v1…Wine (yayin) is a mocker (produces scorn in the drinker), strong drink (shekar) a brawler (noisy), and whoever is intoxicated by it is not wise.
v 2…The terror of the king (spread by his wrath) is like the growling (roaring) of a lion (before the lion acts); he who provokes him to anger forfeits (sins against) his life (by risking his life).
v 3…Keeping away (ceasing) from strife is an honor for a man, but any fool (Hebrew “eviyl” is the same as a kesil) will quarrel (start one, burst out).
v 4…The sluggard (lazy) does not plow after the autumn (because of winter, it is an excuse to not work), so he begs (the only “work” he’ll do) during the harvest and has nothing (his field has yielded no food).
v 5…A plan (counsel) in the heart of man is like deep water (hidden, deep), but a man of understanding draws it out (by questions or observing his actions).
v 6…Many a man proclaims his own loyalty (they think they are good in their own eyes), but who can find a trustworthy man (one you can depend on, because it is rare).
v 7…A righteous man who walks in his integrity (conducts himself honestly)-how blessed are the sons after him (they are glad he is their father and they follow him).
v 8…A king who sits on the throne of justice (judgment) dispenses (scatters) all evil with his eyes (his presence along and his searching things out will separate good from evil).
v 9…Who can say, “I have cleansed my heart, I am pure from sin?” (no one-1 Kings 8.46; Job 14.4, 15.14; Ecc 7.20; 1 John 1.8).
v 10…Differing weights and differing measures (to cheat in business), both of them ate abominable to yehovah (deception in business is wrong).
v 11…It is by his deeds that a child distinguishes himself (makes himself known) if his conduct is pure and right (there is n o such things as an “innocent” child. God will hold them responsible for their actions-Matt 7.16).
v 12…The hearing ear and the seeing eye, Yehovah has made both of them (he has made the senses and will judge us on how we use them. Perception is how we relate to the world around us through our senses).
v13…Do not love sleep, lest you become poor (by slothfulness), open your eyes and you will be satisfied with bread.
v 14…”Bad, bad” says the buyer (he undervalues the goods); but when he goes away then he boasts (about what a good deal he got by his shrewdness).
v 15…There is gold, and an abundance of jewels (are we impressed by its value); but the lips of knowledge (daat which is the facts about the Lord) are a more precious thing (rare).
v 16…Take his garment when he becomes a surety for a stranger (because he is foolish and will lose it); and for foreigners, hold on him in pledge (less reliable so demand more for a security-Exo 22.26-27).
v 17…Bread (or anything) obtained by falsehood is sweet to a man (may seem attractive at first), but afterward his mouth will be filled with gravel (distasteful, hurts the teeth, gritty).
v 18…Prepare plans by consultation (counsel) and make war by wise guidance (after considering all angels).
v 19…He he goes about as a slanderer (talebearer) reveal secrets (makes everything his business), therefore do not associate with a gossip (because they will speak against you eventually).
v 20…He who curses his father or his mother, his lamp will go out in a time of darkness (no posterity, God will cut them off-Exo 2.17; Lev 20.9).
v 21…An inheritance gained hurriedly at the beginning (unlawfully, un-righteously), will not be blessed in the end (the implication here is whatever is quickly gained or too soon, not by their own efforts, will usually be squandered).
v 22…Do not say, “I will repay evil;” wait for Yehovah (to give an outcome); and he will save you (at the proper time-Rom 12.17-19).
v 23…Differing weights are an abomination to Yehovah, and a false (dishonest) scale is not good (see v 10).
v 24…Man’s steps are ordained by Yehovah (he guides them according to his will). How then can man understand his way (we will never figure out all the ways God has directed us, nor know the secrets of why things happened the way they did and what God does).
v 25…It is a snare for man to say rashly, “it is holy (to devote something or make a rash vow) and after he vows to make inquiry (reconsider what we have vowed).
v 26…A wise king winnows (scatters) the wicked and drives (turns) the threshing wheel over them (to separate wheat from the chaff).
v 27…The spirit (neshamah) of man (alludes to the kinor-Psa 33.2) is the lamp of God (the Torah), searching all the innermost parts (chambers of the belly) of his bosom (Heb 4.12).
v 28…Mercy and truth preserve the king (2 Sam 7.11-16 says God promised not to take his covenantal love from the king), and he upholds his throne in mercy).
v 29…The glory (Hebrew “tiferet” or beauty, splendor) of young men is their strength (physically), and the honor of old men (zekenim) is their gray hair (what they lack in physical strength they make up in wisdom).
v 30…Stipes that wound scour away evil (purges it away, reforms them), and strokes reach the innermost parts (the desire for evil).