Let’s look at the topic of the “Son of Man” in our study of the Redemption. We will find much information on the Son of Man in the Pseudo-Pigrapha (writings done in the name of a famous character), which is mostly “apocalyptic.”
Parts of Scripture are “apocalyptic” like Dan 7-12; Revelation; Ezekiel, Isa 40-66 (Servant Passages), Zech 1-8; Haggai 2. Apocalyptic literature uses symbols and allegorical language to convey messages pertaining to the Birth Pains, the Atid Lavo, the Olam Haba and the Redemption. So, the symbols and language make it “apocalyptic” in nature.
The most studied books in the First Century will be the Apocalyptic writings like Daniel and 1 Enoch. The Two Redemption’s that we have been discussing are the Egyptian and the Messianic. Both involve a “Shaliach” who is sent by the Lord, who has a certain “kedusha” above the people. In these two cases, the shaliach will be Moses and Yeshua. Moses was a Levite, but he is even above his brother Aaron, who functioned as the High Priest. He is not a king, but he ruled over the people. Num 12 says this was because God spoke to Moses “mouth to mouth” or face to face. He did not do that with anyone else. Even though we don’t have a definition of how Moses was, we see he was separate from everyone else. With Moses, he goes up to Mount Sinai on the 7th of Sivan and stays 40 days. He will return back to Mount Sinai on Elul 1 for 40 days, returning a second time on Tishri 10 (which is Yom Kippur). In the same way, Yeshua will parallel the First Redemption. Yeshua will return on a Yom Kippur at the end of the Birth Pains.
The Shofar Ha Gadol (Great Trumpet) is blown on the Yovel, the year of “Jubilee” which starts on a Yom Kippur. Isa 63.1-4 calls it the “year of redemption” (a Yovel). Yeshua quotes Isa 61.1-2 in Luke 4.17-19 and stops in the middle of verse 2 in his first coming. The second part of that verse speaks of the “day of vengeance” which will be fulfilled in the second coming. This is a Yovel. Israel is saved and then they will enter “a complete rest.” In the 50th year, the land rests, there is a release of the captives, all debts are cancelled, the land is restored to its original owner and liberty is proclaimed.
Now, when you read Matt 24.29-31, Yeshua says “the Son of Man” in verse 30 and he is coming with the “clouds of heaven.” The tribes of Israel will see the Son of Man coming. Yeshua says he is the Aleph and the Tav (first/last letter of the Hebrew alphabet in Rev 1.7-8. The Aleph and Tav in Hebrew means the “head of the covenant” and this is also seen in Zech 12.10 in Hebrew where it says “they shall look upon me, aleph-tav, whom they have pierced.” Notice in Revelation and in Matthew that Yeshua is coming with the “clouds of heaven.” This is also mentioned in Dan 7.13-14 where Son of Man and the clouds are both mentioned in verse 13. Hebrews 11 gives a list of those who had faith, then Heb 12.1 says, “Therefore, since we have so great a cloud of witnesses surrounding us, let us also lay aside every encumbrance, and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us.” So, the “clouds of heaven” are those who have gone on before us. Jude 14 says, “And about these also Enoch, the seventh from Adam prophesied, saying, ‘Behold, the Lord came with many thousands of his holy ones.'” This is equal to “the clouds of heaven.” This verse is quoting from 1 Enoch. The great “Pseudo-Pigraphaphic” era was between the years 200 BC to 200 AD. These books are important because they give us an understanding of what the Jewish people were seeing and understanding in the First Century.
In Deut 33.2 we have a double reference prophecy It looks back at the days of Moses, but it looks forward to the days of the Messiah. In Judges 5.4-5 we have a similar passage. Yeshua will come down to Mount Sinai, possibly on Rosh Ha Shannah, and march north to Jerusalem. He will appear on the Mount of Olives on Yom Kipuur (Zech 14.4; Matt 24.29-31; Deut 33.2; Judges 5.4-5; Zech 9.14; Isa 63.1-6; Hab 3.3-16; Prov 7.20; Isa 21.13-15; Isa 16.1-5; Isa 27.12-13; Micah 5.4; Joel 2.15-16).
Let’s go back to Dan 7.9-10 and examine those verses. The “thrones” are again referred to in Rev 4.4. In Rev 4.1 we see that there was a “door open” which identifies this as a Rosh Ha Shannah (S.Y. Agnon, “Days of Awe” and a Rosh Ha Shannah Machzor). We read about a “trumpet” (shofar) and Rosh Ha Shannah is called Yom Teruah, the “day of the awakening blast (of a trumpet-Num 29.1). Then we read in Rev 4.2 we read that there was a “throne and one sitting on the throne” and this is very similar to Dan 7.9-10. These terms are “dove tailing” together from Dan 7 and Rev 4. We have “thrones” set up in Dan 7.9 and Revelation 4.4 tells us there were 24 thrones, and this constitutes a “court” for judgment. A quorum for the Sanhedrin had to have 23 judges and a Nasi, equaling 24. Dan 7.9 says that the throne was “ablaze with flame” and Rev 4.5 says that “from the throne appeared flashes of lightning” and both signify impending judgment.
The throne is called a “kiseh” in Hebrew. One of the names for Rosh Ha Shannah is “Yom Ha Kiseh” (Psa 81.3) and it is a play on words because “kiseh” also means “hidden.” Believers will be “hidden” on Rosh Ha Shannah, Yom Ha Kiseh. Around the throne were “chaiyot” or “living creatures” which are a type of angel. There are many types of angels like the Chaiyot, the Keruvim, the Seraphim and the Ophanim, meaning “wheel.”. So, we are going to introduce a new term called the “Ma’aseh Merkaveh” found in Ezek 1, 3, 10 and Isa 6, Exo 24 and Rev 4-5. This term means “The Vision of the Chariot of God” which also means “the throne of God.” The Ark of the Covenant had poles or staves that poked the Veil (Paroket) that separated the Holy of Holies and the Holy Place. The staves had to be low enough for the High Priest to step over when he was officiating on Yom Kippur. If the High Priest was an elderly gentleman he could do it because he had to be between the staves. We have the Ark that cannot be touched, even by the High Priest, because of its kedusha. We have the “pa’am” which are what the staves went through to carry the Ark. So, what we have is a “wheel within a wheel.”
In Ezek 1 we have the “Ma’aseh Merkaveh” described, or the “vision of the throne of God.” This chapter describes the Chaiyot (living creatures-Ezek 1.19-21). In Ezek 1.15-16 we have the term “wheel within a wheel.” The word “wheel” as we have said is “ophan” and a type of angel. So, on the Ark, we have created a “wheel within a wheel: created on the Ark with the staves passing through the “pa’am.” In Dan 7.9 it’s “wheels (Ophanim of Ezek 1) are a burning fire.” So the throne has wheels (Gal’gilow’hi) in Dan 7.9, another name for Ophanim. This word is related to “Gilgal” meaning to “roll.” It is also related to Galilee (circuit) and Golgotha because it has a shared root.
Yom Ha Din means “Day of Judgment” and it is a name given to Tishri 1, Rosh Ha Shannah (Jewish Encyclopedia). Dan 7.9-10 describes a divine judgment. Four phrases in verses 9.10 identify this as a Rosh Ha Shannah. Thrones were set up, the Ancient of Days is seated, the court sat and the books were opened. Dan 7.13-14 also identifies this as a Rosh Ha Shannah. The Son of Man appears and is given a kingdom, and this alludes to a coronation. The Jewish Encyclopedia identifies the Son of Man as the Messiah. Son of Man is written with the Aramaic “Bar Enosh” which is an eschatological character. When Yeshua said “Son of Man” in the Gospels he is using the eschatological term Bar Enosh found in Daniel 7.13 and 1 Enoch, Book 2, Chapter 46.1-6.
We are going to find out that when Yeshua was before Caiaphas that he says, “hereafter you shall see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power (the Ancient of Days of Dan 7.9) coming on the clouds of heaven (Dan 7.13).” We see the Messiah coming with the clouds of heaven in Rev 1.7. Everything Yeshua says needs to be backed up in Scripture. The “Son of Man” in the Jewish mindset is the Messiah. Caiaphas as High Priest is judging him now, but he can only go into the Holy of Holies (the Throne) one time a year, on Yom Kippur. Yeshua says that he will sit with God Himself in the true Temple and judge Caiaphas. In fact, it was not Caiaphas who was judging him, but Yeshua was judging Caiaphas. This implication infuriated Caiaphas.
There are other references in 1 Enoch on this subject (1 Enoch 48.1-11; 58.1-12) and they will compliment what we read in the Gospels and Epistles. In Part 11, we will pick up here and go to other references in the Gospels about Yeshua and the Son of Man and see that this eschatological title is very important in our understanding of the Redemption.