Torah and New Testament Foundations-Part 14

Now, let’s talk about Rosh Ha Shannah and the season of Teshuvah, meaning “repentance/return” In 1 Thes 5.1, it says, “Now as to the times and the seasons, brethren, you have no need for anything to be written to you.” The word “times” in Hebrew is “moedim” meaning the “appointed times” or the festivals. The word for “seasons” is the Hebrew “zemonim” and it refers to the festival seasons. The season of Teshuvah (repentance) begins on Elul 1 and it goes to Tishri 10, or Yom Kippur. The season officially ends when the Shofar Ha Gadol (Great Shofar) is blown, signaling that the time for repentance is over. The next “season” is from Passover to Shavuot in the spring. Then you have another “season” from Shavuot to Sukkot. Then Rosh Ha Shannah to Yom Kippur is the season called the Yamin Noraim or “Days of Awe” which are a picture of the Birth-pains of the Messiah (or Tribulation), another season. From Passover to Shemini Atzeret (the 8th day of Sukkot) is the overall festival season. A new festival “season” begins in the fall with Rosh Ha Shannah. Thirty days prior to Rosh Ha Shannah (Elul 1) begins what is called the season of Teshuvah, or repentance. From Elul 1 to Tishri 10 we have a forty day repentance period.

Tishri 1 is Rosh Ha Shannah, meaning the “head of the year.” The biblical name is Yom Teruah, meaning the “day of the awakening blast.” On Tishri 3 we have the “Fast of Gedaliah” who was a governor placed in Judah by Nebuchadnezzar who was murdered, bringing on the destruction of Jerusalem and the First Temple. Then we have Tishri 10 and Yom Kippur. The ten days between Rosh Ha Shannah and Yom Kippur are called the Yamin Noraim (Days of Awe). Five days later we have Sukkot, and Tishri 21 is the seventh day of Sukkot called Hoshanna Rabbah, the Great Salvation. The following day is the “Eighth day” called Shemini Atzeret, or “concluding eighth day” for all the festivals. Also on that day (eighth) we have “Simchat Torah” which means “Rejoicing in the Torah. All of these days relate to New Testament passages.

We know Yeshua fulfilled aspects of the redemption during the spring festivals. We need to understand the fall festivals because they will teach aspects of the Birth-pains and the second coming of Yeshua. There are things happening now that show us that these things are “at the door.” The bad things happening today are warnings Eschatologically, we are in the “Days of Teshuvah” and we are coming up to Rosh Ha Shannah, the Natzal (Rapture) and the Birth-pains.

Haggai 1.1 tells us this prophecy came on Elul 1, so this tells us that this is going to be about teshuvah. The book of Haggai is a prophetic book that teaches us about the days leading up to the Birth-pains. Just like Haggai, plans for the Temple are being made now. Most Israeli’s today believe they will see it. This book is eschatologically significant. This book also speaks of Chanukah before its time (Hag 2.10,18). Chanukah will be associated with the rebuilding of the Temple after Yeshua returns (Dan 11.11-12). Hag 1.3-11 talks about teshuvah. The whole month of Elul speaks of returning to God before Rosh Ha Shannah through Yom Kippur called the “Days of Awe.” Eschatologically they represent the Birth-pains. Psa 27 is read everyday during teshuvah and there is a terminology you must know to understand what God is communicating.

The Hebrew word “teruah” is a note that is blown on a shofar, a rams horn. It can also mean “shout” and so a shofar is blown everyday through the season of Teshuvah, along with Psa 27. Another name for Rosh Ha Shannah, the head of the year on Tishri 1, is “Yom Teruah” (Num 29.1) and this is a day of judgment called Yom Ha Din, along with Yom Teruah. Eschatologically speaking, Rosh Ha Shannah (Yom Teruah/Yom Ha Din) begins the time period called the Birth-pains (Tribulation). Psa 27 is telling the people that trouble is coming but they need to trust the Lord. Psa 27.5 says, “For in the day of trouble (Birth-pains-Isa 26.16, Jer 30.7, Zeph 1.17)) he will conceal me in his tabernacle (Hebrew “Sukkah”, an idiom for Heaven, like Joash was hidden in the Temple-2 Kings 11. This is Rosh Ha Shannah and the catching away of the believers, which is also called the “Day of Concealment” or “Yom Ha Kiseh” in Hebrew-1 Thes 1.10, John 14.1, Zeph 2.1-3, Isa 26.19-20. This event is also called “the gathering” in 2 Thes 2), in the secret place of his tent he will hide me and he will lift me up on a rock (a term for Messiah).”

Psalm 47 is a coronation psalm and this is also read on Rosh Ha Shannah. 1 Thes 4.13-17 we have the words “shout” and “shofar” used, along with some of the same terms used in Psa 27 and Psa 47. There are many other related psalms and Scriptures relating to this. Paul is using festival terms already well known at the time, and in this case, terms relating to Rosh Ha Shannah, also known by the biblical name “Yom Teruah” (Num 29.1). Now, for thirty days these terms have been heard by the people. They are now to be “spritually awake” and return (teshuvah) to God. Now we come to Tishri 1 and Yom Teruah.

Let’s look at these festivals from another angle given to us in 1 Kings 8.1-66. These verses take place during the fall festivals, leading to Sukkot and they are talking about the dedication of the First Temple by Solomon. 1 Kings 8.2 talks about the month of Ethanim, which was the ancient name for Tishri. 1 Kings 8.65 talks about Rosh Ha Shannah, Yom Kippur and Sukkot and were seen as “one festival” of “season” (1 Thes 5.1). To “observe the feast” means all of them. 1 Kings 8.66 refers to the “eighth day” and this is Shemini Atzeret and everything was concluded, so they went home. To give these verses some perspective, draw a straight line. Then, beginning at he left end of the line, start numbering from “1” to “22.” These are the first 22 days of the month of Tishri we are talking about. Number “1” is Tshri 1 and Rosh Ha Shannah. In v 65 it says they began to observe the “festival” for seven days, and seven more days. So, count seven days from Tishri 1 and seven more days would bring us to Tishri 14. Then you come to Tishri 15 and the beginning of Sukkot and seven more days. The “eighth day” of v 66 is Tishri 22, which is Shemini Atzeret when he sent everyone home because the festival of Ethanim (Tishri) were over. You will see this continuity again when you read Neh 7.73 through 8.18. These terms will come up again.

In Lev 23.24 it says, “Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘in the seventh month on the first of the month, you shall have a rest (Shabbaton), a reminder (zikkaron) by blowing of trumpets, a holy convocation (a rehearsal).'” This is Rosh Ha Shannah or Yom Teruah and sometimes this festival is called “Trumpets” but that is not accurate entirely. We already have learned in Num 29.1 that this day is called “Yom Teruah” which means “Day of the Awakening Blast (of the shofar).” This can also mean “a loud noise, a joyous sound of the shofar” according the the Gesenius Lexicon.

In the Rosh Ha Shannah Machzor (prayer book) it has a shofar service. Remember, Rosh Ha Shannah talks about the resurrection at the sound of the shofar (the Natzal, the Gathering, or incorrectly understood as the “rapture”), but Rosh Ha Shannah is an enthronement festival and Psalm 47 is read. Some Rosh Ha Shannah terms found in this psalm include: “clap your hands” and “shout unto God with a voice of joy.” In 2 Kings 11.11-14 we have the coronation of King Joash, which is a picture of the 7000 year plan of God, the Birth-pains and the coming of the Messiah. You will see the people at this coronation “clapping their hands” (Psalm 47) and the “blowing of trumpets.” They are shouting “long live the king” which also alludes to Psalm 47. In 1 Thes 4.13-16, we have the key words used in Psalm 47 and 2 Kings 11 used by Paul alluding to Rosh Ha Shannah.

So, we know that Rosh Ha Shannah is also called Yom Ha Din, meaning “Day of Judgment.” There is a good article in the Jewish Encyclopedia called the “Day of Judgment” which will develop this theme even more. In Part 15, we will pick up here and develop this concept of Rosh Ha Shannah being a Yom Ha Din (Day of Judgment), beginning in Dan 7. This will also give us insight into Revelation 4 and 5, which describes the coronation of a Jewish king. This concept of a Yom Ha Din in connection with the coronation is a very important concept in our understanding of the Torah and New Testament foundations.

Posted in Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

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