Isa 54.1-17 speaks of the Redemption and is a prophecy of the future fruitfulness of Jerusalem and that she would have many children(49.21). This is in fulfillment of the promises to the fathers, and that the Messiah would have spiritual descendants as seen in Isa 53.10 as well.
v 1…”Shout for joy, O barren one (Jerusalem, not that she never had children but since the captivity she had been robbed of her offspring. The city had given birth to no more since the deportation), you who have borne no child; break forth into shouting and cry aloud, you who have not travailed (they are in exile); for the sons of the desolate one (which she now was) will be more numerous than the sons of the married woman” says the Lord. (what she was before the exile).
v 2…”Enlarge the place of your tent (because children are coming and she will need more room), stretch out the curtains of your dwellings, spare not; lengthen your cords, and strengthen your pegs (of Jerusalem-Jer 31.38-40; Isa 26.15, 33.20-more inhabitants are coming).
v 3…For you will spread abroad to the right and to the left (the reason why the “tent” needed to be large and strong. Right and left means north and south); and your descendants (seed) will posses nations and they will resettle desolate cities (be inhabited; inherit the earth-Psa 37.9-11; Isa 60.21, 65.9).
v 4…”Fear not, for you will not be put to shame (redemption is at the door); neither feel humiliated, for you will not be disgraced; but you will forget the shame of your youth (Egyptian bondage and former defeats) and the reproach of your widowhood (Babylonian Captivity) you will remember no more (won’t be able to-Rev 22.2; Isa 65.17-23).
v 5…”For your husband (literally “husbands’) is your maker (“makers”), whose name is the Lord of hosts (Yehovah Tzavao- her widowhood is not real, as in Jer 51.5; Yehovah still lives); and your redeemer (goel) is the Holy One of Israel, who is called the God of all the earth (has the power).
v 6…”For the Lord (Yehovah) has called you, like a wife, forsaken and grieved in spirit; even like a wife of one’s youth when she is rejected” (he is displeased with her, but doesn’t hate her), says your God.
v 7…”For a brief moment (the seventy year captivity) I forsook you, but with great compassion I will gather you.
v 8..”.In an outburst of anger I hid my face from you for a moment; but with everlasting lovingkindness I will have compassion on you,” says the Lord your Redeemer.
v 9…For this (at the coming of Messiah) is like the days of Noah for me; when I swore that the waters of Noah (Gen 9.9) should not flood the earth again. So (in like manner) I have sworn (an oath) that I will not be angry with you, nor rebuke you (this is a prophecy that Jerusalem will never be destroyed again when Messiah comes).
v 10…”For the mountains may be removed and the hills may shake, but my lovingkindness will not be removed from you, and my covenant of peace will not be shaken (Abrahamic Covenant),” says the Lord (Yehovah) who has compassion on you (this should also comfort us to believe in God’s promises).
v 11…O afflicted one (Jerusalem), storm-tossed and not comforted (Lam 1.16-17), behold, I will set your stones (of the city) in fair colors (they will stand out in glory compared to the ground, a beautiful color) and your foundations I will lay in sapphire (Rev 21.18-21).
v 12…Moreover, I will make your battlements of rubies, and your gates of crystal, and your entire wall of precious stones (this alludes to the breast piece of the high priest with twelve stones upon which the names of the twelve tribes was written. Isaiah sketches Jerusalem in the same way that Rev 21 does).
v 13…And all your sons will be taught of the Lord (Yehovah will teach the Torah-2 Tim 3.16; Isa 30.20; Joel 2.13; John 13.13); and the well-being (“shalom”, peace) of your sons will be great.
v 14…In righteousness (as defined by the Torah) you will be established (in thought and deed; there is a difference between well said and well done); you will be far from oppression, for you will not fear (because there is nothing to fear, Messiah has come); and from terror for , for it will not come near you.
v 15…If anyone fiercely assails you (to do their will like Assyria and Babylon did) it will not be from me (not my will or counsel), whoever assails you will fall because of you.
v 16…Behold, I myself have created the smith (who makes the weapons) who blows the fire of coals, and brings out a weapon for its work (they are in God’s power); and I have created the destroyer to ruin (the military men use these weapons to destroy, but it is Yehovah who controls them, that is why he is called the Lord of hosts or armies).
v 17…No weapon that is formed against you shall prosper; and every tongue that accuses you in judgment you will condemn (they won’t attack Jerusalem with any permanent success). This is the heritage of the servants of the Lord (heirs of the future redemption), and their vindication (righteousness ) is from me (as a gift), declares the Lord (Israel’s enemies will condemn them, but God will justify them-Rom 8.33).