In Isa 59.1-8 of the Servant Passages, we have a Yom Ha Din, or a “day of Judgment.” The book of Ephesians and 1 Thessalonians were probably written during the High Holy Days of Rosh Ha Shannah and Yom Kippur. They have similar themes relating to the Birth-pains and Yom Ha Din. We see in Isa 59.8 that there is no peace for the wicked, same as Isa 57.21. Isa 59.9-20 is an ancient reading for Rosh Ha Shannah. This is the basis for what Paul says in Eph 6.13-17 and 1 Thes 5.1-6. We have darkness (no understanding) and injustice everywhere. There was no one to intercede to provide atonement, no “agent” (v 15-16). Then in v 16 “his own arm” (zeroah and a term for Messiah) brought salvation (Heb=Yeshua). The root word for “zeroah” is “zera” and the word for “seed.” This directly alludes right back to Gen 3.15. He put on righteousness like a breastplate, a helmet of salvation on his head and he put on garments of vengeance for clothing, and wrapped himself with zeal as a mantle. Paul uses these metaphors in Eph 6.11-17 and 1 Thes 5.2-8.
The Messiah is wearing the garments of vengeance and this alludes to the concept of “The War Messiah.” He will repay according to their deeds. A redeemer (Goel=kinsman redeemer) will come to Zion and to those who turn from transgression in Jacob (v 20). From this point on, the context will be about the coming of Yeshua the Messiah. The Spirit will be upon Yeshua as the Messiah, with God’s word in his mouth and the mouth of his offspring (seed-verse 21).
So Isa 60 starts out within the context of the coming of the Messiah. The Rabbis taught that when the Messiah came, he would say verse 1 from the pinnacle of the Temple (“Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah” by Alfred Edersheim, p 999). The word “Arise” is a Rosh Ha Shannah term. The word “darkness” in v 2 means “ignorance”, and again, Paul uses these terms in 1 Thes 5.4-5. The nations in v 3 are the non-Jews who “will come to your (Messiah) light (or understanding).” In verses 4-7 it says that Israel will be regathered from all over the world. The phrase “wealth” and “multitude of camels” indicates the spice trade, something the people would have understood. In other words, there is coming a time when Israel will be very rich, the blessings of God.
This indicates that many will be saved out of Islam. Midian and Ephah is North Arabia; Sheba was a son of Abraham through Keturah; Kedar means “Black Tents” and refers to the Beduins. Kedar was the second son of Ishamael (Gen 25.13); Nebaioth was the first son of Ishmael (Gen 25.13). They will come to the Temple to worship. In Isa 60.8 it says “who are these that fly like a cloud” and this refers to the exiles coming back like the “doves to their lattices” (Song 2.9) in the Peshat level. In the Sowd (hidden, mystery) level, it alludes to the believers who are wearing white robes and look like the “clouds of heaven” (Heb 12.1). Isa 60.9 says the non-Jews will help in bringing the exiles back into the land, also called the “in-gathering of the Tribes.” The non-Jews will also help build (v 10) and “your gates will be open continually, which means there will be no more enemies. The riches of the world will be coming continually. Isa 60.12 says that any nation against the Lord and the Torah will perish or be judged (Zech 14.18, with Egypt as an example). Verse 13 says that the “glory of Lebanon” will come with other trees like juniper, box and cypress. These will be used to beautify the Temple (Ezekiel’s).
Israel will be called the “city of the Lord” (v 14) and is the basis for Rev 21.9-10. They have been despised, forsaken and hated but all that changes now, there will be a transformation (v 15). But they will
suck the milk of the nations and breast of kings (v 16), and this refers to the wealth of the nations. Instead of bronze, stones and iron, the Lord will bring gold and silver. In other words, the latter days will be better than the present state (v 17). There will be no corruption in government or violence (v 18) and God’s glory (kivod) will eclipse the light of the sun and moon. But, that doesn’t mean there won’t be a sun or moon. What this means is that there will be no more “darkness” or ignorance (v 19-20). All of the people will be righteous in v 21 will be the basis for what Paul wrote in Rom 11.26 and Rev 21, the “branch” of his planting (Isa 4.1).
In v 22 it says that the Lord will “hasten it in its time.” This is a very eschatological verse about the kingdom. In “Midrash Rabbah on Exodus” it says that although there is a fixed time and date for the kingdom, it could be “hastened.” Sanhedrin 96a through 97b it says that an offer was to made around the year 4000 from creation, around the time when Yeshua and John appeared. The requirement for the kingdom to come was “teshuvah” or repentance (Deut 30.1-6). Sanhedrin 98a says, “R. Alexander said, ‘R. Joshua ben Levi pointed out a contradiction. They understood the verse to mean “I will hasten it (the kingdom) if they are worthy. If not, it will come in its due time.'” For more information on this “offer of the kingdom” see the teaching on this site called “The Offer of the Messianic Kingdom in the First Century.”
Now remember, we are going through these chapters (40 through 66) with the idea of studying the redemption and the message of the “voice” of Isa 40.3. This will also be the message of the Two Witnesses and the 144,000. Also, these chapters will be full of terminology relating to the festivals, the Temple, eschatology, the redemption and the Messiah. We have seen many examples so far, and we will see more as we move through. In Isa 61, the verses will be in the context of what we have just read. Messiah is being revealed and it also refers to Yom Kippur and it has Yom Kippur terms. It is alluding to the Yovel. When Yeshua started his ministry, he read the Haftorah (Isa 61) for the Torah reading called Nitavim (Deut 29.9-30.20). This Torah reading contains the Covenant at Moab. It was read in all the synagogues that day. Yeshua read down to where it says “proclaim the favorable year of the Lord” and then stopped. He did not read the rest of that verse that said “and the day of vengeance of our God.” The Scriptures up to Isa 61.2a were fulfilled (given meaning/confirmed) in Yeshua’s first coming. The second part (Isa 61.2b) will be fulfilled when Israel will be saved, and called the “day of complete rest” when the Lord has his day of vengeance. This is the second coming of Yeshua. This alludes to the Yovel year when there was the release of the captives, all debts are cancelled, the return of the land to the original owner and liberty is proclaimed.
Assyria was destroyed during a Yovel year (Isa 37.21-32). Russia will invade Israel on a Yovel year it is believed. Remember, we don’t know the Yovel year anymore, not since First Temple times. Israel will corporately accept Yeshua (Ezek 39.22). Yeshua was immersed, based on the terminology found in the Gospels, on Elul 1, the time of repentance (Matt 3.11; John 1.29). He fasted forty days, then came down around Yom Kippur and identified by John. He fasted during the forty days of teshuvah.
During this time in the wilderness, he missed Rosh Ha Shannah and Yom Kippur in the Temple, but he was not required to be there. Jewish males were only required to be at the Temple during the festivals of Hag Ha Matzah, Shavuot and Sukkot. These were called the “Shelosh Regalim” or the pilgrim festivals (Exo 23.14-16). At the end of that, he comes back north to the synagogue at Capernaum. It was then that he was given the scroll of Isaiah, Isaiah 61.1, the Haftorah for the Torah reading Nitzavim, and he began to read.
In Part 39, we will pick up in Isa 61.1 and what Yeshua read.