 11.4-8). All the priests would serve on the festivals. Lists like this and the genealogies are passed over many times but they can give us a lot of information if you know what you are looking for.
For example, 1 Chr 24.10 tells us about the the mishmar of Abijah. This tells us what time of year Zechariah came to serve in the Temple in Luke 1.5-17. He was of the division (mishmar) of Abijah and that means he was in the Temple with his mishmar about ten weeks into the religious calendar, about mid-June (we will see why later). It was the eighth course and that indicate a new beginning and that is when the angel appeared to him and told him he was going to have a son, who would be the forerunner of the Messiah. After they served for one week in the first half of the religious year, they would start over and come to serve a second week in the second half of the year.
Knowing this will give us the date of Yeshua’s birth at the festival of Sukkot. In order to see this as a whole, and to see when Yeshua was born, we want to go to the book “Rosh Ha Shanah and the Messianic Kingdom to Come” by Joseph Good, P. 155-157, 161-162. Good says, “An easy to document, but not well known fact, is the date of the birth of Yeshua. This is done by establishing several things: (1) The date that Gabriel the angel tells Zechariah, the soon to be father of Yochanon, about his son’s birth. (The birth date of Yochanon (John) is established by going forward nine months, the term of pregnancy). (2) The approximate date of Miriam’s (Mary’s) conception. (3) The date of Herod’s death.”
“The date that Gabriel the angel told Zechariah that he and his wife were going to have Yochanon is established from the following. Luke 1.5 states that Zechariah is a priest of the course of Abijah. King david, according to 1 Chr 24, had divided the priestly families into twenty-four groups. Each group was called a course, named after the head of that particular family. each course served for one week in the first half of the years, and for another week in the second half of the year. This was in addition to to the weeks of Hag Ha Matzah, Shavuot and Sukkot, when all the courses were required to be present (Deut 16.16). Therefore, the first course served for the first week of the year (Aviv); the second course, the second week; then all the courses, the third, because it was Hag Ha Matzah, and so on. 1 Chr 24.10 lists the course of Abijah as the eighth course. This course would serve the tenth week of the first half of the year, having allowed two weeks for Hag Ha Matzah and Shavuot. It is the time that Zechariah receives the prophecy of Yochanon’s birth.”
Due to the laws of separation (Lev 12.5, 15.19, 25), two additional weeks have to be counted. Allowing for this and going forward a normal pregnancy, the time of Yochanon’s birth (if this is the first half of the year) would be approximately Pesach, when it is expected that Elijah would appear. Six months following Elizabeth’s conception, the angel Gabriel is sent to Miriam (Mary), the cousin of Elizabeth. Starting at Chanukah, which begins on Kislev 25 and continues for eight days, and counting through the nine months of Miriam’s pregnancy brings one to to the approximate time of Sukkot.”
It is apparent that as long as Herod was alive, they could not appear at the Temple. There fore, if the approximate date of Herod’s death could be determined, it would establish the season of Yeshua’s birth. The Jewish historian, Josephus, who lived during the first century C.E. documents in detail Herod’s death. Josephus relates that Herod became very ill immediately following an act of impiety against the priesthood, at which time an eclipse of the moon occurred. This eclipse, the only one mentioned by Josephus, happened on March 13 in the year of the Julian period 4710, and the fourth year before the Common Era. Herod’s illness lasted several months and is documented in great detail as being painful and distressful. Many times cures were sought and brought about temporary relief, however, nothing prevented imminent death. According to Josephus’ calculations, Herod’s death occurred about September, in the fourth year before the Common Era. Therefore, with the knowledge that Herod died in autumn, the same time of year as Sukkot, and that his death was within forty days of the birth of Yeshua, it is established that Yeshua was born at this time of year.” So, as we can see by these courses listed in 1 Chr 24.7-18, much information can be gleaned in regards to the birth of Yeshua God put these type of things in the Scriptures for a reason.
1 Chr 25.1-31 tells us about the musicians that were separated for the Temple music. They were the sons of Asaph, Heman and Jeduthan. In 1 Chr 26.1-32 we have a further account of how the Levites were divided to serve in other offices. In 1 Chr 27.1-34 we have an account of how the army was divided into twelve mishmarot, and who would command them. This is the reserve army that served one month out of the year (27.1). The Givorim (Mighty Men) commanded a region or district, each being an army to itself. Each served one month and the tribal chiefs took care of any internal affairs or issues. Stores and supplies from the various regions were used for the maintenance of the army. 1 Chr 27.30 says that donkeys were used because horses were not used much, and saddles were not developed. The terrain was rough so donkeys were better, sort of an “all terrain” animal.
1 Chr 28.10-21 contains some very important information. David had intended to build a permanent home for the Ark of the Covenant. The Ark was seen as the “footstool” of God on earth. He reigned and sat in heaven, and rested his foot on the earth (Psa 99.5, 132.7-8, Isa 66.1). The imagery also had Yehovah “sitting” on the kipporet of the Ark (throne) and the chest as a footstool. We will also see in this 1 Chr 28.5-7 that the kings were seen as being adopted by Yehovah and the actual son of God (2 Sam 7.14). We will also see that the kings sat on the throne of the “Kingdom of the Lord (Yehovah” over Israel. The Kingdom of Heaven (or God) is a variation of this (1 Chr 13.8). The Term “Sons of God” became a title for the kings (Luke 3.38; Mark 16.16; John 1.49; Psa 2.6-7).
In 1 Chr 28.11-19, David was given the plans for the Temple in its fullness, but it will come about in stages through the years with later kings. David gave the plan to Solomon but the plans came from God (v 19). The plan included the courts of the house, the surrounding rooms, the storehouses and the Mishmarot (divisions) of the priests and Levites, and for all the work (melakah) of the service (avodah) of the Temple.
God gave to David, and David to Solomon, the plan for the golden utensils for every kind of service, and for the silver utensils for every kind of service. He also gave the weight of gold for the golden lampstands (plural) and their golden lamps, with the weight of each lampstand and its lamps; the weight of of silver for the silver lampstands, with the weight of each lampstand and its lamps according to the use of each lampstand.
He also had the gold weight for the tables of showbread; for each table and silver for the silver tables. Also, the forks, the basins, and the pitchers of pure Gold; and for the golden bowls with the weight for each bowl; and for the silver bowls with the weight for each bowl; and for the altar of incense refined gold by weight; and gold for the model of the chariot (“merkavah” or Ark) the cherubim that spread out (their wings) and covered the ark of the covenant of Yehovah (1 Kings 6.23-about 14 feet high).
The 1 Chr 28.19 says, “All (this) Yehovah made me understand in writing by his hand upon me, all the details of this pattern (2 Chr 35.3-4).” In other words, all of this was given to David by Yehovah, who made him understand in writing by his hand upon David. This included all the details of this pattern (“tavnit” or blueprint, like he did with Moses with the Mishkan in Exo 25.8-9). This is the Temple in its fullness, after many years and many stages. David and Solomon began the process. The rabbis, sages and priests did not have the authority to institute something that God did not put into the Scriptures. As a result, anything related to the Temple could not be “added to or deleted from.”
The struggle over the Temple Mount and the Temple has been going on for a long time (1 Kings 12.28, 14.26; 2 Kings 14.12-14, 16.10-18, 18.15; 2 Chr 32 ; 2 Kings 21.1-7, 25.9-13; Ezra 4.1-23; Dan 11 with Antiochus and Chanukah; Pompey in 63 B.C.; Yeshua’s predictions and Herod’s rebuilding projects; the Roman Wars with the Jews in 70 A.D.; the Bar Kochba revolt in 132 A.D.; Emperor Julian tries to rebuild the Temple in 363 A.D.; problems in 463, 629 and 715 A.D.; the Crusaders; 1917, 1948, 1967, 1973 all the way to the problems today.
1 Chr 29.1-30 tells us about how David gave provisions for the Temple and how joyful he and all the people were in doing so (v 9). Then David says a prayer for Solomon and offers korbanot when placing Solomon on the throne for ma second time. The first time was when Adonijah revolted. 1 Chr 29.10-13 is read on Rosh Ha Shanah because it deals with the enthronement of Solomon.
1 Chr 29.27 tells us that David reigned over Israel for forty years; and he reigned in Hebron seven years and in Jerusalem thirty-three years. Now, this is a very eschatological verse and is full of meaning. Hebron (meaning “communion”) is where Abraham is buried, and it is believed that the resurrection from the dead will start there. Hebron is also called “Abraham’s Bosom” and it is an idiom for heaven.
The resurrection was rehearsed every day in the Temple. Before the sun was up and it was still dark, a priest would go and see if the time had come for the morning Tamid lamb to be slain (Num 28). If it had come, he that perceived it would say, “It is daylight” or “Bat Chai” in Hebrew. Then he would say, “The whole east is alight.” Then they would say, “As far as Hebron?” And the priest would answer, “Yes.” So, the sun rising over Hebron was a type or symbolic of the resurrection. We also rehearse the resurrection every morning when we wake up.
So, David reigned in Hebron (heaven) for seven years. Then he comes to Jerusalem and he reigned another thirty-three years, the same age Yeshua was when he rode into Jerusalem as the King of Israel and the Messiah. Eschatologically, we will come to the end of the Olam Ha Zeh (6000 years from creation called the “Present World or age”) on Tishri 1, year 6001. Then we enter into the Atid Lavo (future or coming age), also known as the “Day of the Lord” or “Lord’s Day.” This period will last 1000 years.
On Tishri 1, the Natzal (Rapture or gathering) will occur and we will have the resurrection of the righteous dead (1 Thes 4.13-18; 1 Cor 15.50-52). Yeshua will be coronated as King on that day (Tishri 1 or Rosh Ha Shanah) and he will rule from heaven (Hebron) for seven years (like David), which will run concurrently with the seven year Birth-pains on earth. At the end of the seven years, Yeshua will leave heaven (Hebron) with his bride and return to Jerusalem on Yom Kippur to rule (like David) for the remaining 993 years of the Atid Lavo (Matt 24.29-31; Dan 7.13-14, 21-22).
1 Chr 29.28-31 tells us about the death of David, and he was a great king and his greatness lives on because of his connection to Yeshua the Messiah. One of the titles Yeshua has is “son of david” which not only denotes he is a descendant, but also the king. We can learn many things from the life of David. He came to the throne through a sea of sorrows, well documented in the Book of Psalms, and we have our sorrows, too. David was just a man who sinned in the matter with Uriah, and had other sins, and he suffered greatly because of them also. But, he repented and his sins could not surpass the eternal mercy of God. His guilt was taken away and he was restored, and this should give us great comfort and encouragement. Yehovah is a great God, and his mercy endures forever.