We are going to continue with the Yom Kippur ceremony, picking up in Yoma 3.1 of the Mishnah.
3.1… The officer (the “memunay” in charges of the lots) said to them, “Go and see if the time is come for slaughtering.” If it was come, he that perceived it said, “It is daylight (“Bar Chai”)!” Mattithiah b. Samuel used to say: he that perceived it said, “The whole east is alight.” As far as Hebron?” and he answered, “Yea (They said Hebron because they believed that the resurrection would start there because the Patriarchs are buried in the cave at Machpelah. Sleep is a type of death, and when one rises in the morning it is a picture of the resurrection)!”
3.2…And why was this required of them (On Yom Kippur, the morning Tamid service had to be done before the other ceremonies. The Tamid service was given before, but there are things that are not given in the tractate Tamid that are given here in Yoma. The following is the reason they ask about the daylight)? Because once when the light of the moon arose they thought that it was dawn and slaughtered the Daily Whole-offering (Tamid), and they had to take it away to the place of burning. They led the High Priest down to the place of immersion. This was the rule in the Temple: whosoever covered his feet (bowel movement) must immerse himself, and whosoever made water (urinate) must sanctify his hands and his feet.
3.3…None may enter the Temple Court (the Azarah) for an act of the Temple service, even though he is clean, until he has immersed himself (this concept is alluded to by Yeshua in John 13.5-10 when he washed the feet of the Talmidim at the Last Supper. This washing applied to all going into the Azarah. You went to another mikvah outside of the Soreg). On this day the High Priest five times (the first time in Beit Avtinas in the unsanctified part closest to the Chel) immerses himself and ten times he sanctifies his hands and feet, each time, excepting this alone, in the Temple by the Parwah Chamber (he will immerse in the Parwah Chamber four times, in the sanctified area closest to the Azarah. This chamber is in the Beit ha Nitzotz, the northeast corner of the Azarah, called the Beit Even (House of Stone). The kohen that slaughtered the Parah Adumah (Red Heifer) stayed in there before the ceremony).
3.4…They spread a linen sheet between him and the people ( this was for privacy because the Upper City of Jerusalem was higher than the Temple). He stripped off his clothes, went down and immersed himself, came up and dried himself. They brought him raiments of gold (only worn by the High Priest) and he put them on and sanctified his hands and his feet (these High Priestly garments change his kedusha, so every time he puts them on he does this. The Temple is called the Beit ha Mikdash” meaning “House of Kedusha). They brought to him the Daily Whole-offering (the lamb). He made the incision and another completed the slaughtering on his behalf; and he received the blood and tossed it. He went inside to burn the morning incense and to trim the lamps (on the Menorah); and he went to offer the head and the members (of the lamb) and the Baken Cakes and the wine.
3.5…The morning incense was offered between the tossing of the blood and the burning of the members; the afternoon incense between the burning of the members and the drink offerings. If the High Priest was aged or infirm they prepared for him hot water which they poured into the cold to abate its coldness.
3.6…They brought him to the Parwah Chamber (on the roof) which stood in holy ground (“kedusha adamah”). They spread a linen sheet between him and the people (especially in the Upper City for privacy). He sanctified his hands and his feet and stripped off his clothes. R. Meir says: He first stripped off his clothes and afterward sanctified his hands and his feet. He went down and immersed himself, came up and dried himself. They brought him white garments; he put them on and sanctified his hands and his feet (the kedusha is changing).
3.7…In the morning he was clothed in Pelusium line worth twelve minas (about $1300.00), and in the afternoon in Indian linen worth eight hundred zuz (about $4000.00). So R. Meir. But the Sages say (this is the halachah set by the Sanhedrin): In the morning he wore vestments worth eighteen minas (about $2000.00) and in the afternoon vestments worth twelve minas (about $1300.00), thirty minas in all. These were at the charges of the congregation (the people supplied his garments), and if he was minded to spend more he could do so at his own expense.
3.8…He came to his bullock and his bullock was standing between the Porch (the Ulam) and the Altar (knowing this, we know that Joel 2.15-17 takes place on Yom Kippur. There are only 22 cubits between the east end of the Ulam and the west side of the Altar. The twelve steps leading up to the Ulam took 20 cubits, so that means there is only 2 cubits of space), its head to the south and its face to the west (towards the Sanctuary); and he set both his hands upon it (this is called “Semicha” and it is referred to as an elementary principle of the faith in Heb 6.1-2. The “laying on of hands” was not how it is understood in Christianity today. It is not some “magical” gesture establishing contact between God and man nor was it to symbolically imply that the “victim” is a substitute for the person. Instead, it is a solemn attestation that the korban has come from the person who is performing the semicha. This is Step 2 of 11 steps in bringing a korban) and made confession (“Vidui” which is Step 3 of 11 steps). And thus he used to say: “O God (he said the Name of God out loud “YHVH.” Some have thought that they only said the name of God “YHVH” on Yom Kippur. However, they said it every day as part of the Priestly Blessing found in Num 6.22-27, but only in the Temple. Outside of the Temple, another name was substituted-Tamid 7.2), forgive the iniquities and transgressions and sins which I have committed and transgressed and sinned before thee, I and my house, as it is written in the Law (Torah) of thy servant Moses, “For on this day shall atonement be made for you to cleanse you; from all your sins shall be clean before the Lord.'” And they answered after him, “Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever and ever” (This is from the Shema. On any other day this was said in an undertone. Any regular daily prayer book will show you this. But, on Yom Kippur, this is said out loud. This alludes to the coming of the Messiah on Yom Kippur. When this was said, the people will prostrate themselves in the Temple because they have just heard the name pronounced).
3.9… He came to the east, to the north of the Altar (northern wicket at the Nicanor Gate), with the Prefect (this was the “Sagan” who is the deputy High Priest) on his right and the chief of the fathers house (Beit Av) on his left. And two goats were there and there also was a casket (called the “Kalphi”) in which were two lots. They were of box wood, but Ben Gamla made some of gold, and his memory was kept in honor.
3.10…Ben Katin made twelve stop-cocks (spouts) for the laver (Kior) which before had but two; and he also made a device (called the “Muchni” which was a pulley device that lowered the Kior to a cistern for fresh water every day) for the laver that its water should not be rendered unfit by remaining overnight. King Monobaz (King of Adiabene shortly before 70 AD) made of gold all the handles for the vessels used on the Day of Atonement. His mother Helena set a golden candlestick over the door of the Sanctuary. She also made a golden tablet on which was written the paragraph of the Suspected Adulteress (the Sotah in Num 5.11-31). Miracles had befallen the gates of Nicanor and his memory was kept in honor.
3.11…But the memory of these was kept in dishonor: They of the House of Garmu would not teach any other how to prepare the Showbread (Lechem ha Pannim). They of the House of Avtinas would not teach any other how to prepare the incense (ketoret). Hygros b. Levi had a special art in singing but he would not teach it to any other. Ben Kamtzar would not teach any other in his special craft of writing. Of the first it is written, “The memory of the just is blessed” and of these others it is written, “But the name of the wicked shall rot.”
In Part 28, we will pick up in Yoma 4.1 and the lot between the two goats. One will be designated “L’Adonai” which means “to the Lord” and a type of the Messiah. The other goat will be L’Azazel” which means “to Azazel.” Azazel will be a type of Satan and the false messiah.