1 Cor 11.1-16 and Head Coverings

There seems to be a lot of confusion about this practice in a Torah-based faith in Yeshua, so we are going to give some concepts on this subject, not only concerning men’s head coverings, but also women. We are going to go to 1 Cor 11.1-16 for instruction to get the whole context about this as far as a believer in Yeshua is concerned. Many have seen Jewish men wearing a “kippah” or “Yarmulke” and many teach that this is a biblical command, but in reality, there is no biblical command for men to wear a head covering. A kohen or priest was to cover his head while serving in the Temple but that was because he was anointed with the holy anointing oil, but that certainly did not apply to a non-priest. The practice for covering the head is one of those traditions that evolved over the centuries. In the movie called “Fiddler on the Roof” there are comments about wearing a head covering, and when Tevye is asked about its origin he says, “I don’t know.” We have all heard the song from the movie called “Tradition” because that’s what it was, a tradition. The Kippah shape is interesting. Some say it relates back to the practice of idolaters shaving their heads, or “tonsure”, in a circle because they were sun worshipers. Some Christian denominations have a history of sun worship and they wear head coverings in the shape of a “sun disk” and the modern kippah is patterned after that. But, like Tevye, they would have to say when asked about its origin, “I don’t know.” So, let’s look at what Paul says and let’s put it into a first century, biblical, Jewish context because that is where he was coming from.

In 1 Cor 11 he begins to comment about the proper relationship between a husband and a wife in public worship in regards to authority and influence. Being a Greek city, these non-Jewish believers were heavily influenced by its surrounding culture and traditions. Paul is trying to teach the Corinthians about the Torah and how to walk in the Scriptures, which was totally different to the culture and thought processes they had come out of and were familiar with. That is why he starts out in Chapter 11 by exhorting them to follow him because he follows Yeshua. We know that Yeshua followed the Torah so that means Paul followed the Torah and he tells the Corinthians to follow the Torah. He praises them because they follow the traditional and biblical concepts he has taught them so far. He then gives the spiritual application of what he is about to teach them in v 3 and it is the verse that is the basis on how v 4-16 should be interpreted. He says Messiah is the head (of influence) over the man, and the man is the head (of influence) over his wife and God is the head (of influence) over the Messiah. What he is basically saying is that he, Paul, is not the “head (of influence).” He has already clarified that fact in 1 Cor 1.11-17. So he gives a basic spiritual hierarchy and then begins to deal with a problem in the congregations there. In v 4 he says that any man who has his “head (of influence)” covered (by any other man or institution) disgraces his head (of influence), who is Yeshua. We are not to follow after or submit to any man-made authority that violates what the Lord has already said (Acts 5.29).

In v 5 he goes on to say that any woman (wife) who has her head uncovered (by ignoring her husband’s head of influence as specified in v 3) disgraces her head (her husband) and she is like one who “shaves her head”, and he is referring to the practice of prostitutes who shaved their hair off. In other words, she is like a spiritual prostitute because she has “cut off” her spiritual covering. As you can see, Paul is teaching Torah concepts on how a husband and a wife relate to one another, especially in regards to public worship (praying, prophesying, teaching). He says that for a wife to shave her head literally would be disgraceful, so it is also disgraceful to “shave her head spiritually” by going against her husband’s authority and head of influence.

In v 7 he says that it is disgraceful for a man to have his head covered (by any authority or institution other than Messiah, his head of influence) since he is the image of God and the woman is the glory of her husband. This is because the woman came from man and was created for his sake. Therefore a wife should have her husband as her head of influence. He goes on to say that this is done “because of the angels” and he is referring to the fact that some of them weren’t satisfied with their place and tried to usurp authority that was not given to them, and they fell. So it is a warning about going against God-given authority, especially in a family. In v 13 he says that we are to judge ourselves as to whether it is proper for a wife to pray to God by going against her husband (being uncovered). He says that even nature itself teaches us that if a man has long hair he dishonors himself because it was seen as effeminate in the first century, but if a woman does it is a glory to herself. In a spiritual sense it is the same way. A husband who covers himself with any man-made institution or authority (long hair) dishonors Messiah, but a wife who covers herself with her God-given “covering” (her husband) is doing the right thing because her glory (husband) was given to her, just like her hair in a natural sense. Her hair is a built-in “badge” of her femininity. Paul concludes this teaching by saying that if anyone wants to argue about what he is saying “don’t bother” because there is no other practice in the congregations.

So, in short, Paul is not teaching about literal head coverings. There are no Torah teachings about that. But there are plenty of teachings in the Scriptures about how a husband and a wife are to relate to one another (Gen 2.16; Num 30.1-16 for instance), especially in a congregational setting, and that is what he is talking about in 1 Cor 11. Evidently the Corinthians were having some issues in this area very similar to what we experience in this culture today, because our western culture is based on Greek thought as opposed to Hebraic thought, and few husbands and wives today are taught God’s ways in the Torah. So, it was the same back them. These people were coming out of a Torah-less (lawless) society and Paul had to teach them the “traditions” (Greek “paradosis” or “tradition by instruction based on the Torah-“1 Cor 11.2).

These principles hold true today. A man is not to have any spiritual institution or authority as his head of influence over him other than Messiah and the Word of God, and his wife should place herself under his authority as her head of influence and not rebel against his leadership in a spiritual or congregational setting. Now if she believes he is wrong, she can submit him to his head of influence (Messiah) in prayer and let God deal with him. David did the same thing to Saul (David’s head of influence) when he said he would let God judge between them, but David was not going to lift his hand against Saul because he (Saul) was David’s head of influence as king and was placed there by God. This subject can bring up all kinds of scenarios, but that is the basic instruction Paul is giving to the Corinthians and it has nothing to do with literal head coverings. If one wants to pray with their head literally covered or uncovered, that is a personal preference and should not be imposed on others.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Festivals of the Lord, The Tanak, Tying into the New Testament

The Love of Many Shall Grow Cold-Matt 24.12

Before we look at what it means for love to grow cold, we need to define a couple of words in context. The verse reads, “and because lawlessness is increased most people’s love shall grow cold (NASB).” The first word we need to define is “lawlessness.” In Greek, the word for the Torah is “nomos” and when you put an “a” before it, it means “against or none” or “lawless.” In other words, “anomos” means “against or no Torah.” Being lawless means one is against obeying the Torah for whatever reason. People believe that the “law has been done away with” or that they have been “set free from the law” but that is lawlessness (Torah-less-ness). The other word we need to define is “love.” The word in Greek is “agape” and that is God’s kind of love, love that is unmerited. It’s charitable love and that is the idea that Paul was conveying in 1 Cor 13 where love is action not an emotion. So with that in mind, let’s look at the verse again in context.

Yeshua is giving signs of the coming destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple and the end of the age (Matt 24.1-3). We won’t go into all that now, but you can go to our study of Matthew in the teaching called, “Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Matthew-Chapter 24” for a deeper understanding. But he says in v 12 that because people have a disregard for the laws of God in the Torah their God-kind of love will grow cold. So, you have to ask, “Cold in what way?” There are three areas we will look at. First, their love for God will grow cold, which is really what Yeshua had in mind here. He said, “If you love me, keep my commandments (in the Torah).” Deut 6.4 says we should love Yehovah with all our hearts (desires, intentions), minds (intellect), and strength (physical action). Yeshua said this was the greatest commandment. Well, how do you love the Lord? You do it by obeying his Torah as it applies to you by your actions. When you don’t obey him by your actions, you are “lawless” or a law unto yourself by your action and deeds. The Torah has no effect on you. That is not loving the Lord, so your love for him will grow cold. Paul wrote to the Ephesians that their love for God and the saints was well known (Eph 1.15), but then later in Rev 2.4, Yeshua says they have left their first love and that they should repent and do the deeds (the Torah) they did at first by being obedient. Now for love to “grow cold” you must have had a love in the first place, which was for the Lord. But through self-centeredness, it grew cold.

Secondly, let’s look at family love. Not obeying the Lord will affect this area, too. To grow cold means to lose the warmth of love for the family and become self-absorbed, self-centered, and uncaring for your family. All of these are contrary to God’s word, of course. Do you know any relationship fails? It is because one person stops being kind to the other. When parents are unkind to their children, the relationship fails. When a spouse is abusive, is that being kind to the other? Again, when one does not follow what the Lord says in the Torah (is lawless) then the love for your family will grow cold.

Third, let’s look at love for your neighbor. Society is plagued with this. People stop acting charitably towards one another as a result of their own sin, or lawlessness. 2 Tim 3.1-4 says, “But realize this, that in the last days, difficult times will come. For men will be lovers of self, lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, revilers, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, unholy (not adhering to the kedusha God has defined in the Torah), unloving, irreconcilable, malicious gossips, without self-control, brutal, haters of Good (as defined in the Torah), treacherous, reckless, conceited, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God (by obeying the Torah).” You see, what it all comes down to is when we love God and our neighbor, our love will not grow cold. Now, that doesn’t mean that others won’t mistreat us, cheat on us, hate us, curse us, try to destroy us, leave us, and do all manner of evil against us because they will. People who love themselves tend to gravitate towards people who are kind and charitable because it’s all about what the other person can give them. Many relationships fail because those that are self-absorbed associate with one who is not like that, and they have no intention of giving to the other, but it is what the other can do for them, and it eventually destroys that relationship. In the same way, it’s like that with the Lord. He is a giver and charitable and the selfish want a relationship with him for what they can get out of him. But when he wants them to obey his word in the Torah, they won’t do it and will say, “I have been set free from all that”, and their love grows cold. We show that we love God by our actions, and those actions should line up with what he has commanded us to do in the Scriptures. If we do, then our love for God, our family, and our neighbor will not grow cold.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Festivals of the Lord, The Tanak, Tying into the New Testament

God Has Always Known Us

There are many verses that indicate that the Lord has known us, even before we were ever born, and we will deal with a few examples of this, but the list is even longer. God is outside of time, and he is not limited in what he does or knows like we are. He doesn’t learn new things. And not only that, he controls all things as well, even who is born, where they are born, when they are born, and what they will do. That is the whole concept behind the prophecies in the Bible. He knows the players, sends them into the game, and he controls and brings about the situations that will fulfill his prophecies and his desired purposes.

For example, Pharaoh was created and raised up by God for the very purposes that came about in the Exodus from Egypt. He was placed in history at that particular moment. Paul even refers to this in Rom 9.17. In Isa 45.1, Isaiah actually names a Persian king named Cyrus (Koresh) about 200 years before he was born and tells us what he was going to do, and that Yehovah was the one who raised him up to his throne to bring these prophecies to come to pass. Dan 8.5-8 is a prophecy about Alexander the Great and what would happen to him, all according to God’s plan for him. Josephus tells us about the time Alexander enters Jerusalem and he says he had a vision of the high priest and when he met him it was exactly what he saw in the vision. Then it says Alexander was shown the book of Daniel and how one of the Greeks was predicted to defeat the Persians (see Antiquities of the Jews, Book 11, Chapter 8.4-5). Alexander’s success wasn’t because he was such a great general, it was because it was predestined to happen by the God of Israel. Dan 8 goes on to describe many historical kings that would come along and what they would do in relation to the people of Israel. It is the Lord who raises kings or presidents to power, and it is the Lord who deposes kings and presidents (Dan 2.21).

In Jer 1.5 it says that God knew Jeremiah before he was ever formed in his mother’s womb. In Psa 139.13-16 the doctrines of the omniscience and omnipresence of God are described. In Psa 139.16 it says that God’s eyes saw the writer’s “unformed substance” and it was written in a scroll containing all the days ordained for him, “when there were none.” Eph 1.4 says that God chose a believer in him before the foundation of the world, and compare this with Rom 8.29-30 and you will see that everything was “set” before we ever drew our first breath. Paul was set apart before he was born in Gal 1.15. That is why we are saved by God’s grace and not by works. He saved us before we had any works and ordained to save us before the world was. Acts 13.48 says, “and as many as he had appointed to eternal life believed.”

There are many verses that teach us that God knew us and planned out our lives before we were ever born, and that applies to the unbeliever as well, and there is no doubt about that. Pharaoh, Esau, Nebuchadnezzar, and Pilate for example all came along in history according to the plan of God. We could mention Judas, who was specifically born to do what he did; the birth of Isaac was predicted a year before, and even given the name he was to be called; Jacob and Esau had their life planned by the Lord before they were born; John the Immerser is another one named before he was born, and what he was going to do. Yeshua told Nathanael that before Phillip called him, he saw him under the fig tree, which is an idiom for the Messianic Kingdom (John 1.48). The greatest example of these concepts is Yeshua himself. When Yeshua called his talmidim to follow him, he knew who they were and where they were going to be and he went looking for them. So, God ordained and knew us before the universe was ever created, by name, and what our lives would be, and no human being is an accident with the Lord and everyone has a specific role in God’s plans. Everyone that played a role in the life of Yeshua was ordained to be born and live at that time, even Yeshua’s enemies.

For an in-depth study on this concept and the concept of “Election” see our study called, “The Sovereignty of God and the Elect” on this website.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles

What Does It Mean When the Scriptures Say To Know the Lord?

This is one of the most important concepts in the Scriptures to understand, but many misunderstand it. Basically, it means to “know the Lord in a redemptive way.” So when you see that phrase “know the Lord” think “in a redemptive way” along with it. In Jer 9.23 it says that if we are to boast, we are to boast in the fact that we know him (in a redemptive way). So, we are going to give a few examples and concepts to help give a better understanding of what it means to “know the Lord.”

In Gen 4.1 it says that Adam “had relations” with his wife Chava and she conceived. The Hebrew word for “had relations” is “yada” and it is an intimate knowledge. It doesn’t get any closer than that physically speaking. Now, in a spiritual sense, how can this be applied? In Hosea 2.20 it says that the Lord (Yehovah) is going to betroth himself to his people, and they will “know the Lord (in a redemptive way).” But the Hebrew word for “know” there is “yada’at.” It combines “yada” with another Hebrew word for knowledge called “da’at.” So, this knowledge is intimate and deep. But what exactly is it and how do we know that we know the Lord in a redemptive way? People say all the time that they know the Lord, but that does not mean they are redeemed, and it is not an intellectual knowledge alone. There is a difference between “knowing someone” and really “KNOWING someone.”

Now turn to Hos 4.6 and you will recognize this verse right off because it is quoted by people all the time, but they never recite the whole verse in its context. It says, “My people are destroyed for a lack of knowledge” and most people stop there. They say it in the context that you need the information they have in their books or videos on health or prosperity or their interpretation of particular verses. You don’t have what they are trying to put forth and you need it! However, is that what the Lord is saying? When you read it in Hebrew it says, “My people are destroyed for the lack of “the” knowledge.” The word “ha’da’at” is used there, so the next question is, “What is the knowledge?” The rest of the verse gives us the answer. It goes on to say, “Because you have rejected “the” knowledge, I will also reject you from being my priest since you have forgotten the law (Torah commandments) of your God, I also will forget your children.”

Do you see what he is saying? The Torah commandments are “the” knowledge that the people rejected. When the New or “renewed” Covenant is in full force in the Olam Haba, which is not right now in the Olam Ha Zeh, it says that “all will know the Lord” in a redemptive way (Jer 31.31-34). That means everyone will be redeemed in the Olam Haba, or the World to Come. In other words, the Torah commands are the knowledge we need to acquire, God will write them on our hearts. and we will obey them if we know the Lord. It is the evidence and proof that we really do know the Lord in a redemptive way. In 1 John 2.3-4 it says, “And by this we know that we have come to know him (in a redemptive way) if we keep his commandments. The one who says, ‘I have come to know him’ and does not keep his commandments, is a liar and the truth is not in him (also see Matt 7.21-23,19.17; John 14.15; Titus 1.16; Jam 2.26).”

In other words, if someone says they know the Lord and does not keep the commandments, contradicts himself because his walk is not consistent with his words. The redemption is all the work of God (John 1.13), not just a rote, mundane ritual of observance and walking down an aisle void of any real intentions of the heart. When one becomes born again, the Spirit of God puts the desire to keep the commandments in that person’s heart. This is called the “circumcision of the heart (Deut 30.6; Jer 31.31-34).” One will have a desire to want to keep the Sabbath; eat kosher meat that is allowed in Lev 11; get away from false doctrine paganism and idolatry; love your neighbor and walk in the way of righteousness as defined in the Torah. If you don’t have this desire, it is an indication that you do not know the Lord in a redemptive way, but it is not too late. Repent of sin (as defined in the Torah-1 John 3.4) and believe in Yeshua as your redeemer, and ask God to be born from above and to write his laws on your heart, because that is how we know we have come to know him in a redemptive way.

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How Do You Know What Commandments To Keep Today?

This is a common question, so first of all, we need to define what “keep and observe” means in regard to the Torah. To “keep and observe” the commandments means to incorporate the things of God into our lives, and to stay true to the pattern or blueprint God has given, by doing certain things, at certain times, by certain people, at certain places. So with that definition in mind, let’s look at how this applies.

Let’s look at a few examples. Take a look at the korbanot, or sacrifices. Do they apply today? The answer would be “No” because there is no Temple, no priesthood, no holy vessels, and no altar, etc. According to the pattern God has given, they can only be done in the place where God chose to put his name, and that place is Jerusalem and the Temple, with a functioning priesthood and altar. However, just because a certain commandment can’t be done according to what God said by doing certain things, at certain times, by certain people, at certain places, does not mean we shouldn’t know and study them. The biblical festivals cannot be kept today either because they involved Temple worship, a priesthood, an altar, and korbanot. Yeshua’s death has little to do with why we don’t do them and has everything to do with having a functioning Temple and priesthood. Paul and the first-century believers kept the festivals in Jerusalem because that was the only place they could be kept. They offered animal sacrifices in the Temple 30 years after Yeshua’s death in Acts 21.15-26.

Tithing is another commandment that cannot be done today for the very same reasons. Tithing was done only if you lived in the land and made a living in agriculture, and the tithe was given to the Levites and they distributed it to the priests and the needy. False teachers will say that the “Law has been done away with” and yet tell their people to tithe, and people do it because they have little to no understanding on how to interpret the Scriptures. Eating biblically allowed meats applies today because you don’t need a Temple or a functioning priesthood to avoid pork, or shellfish, or meats not allowed in Lev 11 and Deut 14. The commandments that tell us not to murder, lie, steal, and idolatry to name a few still apply because this applies everywhere. Biblical giving can be done anywhere.

Basically, you have to ask yourself, “Can I keep this commandment and stay true to the pattern God gave us in the Scriptures by doing certain things, at certain times, by certain people at certain places?” You must find a good teacher who has a Torah-based faith in Yeshua and who you can interact with. You will learn a lot more and a lot faster than doing it by yourself. You can only rise to the level of whoever is teaching you. If you have a teacher who knows much, you will learn much. Study the verses over and over again to see what applies, and this will take a lifetime. Find a group of like-minded believers who can help you study and come to the right interpretation. Read commentaries about the verse or commandment being studied. Ask yourself if it is possible to keep that command by doing specific things, at specific times, by certain people at certain places. If the answer is “No” then you cannot keep that command at this time. Even if a Temple stood and there was a functioning priesthood, some commandments you couldn’t do anyway because you don’t live in the land. The context of each commandment needs to be understood and to “rightly divide” the word of God in order to do what God said to do.

So, in conclusion, learn the definition of “keep and observe” and then look at the commandments in the Torah to see if they apply according to their context, like, are they done only in the land; only in a standingTemple and altar; do I work in agriculture in the land; am a male or female; a king; a priest; are you Jewish or non-Jewish, etc. Start there and see where the Lord leads you.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Festivals of the Lord, The Tanak, Tying into the New Testament

The Significance of the Four Fasts Listed in Zech 8.19

These four fasts are still observed in many Jewish and non-Jewish Messianic circles today as a part of observing Jewish traditions, but it should be made known that they were never commanded by the Lord. In fact, Yehovah has a very interesting take on them. These fasts commemorated the following events: the fast of the fourth month is when the walls of Jerusalem were breached; the fast of the fifth month is when the city was burned; the fast of the seventh month is when Gedaliah was murdered and thecfast if the tenth month is when thexsiegebof Jerusalem began. These fast days were self-appointed times of mourning, which in and of themselves doesn’t make them wrong, but they had become mundane rituals and a way to get the Lord to do something for them at times. But that is not how the Lord works.

The key, from God’s point of view, on these fasts can be seen in Zech 7.1-14 when they asked Zechariah whether they should keep weeping in the fifth month of Av as they have done before. Yehovah answered and said, “When you fasted and mourned in the fifth and seventh months (Zech 8.19) these seventy years, was it actually for me that you fasted?” He goes on to tell them that he tried to get them to obey the Torah but they stopped listening, and that is why judgment came (7.9-14). The Lord was not interested in whether or not they continued with these practices, he never told them to do it in the first place. He was more concerned that they understood the reality of why the destruction happened. Jeremiah was told not to intercede for his people in Jer 7.16, 11.14, 14.11-12, nor to mourn over the coming judgment in Jer 16.5. In Ezek.24.16-23 Ezekiel also tells the people not to mourn over the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple. Their fasting was an empty ritual void of any real repentance over the things that caused the destruction of the city and the Temple. If they turned to the Torah then the Lord would have found value in their fasting.

The people needed to remember why the city and the Temple were destroyed and repent, not weep and fast over the loss of a building with an empty ritual. He told them what they had to do to avoid this destruction, but they didn’t do it. They hardened their hearts so that they would not hear the Torah or listen to the prophets. In Zech 8.16 he told them what they should do instead of fasting and rituals. Then in Zech 8.19, he says that when genuine repentance back to the Torah is done, these fast days will have no significance and he is going to turn those fast days into days of feasting.

This can be applied to us today in many ways. We tend to replace genuine repentance with traditions and rituals that make us feel like we are doing something or makes us feel good about ourselves. Many observe these fasts today for the same reason. They don’t think about what the Lord told them to do, they do it because it is Jewish “tradition” because they think they must follow what the rabbis tell them to do. They believe God will respond to their efforts, or what they have given up, when he doesn’t have to respond to anything if he chooses not to. He never commanded these things to be done, to begin with, and a believer in Yeshua is not obligated to observe them. However, if one wants to fast on these days they are free to do so, but remember why these horrible things happened and not get caught up in blaming the Babylonians or the Romans for the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple. Remember, God used them as his rod of judgment against a people that rejected the truth and that is why they came.

These four fasts would not have been necessary had the people obeyed God in the first place. Not even Jeremiah or Zechariah seemed to observe them and questioned the motivation of the people when they did. The conclusion the people should have reached was to find out what caused this terrible judgment and repented. When we find ourselves in similar situations, go before the Lord and find out what went wrong and how do we correct it. Sometimes fasting is necessary when we don’t know what to do and it helps us focus, but it should never be the main focus in and of itself.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Festivals of the Lord, The Tanak, Tying into the New Testament

The Terms Hebrew, Israelite, and Jew are Synonymous Terms

There are some people today who believe that these terms mean different things, but in actuality, they are really synonymous. There have been many false theological concepts that have developed over the years based on a simple misunderstanding of these terms. So, we will do a basic study of definitions to get to the heart of the matter, using Easton’s Bible Dictionary as a source.

In the Bible, there are three terms that are used to describe the same people, Jew, Israelite, and Hebrew. The name “Hebrew” is a name applied to the Israelites in the Bible used by foreigners (Gen 39.14, 17, 41.12). It is also used by the Israelites themselves when talking to a foreigner (Gen 40.15, Exo 1.9). In addition, it is used when compared to other nations (Gen 43.32; Exo 1.3, 7, 15; Deut 15.12). In the Brit Chadasha (renewed covenant) the same contrast exists (Acts 61; Phil 3.5). The name “Israel” is given to Jacob after his struggle at Peniel (Gen 32.28) because as a “prince,” he had power with God. This is the most common name given to his descendants. All twelve tribes are called “Israelites” or the “children of Israel (Josh 3.17, 7.25; Judges 8.27; Jer 3.21) and also the “house of Israel” (Exo 16.31, 40.38). This name is sometimes used for the “true Israel” (Psa 73.1; Isa 45.17, 49.3; John 1.47; Rom 96, 11.26).

After the death of Saul, the ten tribes took this name for themselves as if they constituted the whole nation (2 Sam 2.9, 10, 17, 28, 3.10, 19.40-43) and the kings of the ten tribes were called “kings of Israel” while the kings of the other two tribes were called “kings of Judah.” After the exile, the name Israel was used for all twelve tribes. The name “Jew” comes from Judah, a son of Jacob. It was first used to designate one from that tribe or to the kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 16.6, 25.25; Jer 32.12, 38.19, 40.11, 41.3). It is used in contrast to those belonging to the kingdom of the ten tribes, who were called Israelites. While in Babylon, and after, the name was given to all twelve tribes (Est 3.6, 10; Dan 3.8, 12: Ezra 4.12, 5.1-5). At the beginning, the people were called Hebrews until after the exile when the name was not used much. Paul described himself as a Hebrew in 2 Cor 11.22 and Phil 3.5, an Israelite in 2 Cor 11.22, and a Jew in Acts 21.39 and 22.3 however.

So, in conclusion, there were three names used in the Brit Chadasha to describe those who have descended from the twelve tribes. The name “Jew” in regards to their nationality and to distinguish themselves from the non-Jews, and “Hebrews” in relation to their language, customs, and lifestyle to distinguish themselves from the Greek-speaking Jews. This contrast can be seen in the book of Acts very clearly in Acts 6.1. The name “Israelite” will be used when they are described as a people chosen by God and the mandate they have to teach the nations about God, the Messiah, and the redemption (Rom 9.4-5). All three names are used to describe the descendants of Jacob or those that came from any of the twelve tribes. confusion over these biblical definitions exists today and it is caused an “identity crisis” with many believers. Several denominations today believe they are “Jews” or “Israelites” when in actuality they are not. This type of belief comes from a severe lack of teaching at one end, and a severe lack of personal study of the Scriptures on the other. Somehow, some believe they are lacking in something, have fallen short spiritually, or feel “left out” of something if they are not considered “Jewish.” As a result, there are movements that develop like the “Two-House” and “Hebrew Roots” movements and others. In actuality, God doesn’t care either way and that is quite clear from the Brit Chadasha where Paul says in 1 Cor 7.17-20 that we should walk as God has assigned us. If someone is “circumcised” or Jewish, let him not seek “uncircumcision”, and if one is called “uncircumcised (non-Jewish) let him not seek “circumcision” (or to become Jewish). He says circumcision or uncircumcision doesn’t mean anything, but the keeping of the commandments do, as they apply to both groups. Peter came to the same conclusion in Acts 10.35 where he says that God is not partial to anyone (Jew or non-Jew) and he who “fears him and does what is right (keeps the commandments as they apply to each one) is welcomed by him.” A non-Jew who believes in Yeshua is grafted into the commonwealth of Israel and they should follow a Torah-based faith in him, which means they are to follow the Torah as it applies.

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Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Revelation-Chapters 1-22 Can Be Found Earlier On This Website

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Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Jude-Introduction and Chapter 1

Jude was written by one of the half-brothers of Yeshua in Matt 13.55 and Mark 6.3. His Hebrew name is “Yehudah” meaning “praise” or Judah, and in Greek, it is “Judas.” His brother Ya’akov or Jacob, rendered “James” in English Bibles, was the Nasi or “president” of the Messianic Community in Jerusalem and presided over the council in Acts 15. Jude initially did not respond favorably to the ministry of his brother Yeshua in John 7.5 like most of his immediate family, but later he became a believer in Acts 1.14. This letter was probably written from Jerusalem before the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD and it combats the heresy that the Torah was no longer valid and is very similar to Second Peter. It warns against false teachers and their doctrines. Before reading and studying this letter, we suggest that you read the teachings on this website called, “Torah and New Testament Foundations-Was Paul Torah Observant” and “Torah and New Testament Foundations-The Real Paul” before proceeding with this letter or any of the writings in the Brit Chadasha. These teachings will clearly show that the writers of these letters had a Torah-based faith in Yeshua.

v 1…Jude (Hebrew “Yehudah”-Acts 13.55; Mark 6.3), a bondservant of Yeshua the Messiah (he submitted to Yeshua’s claim to be the Messiah, King and heir), and brother of James (Hebrew “Ya’akov” or Jacob, the Nasi of the Messianic Community in Jerusalem, and called “Ya’akov” ha Tzadik” or “James the Righteous” because of his Torah observance), to those who are called (the elect of God; set apart by grace before the foundation of the world-Eph 1.4), beloved in God the Father, and kept (preserved secure-v 24) for Yeshua the Messiah.

v 2…May mercy and peace and love be multiplied to you.

v 3…Beloved (showing a strong affection), while I was making every effort to write to you about our common salvation (to both Jews and non-Jews), I felt the necessity to write to you appealing that you contend earnestly for the faith (v 9 will have a metaphor about this contention) which was once delivered to the tzadikim (saints; notice that in the first century, this “faith” or body of doctrinal truth was already delivered and it is “past tense”-this refers to Torah observance in faith-Deut 4.32-33).

v 4…For certain persons have crept in unnoticed, those who were beforehand marked out for this condemnation (before the foundation of the world some were appointed to life and others were not-Eph 1.4; Rom 9.22-23), ungodly persons who turn the grace of God into licentiousness (if the Torah had been done away with, there is no transgression of the Law and grace would not be needed-1 John 3.4; Rom 3.20; Eph 2.8; Rom 3.31), and deny our only Master and Lord, Yeshua the Messiah.

v 5…Now I desire to remind you, though you know all things once and for all (once knew this so I am going to remind you), how the Lord, after saving a people out of the land of Egypt, subsequently destroyed those who did not believe (only two people who originally came out of Egypt made it into Canaan-Joshua and Caleb).

v 6…And the angels who did not keep their own domain (a second case), but abandoned their proper abode (their happy condition and state in heaven), he has kept in eternal bonds under darkness (of this present world in the Olam Ha Zeh) unto the judgment of the great day (2 Pet 2.4);

v 7…as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities around them, in like manner to these committing immorality, and going after other flesh (detestable gratifications contrary to nature), are exhibited (laid down) as an example (a specimen) in undergoing the punishment of eternal fire (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book 4, Chapter 8.4 says, “It is related how, for the impiety of its inhabitants, it was burnt by lightning; in consequence of which there are still the remainders of the divine fire; and the traces (or shadows) of the five cities are still to be seen, as well as the ashes growing in their fruits, which fruits have a color as if they were fit to be eaten…”).

v 8…Yet in the same manner (likewise) these filthy dreamers defile the flesh, reject authority and revile dignities (leaders and authorities from God)

v 9…But Michael the Archangel, when he disputed with the devil and argued about the body of Moses, did not pronounce against him a railing judgment, but said, “The Lord (Yehovah) rebuke you (this event is not mentioned anywhere in Scripture, but there is an apocryphal book called the “Ascension of Moses” that mentions a similar event; on a parabolic level this is to illustrate his point that there will be a struggle between Yeshua and the believer, who is a type of “Michael” meaning “who is like God”; the Torah symbolized by the “body of work written by Moses ” called the Torah; and Ha Satan who wants to “dispute over the Torah/Moses”).

v 10…But these men revile the things which they do not understand and the things which they know by instinct like unreasoning animals, by these things are destroyed.

v 11…Woe (lamentations await you) to them! For they have gone the way of Cain (who murdered because of envy and the feat of losing his first-born status) and for pay they rushed headlong into the error of Balaam (who lead Israel into replacement theology-Num 31.16) and perished in the rebellion of Korah (who was not anointed to do the job of Aaron and Moses, and was not satisfied with his role but coveted a status that did not belong to him and contrary to the Torah).

v 12…These men (false teachers) are those who are hidden reefs (to shipwreck you) in your love-feasts (meals consecrated to God; Lord’s Supper) when they feast with you without fear (of God; making it a place of gluttony-1 Cor 11.20-22) caring for themselves; clouds without water (dry; no proper teaching); carried along by winds (of false doctrine-2 Pet 2.17); autumn trees without fruit (has leaves or an outward profession, but no fruit of true doctrine-Matt 7.15-23); doubly dead (they seem dead for two seasons; no hope that they will revive and be of value), uprooted (cast out by God-Matt 7.19);

v 13…wild waves of the sea (restless; can’t be controlled-Isa 57.20), casting up (foaming) up their own shame (like a rabid dog); wandering stars (stars with regular movement and places can be used by seamen to navigate; those with no regular movement or places are useless for finding your way; such are the false teachers), for whom the black darkness has been reserved forever (2 Pet 2.17- their final consignment).

v 14…And about these also Enoch the seventh from Adam prophesied (relating to the coming of Messiah), saying, “Behold, the Lord came with myriads (ten thousand is a “myriad” in Greek) of his holy ones (the “clouds” of Isa 60.8; Deut 33.2; Rev 1.7),

v 15…to execute judgment upon all and to convict all the ungodly of all their ungodly way, and of all the harsh things which ungodly sinners have spoken against him (possibly quoting from a midrash on Deut 33.2 found in the Jewish book called “The Book of Enoch”-1 Enoch 60.8).”

v 16…These are grumblers (murmurers), finding fault, following after their lusts; they speak arrogantly, flattering people for the sake of advantage (to make a gain of them).

v 17…But you, beloved. ought to remember the words that were spoken beforehand by the apostles (“shaliachim” or sent ones) of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah (who warned of false prophets and teachers),

v 18…that they were saying to you, “In the last time (at the end of the Olam Ha Zeh) there shall be mockers, following after their own ungodly lusts (quotes 2 Pet 3.3).”

v 19…These are the ones who cause divisions (separate themselves into parties to whisper and plot), worldly-minded, devoid of the Spirit (not under his control or according to his purposes).

v 20…But you, beloved, building yourselves up on your most holy faith (a Torah-based faith in Yeshua); praying in the Holy Spirit (according to his purposes and control);

v 21…keep yourself (watch, guard) in the love of God (our love to him by action-Deut 6.4-9; John 14.15), waiting anxiously (looking) for the mercy of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah to eternal life.

v 22…And have mercy on some, who are doubting (with some, approaching them with tenderness and affection will help reprove them if they have gone aside into error);

v 23…save others with fear, snatching them out of the fire, hating even the garment polluted by the flesh (these classes of people have been victims of false teachers and their doctrines, and we must adapt ourselves wisely to the circumstances of those we are trying to reach; their “garment” is a picture of their sin which we are not to partake of and alluding to the Torah practices of Lev 15.4, 10, 17; 21.11; Num 6.6, 19.11).

v 24…Now to him who is able to keep you from stumbling, and to make you stand in the presence of his glory blameless (Col 1.22) with great joy (ever wonder why there is no sin in the Olam Haba? It’s because God keeps us, and when that stops, there is evil-Zeph 3.11-13; Jer 32.39-40; Ezek 36.27; 1 Kings 19.18; Luke 15.1-6; 1 Cor 1.8; Heb 12.2; Col 1.17; Phil 2.13; this verse brings us right back to Jude 1; all of this can be explained by asking the question, “Why did Yehovah create the Tree of Good and evil if he knew Adam would sin, or why did he allow Satan to fall?” Let’s look at this question. God never discovers anything or learns anything new. There is no additional knowledge with him. The first thing we must come to grips with is God determines the outcome before things ever happen. He knows everything, even who will be saved before the world was created because it is his choice-Eph 1.4; 13.48; John 1.13. Yehovah is perfect and self-existent-the only “good”-Mark 10.18. Jude 24 says that God is able to keep us from falling. Ever wonder why there is no sin in the Olam Haba? Why doesn’t man sin again and start the whole thing over again? Well, first God is by himself, and Satan is out there with him. Satan was doing his job and God “kept him” until he ceased doing that and look what happened, evil is found. God is saying, “I am going to demonstrate what happens when I don’t hold on; God holds things together until he doesn’t (Col 1.17). God had a plan of redemption before anyone needed to be redeemed. He was showing what happens when he is absent, what happens without him. This brings us to Adam. Adam was “good” but not perfect. Adam’s innocence had one command, ‘Do not eat from the Tree of Good and Evil.” But Adam sinned, and we are not responsible for that, but we are responsible for the sins we commit. The “sin nature” is spiritual, not physically passed. Notice that Adam began blaming others for his sin right away, so did Chava (Eve). Why? Man has an inclination to sin and do evil. Our desires supersede God’s word. But God has promised in the New Covenant in Jer 31.31-34 to “blot out” the remembrance of our fleshly sin nature in the Olam Haba);

v 25…to the only God our savior through Yeshua the Messiah our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion and authority, both now (in the Olam Ha Zeh) and forever (in the Olam Haba). Amen (so be it; to be trusted).

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Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Third John-Introduction and Chapter 1

The author of this letter is not named, but tradition says it was written by Yochanon (John), the Shaliach of Yeshua. It was written to a believer named Gaius and other Torah observant believers in Yeshua, at the end of the first century. It seems the assembly of Gaius was being disturbed by an overbearing man named Diotrephes who was not accepting what the writer and others had to say. This letter is a halachic commentary on the Torah. Before reading and studying any of the books of the Brit Chadasha (renewed covenant), we suggest that you read the teachings on this website called, “Torah and New Testament Foundations-Was Paul Torah Observant” and “Torah and New Testament Foundations-The Real Paul” before proceeding with any study of these books. It will show that Paul and the writers had a Torah-based faith in Yeshua.

v 1…The elder (Hebrew “zekan”-the writer was an elder in the Messianic Community; if this was John, he would be around 100 years old) to the beloved Gaius (a personal friend) whom I love in the truth (or truly, sincerely).

v 2…Beloved, I pray that in all respects you may prosper (act wisely in temporal things) and be in good health (in body), just as your soul (spirit, mind, heart) prospers (spiritually).

v 3…For I was very glad when brethren came and bore witness to your truth (that he walked in a Torah-based faith in Yeshua), how you are walking in truth (the Torah-Psa 119.142, 151, 160).

v 4…I have no greater joy than this, to hear of my children (“tekna”-spiritual children) walking in the truth (Torah).

v 5…Beloved, you are acting faithfully in whatever you accomplish for the brethren, and especially strangers (was hospitable);

v 6…and they bear witness to your love before the assembly (“kahal”-the congregation); and you will do well to send them on their way (their journey) in a manner worthy of God.

v 7…For they went out (on their journey) for the sake of the Name (on Yehovah’s behalf) accepting nothing from the Gentiles (but depended on the aid of the believers for their support-without charge to those they were preaching among).

v 8…Therefore we ought to support such men that we may be fellow workers with the truth (not everyone can go preach, but all may give something to support those who do).

v 9…I wrote something to the assembly (about support); but Diotrephes who loves to be first among them (to be recognized), does not accept what we say (seemed to rule with force and cruelty; forced his clerical supremacy even over what the writer was saying; if this was John, he overruled what a shaliach of Yeshua said, and Yeshua knew him personally).

v 10…For this reason, if I come (to where Diotrephes was), I will call attention to his deeds (expose them to the whole assembly) which he does, unjustly accusing us with wicked words (evil words to destroy the writer’s intent; his idle babble), and not satisfied with this (matter, but wanting more vicious forms of evil), neither foes he himself receive the brethren (does not show hospitality that is due him), and he forbids those who desire to do so (but we influenced them not to), and puts them out of the assembly (tossed them out, excluded them from fellowship; excommunicated those who stood up to him).

v 11…Beloved, do not imitate what is evil, but what is good (1 Cor 11.1-2-don’t mimic the evil). The one who does good is of God (resembles him); the one who does evil has not seen God (spiritually).

v 12…Demetrius has received a good testimony from everyone, and from the truth itself (a Torah-based believer in Yeshua); and we also bear witness (he had a good report from the writer and others), and you know our witness is true.

v 13…I had many things to write to you, but I am not willing to write them to you with pen and ink,

v 14…but I hope to see you shortly, and we shall speak face to face (mouth to mouth). Peace to you (“shalom aleichem”). The friends (of mine) greet you. Greet the friends (that were with Gaius) by name (a good shepherd knows his sheep by name).

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Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Second John-Introduction and Chapter 1

The author of this letter is not named, but tradition says it was written by Yochanon (John) the Shaliach, written near the end of the first century. Some scholars believe that it was written before the Book of Revelation, but that is speculation. the writer is dealing with the same problem as First John, false teachers and prophets, and to love the Lord and to walk in the commandments (Torah). He is exhorting a woman who is a particular “lady” of distinction and substance, and her children, and he says he is coming to see her “face to face” and she seems to have a sister. Some believe that the author is writing to a particular congregation and the members of it, but his language here does not really support that view, but it could be possible. This is a halachic commentary about walking in the Torah and to stand against false teachers. Before reading and studying any of the books of the Brit Chadasha (renewed covenant), we suggest that you read the teachings on this website called, “Torah and New Testament Foundations-Was Paul Torah Observant” and, “Torah and New Testament Foundations-The Real Paul” before proceeding with any study of these books. It will show that Paulk and the writers of these books had a Torah-based faith in Yeshua.

v 1…The elder (Hebrew “zekan” and the writer is an elder in the Messianic Community; if this is John he would be approaching 100 years old) to the chosen (elect-Eph 1.4) lady (Greek “Kyria”-possibly her name) and her children (not designated as the “elect”), whom I love in the truth (the body of doctrinal truth found in the Tanak); and not only I, but also all who know the truth (as defined in the Torah-Psa 119.142, 151, 160),

v 2…for the sake of the truth (on its behalf, on account of it) which abides (lives) in us and will be with us forever.

v 3…Grace (the source of all blessings), mercy and peace will be with us, from God the Father and from Yeshua the Messiah, the son of the Father (“bar Abbas”), in truth and love (this would be a blasphemous statement if Yeshua was not God).

v 4…I was very glad to find some of your children walking in truth (Torah observant) just as we have received commandments from the Father (to walk in the Torah).

v 5…And now I ask you, lady (Greek “kyria”-possibly her name), not as writing to you a new commandment, but the one which we have had from the beginning (Mount Sinai in Lev 19.18; the beginning of Yeshua’s ministry, etc) that we love (by action) one another.

v 6…And this is love (action), that we walk according to the commandments (John 14.15; Deut 6.4-9, 7.9-11). This is the commandment, just as you have heard from the beginning that you should walk in it (1 Cor 11.1-2; 2 Thes 2.15, 3.6).

v 7…For many deceivers (false teachers) have gone out into the world, those (professed believers) who do not acknowledge Yeshua the Messiah coming in the flesh (denied the true nature of Yeshua as both God and man). This is the deceiver and the antichrist (one in the place of or in the position of the Messiah; forerunners of the False Messiah in the birth-pains).

v 8…Watch yourselves (beware of them), that you might not lose what we have accomplished (lose a part of their full reward by being drawn away), but that you may receive a full reward (a large, exceeding great reward-Gen 15.1).

v 9…Anyone who transgresses (goes too far) and does not abide (live) in the teaching (Torah means “teaching”) of Messiah (departing from what he taught) does not have God (their teachings and doctrines will reveal them-Matt 7.16-23); the one who abides in the teaching (this alludes to the Torah; the ark contained the commandments and was called the “ark of testimony”), he has both the Father and the Son.

v 10…If any one comes to you and does not bring this teaching (Torah as a basis), do not receive him into your house (do nothing that would look like you encourage their false teachings), and do not give him a greeting (expressing a wish for their further success in their false teachings and errors; this is called “Niddui” in Hebrew and it refers to a “ban”);

v 11…for the one who gives him a greeting participates in his evil deeds (approves of their false teachings and doctrines).

v 12…Having many things to write to you, I do not want to with paper and ink, but I hope to come to you and speak face to face, that your joy may be made full.

v 13…The children of your chosen (elect) sister greet you (the children of the one who was the sister of the woman in 1.1).

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Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in First John-Chapter 5

1 John 5.1-21 continues with the subject of love; the believer’s victory over the world by faith (confidence in action); the evidence that Yeshua is Messiah and King by the Ruach Ha Kodesh; the record in heaven and earth; the testimony of Yehovah; the witness a believer has within himself; the witness of eternal life; the reason this letter was written; knowing we have eternal life brings us to the throne of grace (the source of all blessings); knowing God hears us; the power of prayer and how we should pray for those who have sinned; a summary of all he has said.

v 1…Whoever believes that Yeshua is the Messiah is born of God (born from above-John 3.5-8), and whoever loves the (one) having begotten him (the Father) loves also the (one) begotten of him (Yeshua).

v 2…By this we know that we love the brethren of God, when all love God and observe his commandments (in the Torah; love of God in action is manifested through obedience to the Torah-John 14.15-24; 1 John 2.3-4; Psa 19.7-12; Deut 6.4-9; John 14.15).

v 3…For this is the love of God (how to show God we love him), that we keep his commandments, and his commandments are not burdensome (Jam 1.25, 2.12; Psa 119.45).

v 4…For whatever is born of God overcomes the world (system of rebellion, disorder, Torah-less-ness, sin, etc); and this is the victory that has overcome the world (system)-our faith (confidence in action).

v 5…And who is the one who overcomes the world, but he who believes that Yeshua is the son of God (a title for a king and heir-1 Chr 28.5-7; Hohn 1.48; Psa 2.6-12).

v 6…This is the one who came by water (at his immersion he was recognized by the Father as his son-Matt 3.13-17; John 1.31-34) and blood (his own blood at his crucifixion to ratify the renewed covenant), Yeshua the Messiah; not with the water only, but with water and with blood. And the Spirit is the one witnessing, because the Spirit is truth.

v 7…For there are three that bear witness (on record) in heaven, the Father, the word, and the Ruach Ha Kodesh: and these three are one (in mind and accord).

v 8…And there are three who bear witness on the earth: the Spirit, and the water, and the blood (the Spirit bore witness to the fact that Yeshua is the Messiah at his immersion; the water bore witness because of what happened at his immersion, and helped John identify him; and his blood shed on the cross showed he had died and the redemption was complete, atonement or restoring a covering was done, and the renewed covenant is now ratified), and the three are in agreement (that Yeshua is the Messiah and King and the redemption of man and creation was accomplished).

v 9…If we receive the witness of men, the witness of God is greater (more valuable, truer), for the witness of God is this, that that he has borne witness concerning his son (at his immersion, transfiguration, resurrection, etc).

v 10…The one who believes in the son of God has the witness in himself (a conviction; producing peace; forgiveness; the whole influence of the word on a believer, etc); the one who does not believe God has made him a liar, because he has not believed in the witness that God has borne concerning his son.

v 11…And the witness is this, that God has given us eternal life, and this life is in his son (John 1.4; Rom 6.33; Col 3.4).

v 12…He who has the son has the life; he who does not have the son of God does not have the life (Heb 3.4; Col 3.3-denial of Yeshua brings death).

v 13…These things I have written to you who believe in the name of the son of God, that you may know (have the assurance) that you have eternal life, and that you may believe in the name of the son of God.

v 14…And this is the confidence which we have before him, that we ask anything according to his will, he hears us (Jam 4.3-not with fleshly desires); in line with what he has said; what God sees as best for us).

v 15…And if we know that he hears us (a true doctrine) in whatever we ask, we know that we have the requests which we have asked of him (it may be a request for future protection, or health; sometimes it may be delayed to test us or was not answered at once without a miracle; not consistent with what God’s plan for others or the circumstances; or we aren’t ready for the answer all at once).

v 16…If anyone sees his brother committing a sin (“ah-mar-tea-on” or sinful acts) not unto death, he shall ask and God will for him give life (revive them and give comfort) to those who commit sin (‘ah-mar-tea-on” or sinful acts). There is a sin (“ah-mar-tea-ah” or sin nature) unto death (face to face with death; the Torah specified what these sins were). I do not say that we should make a request for this (to spare the life of the offender, like Jeremiah in Jer 7.16, 11.14; but the author is not forbidding such prayer either, he is not asking that such prayers be made).

v 17…All unrighteousness (as defined by the Torah-Rom 3.20; 1 John 3.4) is sin (“ah-mar-tea-ah” or sin nature) and there is a sin (“ah-mar-tea-ah” or sin nature) not to death (and can be overcome by confession, repentance and forgiven daily).

v 18…We know that no one who is born of God sins (“ah-mar-tea-nay” or sins against someone; a special condition or offense directed towards God), but he who was born of God keeps him and the evil one does not touch him.

v 19…We know that we are of God and the whole world lies in wickedness (of the evil one).

v 20…And we know that the son of God has come, and has given us understanding (comprehension of the difference between truth and what is almost truth as defined in the Torah), in order that we might know (“da’at” or knowledge of God in Torah facts in a redemptive way) him who is true, and we are in him (a reflection of the life of Yeshua; he lives on in his followers) who is true, in his son Yeshua the Messiah. This is the true God (not a false one; Yeshua is God with his Father and the Ruach Ha Kodesh-Titus 2.13; John 1.1; Heb 13.8; Phil 2.6-11 notes on this site) and eternal life.

v 21…Little children (“teknia” or young talmidim), guard yourselves from idols (images, icons, any figure that represents God-Deut 4.15-19; or any affections that belong to God that get sidetracked).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Festivals of the Lord, The Tanak, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in First John-Chapter 4

1 John 4.1-21 tells us about false prophets and teachers and how to test them and how to know them; the contrast between those in the world and those who know Yehovah; the call to love one another (love is an action, not an emotion); how God’s love was manifested to us; no one has seen God at any time but his presence is evidenced by love; the work of the triune Godhead in a believer; boldness on the day of judgement; God initiates our love for him; the commandment to love we have from him in the Torah in Lev 19.18.

v 1…Beloved, do not believe every spirit (anyone who professes to be from God), but test the spirits (of the teachers and their doctrines by the Scriptures-Deut 13.1-5; Isa 8.20; John 5.39-47; Acts 17.10-11) to see whether they are from God (by the Scriptures, and the gift of discernment of spirits-1 Cor 12.10); because many false prophets have gone out into the world (Deut 18.20-22; Matt 7.15-23).

v 2…By this you know the Spirit of God; every spirit that confesses that Yeshua is the Messiah has come in the flesh is from God (his human body was real, along with full deity);

v 3…and every spirit that does not confess Yeshua the Messiah has come in the flesh (there were teachings going around that he did not) is not from God and this is that (spirit) of antichrist, of which you have heard that is coming (2 Thes 2.3-8; Matt 7.15; Matt 24.45; John 5.43), and now it is already in the world (the spirit of lawlessness, which means rejecting the Torah; no law or “Torah-less-ness”).

v 4…You are from God, little children (“teknia” or young talmidim), and have overcome them (the false messiahs and teachers; demonic spirits, etc); because greater is he who is in you than he who is in the world (he quotes 2 Chr 32.7; the Ruach Ha Kodesh is more powerful than demonic error).

v 5…They (the false prophets and teachers) are from the world, therefore, they speak from the world, and the world listens to them (its natural for unbelievers to follow unbelievers because they think alike).

v 6…We are from God; he who knows God (in a redemptive way is acquainted with him) listens to us (believers think alike); he who is not from God does not listen to us. By this (knowing whether a teaching is Torah-based or not) we know the spirit of truth (based on the Torah) and the spirit of error (not based on the Torah).

v 7…Beloved, let us love (by action) one another, for love is from God; and everyone who loves is born of God and knows God.

v 8…The one who does not love (by action) does not know God, for God is love (in essence of nature).

v 9…By this the love of God was manifested among us, that God has sent his only begotten son into the world so that we might live through him (we were dead in Adam and this could not cause us to have life).

v 10…In this is love, not that we loved God (first-v 19), but that he loved us (first) and sent his son (as a shaliach and agent of the basar) the propitiation (mercy seat where God hilariously dispenses grace-see Rom 3.25 notes; in order to have everlasting life, justice had to be satisfied and obstructions removed; love and justice are reconciled; this caused our love for him after he loved us)

v 11…Beloved, if God so loved us, we also ought to love one another.

v 12…No one has beheld God (with mortal eyes) at any time (John 1.18); if we love one another God abides in us (even though we can’t see him, this is how we know he is near), and his love is perfected in us (carried out to completion).

v 13…By this (evidence) we know that we abide in him and he is in us, because he has given us of the Spirit (empowered us with gifts, power and grace).

v 14…And we have beheld (seen) and bear witness (testify) that the Father has sent his son the saviour of the world (the elect and the creation “cosmos” are part of the redemption).

v 15…Whoever confesses that Yeshua is the son of God (the king and heir), God abides in him and he in God (his place and purposes; a reflection of the life of God).

v 16…And we have come to know and have believed the love which God has for us. God is love (part of his essence of nature), and the one who abides in love abides in God, and God abides in him (is a reflection of God).

v 17…By this (evidence), love is perfected (made mature and complete) with us, that we may have confidence (faith, boldness in action) in the day of judgment (alluding to Rosh Ha Shannah, a Yom Ha Din); because as he is, so also are we in this world (Olam Ha Zeh).

v 18…There is no fear in love; but perfect love casts out fear; because fear involves punishment (is punishment in itself); and one who fears is not perfected in love (is not mature or complete).

v 19…We love, because he first loved us (salvation does not start with us, it begins with the Lord according to his will-John 1.13).

v 20…If someone says, “I love God,” and hates his brother, he is a liar (contradicts himself), or the one who does not love his brother whom he has seen, cannot love God whom he has not seen.

v 21…And this commandment (“mitvah”, good work) we have from him (in the Torah-Lev 19.18), that the one who loves God should love his brother also)

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Festivals of the Lord, The Tanak, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in First John-Chapter 3

1 John 3.1-24 tells us that being children of God means the world does not know us; our destiny in the Olam Haba; the character of lawlessness and the sin nature; practicing righteousness as defined in the Torah is proof that we have received justification; do not be amazed that the world hates you; love in action is evidence that we have eternal life; what real love is; keeping the Torah brings answered prayer.

v 1…See (behold, take notice), how great a love the Father has bestowed upon us, that we should be called the children of God (regenerated by him); and we are. For this reason the world does not know us, because it does not know him (John 17.25).

v 2…Beloved, now we are children of God (it might not look like it now, being poor, weak, afflicted, reproached, sinful), and it has not appeared as yet what we shall be (because the Olam Hba has not come yet). We know that when he appears we shall be like him because we shall see him as he is (in his power and human nature; John saw it-2 Pet 1.4; Isa 4.1-6; 30.26).

v 3…And everyone who has this hope (biblical hope is not “wishing” but is seen as a sure thing based on God’s promises) on him purifies (purges) himself, just as he is pure.

v 4…Everyone who practices (as a lifestyle) sin (“ah-mar-tea-on” sinful acts) also practices lawlessness (Greek “anomian” or against the Torah or “Torah-less-ness”), and sin (“ah-mar-tea-ah” or sin nature) is lawlessness (Torah-less-ness-Rom 3.20).

v 5…And you know that he appeared in order to take away sins (“ah-mar-tea-as” or sin nature) and in him there is no sin (“ah-mar-tea-ah” or sin nature).

v 6 No one who abides in him sins “ah-mar-tea-nay” or sins against someone); a special condition or offense directed toward God); no one who sins (ah-mar tea-nain” or sins against someone or a special condition or offense directed toward God) has seen him or knows him.

v 7…Little children (Greek “teknia” or young talmid), let no one deceive you; the one who practices (as a lifestyle) righteousness (as defined in the Torah) is righteous (has been justified by God) just as he (God ) is righteous;

v 8…the one who practices (as a lifestyle) sin (“ah-mar-tea-on” or sinful acts) is of the devil (“diabolou”); for the devil has sinned (“ah-mar-tea-nain” or sins against someone; a special condition or offense directed toward God) from the beginning (of the world). The Son of God appeared for this reason, that he might destroy (rob of power) the works of the devil-Heb 2.14).

v 9…No one who is born of God practices (as a lifestyle) sin (“ah-mar-tea-on” or sinful acts) because his seed abides in him (he is born from above) and he cannot sin (ah-mar-tea-nain” or sins against someone; a special condition or offense directed toward God), because he is born of God.

v 10…By this the children of God and the children of the devil are obvious: anyone who does not practice (as a lifestyle) righteousness (as defined by the Torah) is not of God, nor the one who does not love his brother (Matt 7.21-23; Rom 7.12; Psa 119.172).

v 11…For this is the message which you have heard from the beginning (in the Torah-Lev 19.18), that we should love one another (by action-1 Cor 13.1-8);

v 12…not as Cain, who was of the evil one, and slew his brother (John 8.44; Rev 2.9-means an adversary of the truth; a follow of). And for what reason did he slay him? Because his deeds were evil, and his brothers were righteous.

v 13…Do not marvel, brethren, if the world hates you.

v 14…We know that we have passed out of death into life, because we love (by action, not a feeling) the brethren. He who does not love (by action) abides (lives) in death (the condemnation in the death realm).

v 15…Everyone who hates his brother is a murderer (has the attitude of a premeditated killer), and you know that no murderer has eternal life abiding (living) in him (he is un-regenerated).

v 16…We know love by this that he laid down his life (by action) for us; and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren (risk our lives; expose ourselves to danger; give up on our own selfish desires, etc).

v 17…But whoever has the world’s goods (necessities; property) and beholds his brother in need and closes his heart (desires, intentions, thoughts, mind, soul, spirit) against him, how does the love of God abide in him (passing by on the other side like the Levite in Luke 10.32)?

v 18…Little children (Greek “teknia” or young talmidim), let us not love with word or with tongue, but in deed (action) and truth.

v 19…We shall know by this (evidence) that we are of the truth, and shall assure our heart before him (God),

v 20…in whatever our heart condemns us; for God is greater than our heart (our desires, thoughts and intentions, and the creator of it and has power over it), and knows all things (that are in the heart-Heb 4.12-13-the context is in the case of brotherly love).

v 21…Beloved, of our heart does not condemn us (has a clear conscience), we have confidence (emunah/faith in action) before God.

v 22…And whatever we ask we receive from him (according to his will of course), because we keep (hold true to the pattern God has given by doing certain things at certain times at certain places by certain people) his commandments (in the Torah) and do (a doer of the word) the things that are pleasing in his sight (like the Sabbath-Isa 56.4-8).

v 23…And this is his commandment (of Yeshua) that we (Israel; the Jewish people-1 John 2.2 at first, then the non-Jews-Matt 24.19-20) believe in the name of his Son Yeshua the Messiah, and love one another just as he commanded us (John 13.34-35).

v 24…And the one who keeps his commandments (in the Torah) abides (lives) in him (according to his benefits and purposes), and he in him. And we know by this (evidence) that he abides (lives) in us (our lives are a reflection of his life-Acts 4.13; 2 Cor 13.5), by (out of) the Spirit (his control and purposes) which he has given us.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Festivals of the Lord, The Tanak, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in First John-Chapter 2

1 John 2.1-29 tells us that John wrote this letter so that we do not sin (as defined by the Torah); there is help for the sinner to restoration; the test for knowing God; love in action as defined by the Torah; our state spiritually is measured in categories described as little children, fathers, young men; worldliness attacks our relationship with God; the world’s characteristics is described and it is only temporary because the world (Olam Ha Zeh) is passing away; the dangers of false religion and false messiahs who teach against the Torah; how to identify false teaching; how to protect ourselves from a spirit of false doctrine; the promise of eternal life; God’s anointing will teach us the truth; living in Yeshua means we will keep his word in the Tanak and not be ashamed when he comes (John 14.23; 1 John 1.6).

v 1…My little children (newborn babes), I am writing these things to you that you may not sin (“ah-mar-tah-no” meaning a great sin). And if anyone sins (a great sin), we have an advocate (who answers charges) with the Father, Yeshua the Messiah the righteous (tzadik);

v 2…and he himself is the propitiation (mercy seat-see Rom 3.25 notes) for our sins (sin nature); and not for ours only (Jewish people), but also for the whole world (the non-Jews as well who believe as the elect).

v 3…And by this we know that we have come to know him (in a redemptive way), if we keep his commandments (in the Torah-the concept of “keep” means to incorporate the Torah into our lives, and to stay in line with the pattern, picture, shadow, blueprint by doing certain things, at certain times, at certain places and by certain people as God has commanded; following the Torah is the assurance for a believer in Yeshua that God’s spirit (his purposes and control) is in them (their hearts and desires); we don’t get judged on whether we kept all the commandments, we get judged on whether we “know” him in a redeeming way-Matt 7.21-23).

v 4…And the one who says, “I have come to know him,” and does not keep the commandments (a doer of the word0Rom 2.12; Jam 1.22, 2.26; Matt 7.22-23) his commandments (in the Torah) is a liar (contradicts himself; perverts the truth) and the truth is not in him (that he is a believer),

v 5…but whoever keeps his word (a doer of the Torah as it applies), in him the love of God has truly been perfected (keeping the Torah is how we love God; it is an action, not an emotion-Deut 6.4-9; John 14.15). By this we know that we are in him (the assurance of it);

v 6…the one who says he abides (lives) in him (his purposes) ought himself to walk (comply with) in the same manner as he walked (the Torah-Yeshua was sinless so he kept the Torah-1 John 3.4; Rom 3.20; 1 Cor 11.1-2).

v 7…Beloved, I am not writing a new commandment to you, but an old commandment which you have heard from the beginning (in the Torah), the old commandment is the word which you have beard from the beginning.

v 8…On the other hand, I am writing a new commandment to you, which is true in him and in you because the darkness (ignorance and blindness of the world) is passing away (the Olam Ha Zeh is passing away into the Olam Haba-Heb 8.13), and the true light is already shining (the Olam Haba is here now, but not yet in a believer; “in part” in 1 Cor 13.9-13).

v 9…The one who says he is in the light (of understanding) and hates his brother is in darkness (ignorance and unregenerate) until now.

v 10…The one who loves his brother abides (lives) in the light (of understanding and knowledge) and there is no cause for stumbling (scandal) in him (to his brother).

v 11…But the one who hates his brother is in darkness (ignorance) and walks in darkness, and does not know where he is going because the darkness (of hate) has blinded his eyes.

v 12…I am writing to you, fathers (more mature in life) because you know him who has been from the beginning (1 John 1.1). I am writing to you, young men (Greek “neaniskoi” or young servant) because you have overcome the evil one (prevailed in early life; triumphed over the passions; had strength and vigor). I have written to you children (Greek “paidia” or newborn-Heb 5.13) because you know the Father (in a redemptive way).

v 13…I have written to you, fathers (Greek “pateras”), because you know him who has been from the beginning. I have written to you, young men (young servants), because you are strong, and the word of God (in the Tanak) abides (lives) in you, and you have overcome the evil one.

v 15…Do not love the world (in activity or attitude), nor the things of the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of (or “to”) the Father is not in him.

v 16…For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh (inherited, depraved desires) and the lust of the eyes (used to incite craving) and the boastful pride of life (ambition, honor of position, to be seen in high places, pursuing high ranking connections, etc) is not from the Father, but is from the world.

v 17…And the world (Olam Ha Zeh) is passing way (into the Olam Haba-Heb 8.13; 2 Pet 3.10-12) and its lusts (desires); but the one who does the will of God (as defined in the Torah-John 7.16-19) abides (lives) forever (in the Olam Haba).

v 18…Children (“paidia” or newborn), it is the last hour (Greek “eschate hora” meaning of the Olam Ha Zeh; the last two days eschatologically), and just as you heard (from Paul’s writings and from what the writer taught) that antichrist (“antichristos” or false messiahs, or one in opposition to Yeshua in false teachers and doctrines) is coming (2 Thes 2.3-4); even now many antichrists (false messiahs) have arisen (posing as Messiah or against him); from this we know it is the last hour (in Jewish eschatology false messiahs and prophets get worse).

v 19…They went out from us (from the talmidim who had a Torah-based faith in Yeshua), but they were not of us (not believers-Matt 7.22-23), for if they had been of us, they would have remained with us; but in order that it might be shown that they all are not of us (the reason this was allowed by God’s decree).

v 20…But you have an anointing (empowerment) from the Holy One, and you know all things (have access to knowledge; to learn quickly; he refreshes the memory and enlightens our understanding).

v 21…I have not written to you because you do not know the truth (as defined in the Torah), but because you do know it, and because no lie is of the truth.

v 22…Who is the liar but the one who denies that Yeshua is the Messiah? This is the antichrist (false messiah kind of nature), the one who denies the Father and the Son.

v 23…Whoever denies the Son does not have the Father (for there to be a Father there had to be a Son; has no correct view of the Father); the one confesses the Son has the Father (completing the sense of the verse).

v 24…As for you, let that abide (live) in you which you heard from the beginning. If what you heard from the beginning abides in you, you also will abide in the Son and in the Father (continuity in the body of doctrinal truth about him).

v 25…And this is the promise which he himself made to us; eternal life.

v 26…These things I have written to you concerning those who are trying to deceive you.

v 27…And as for you, the anointing (empowerment) which you received from him abides in you and you have no need for anyone to teach you (they didn’t need these false teachers-John 16.13) about all things, and is true and not a lie, and just as it has been taught you, you abide in him.

v 28…And now, little children (young talmidim), abide (live, have faith, hold to his word) in him, so that when he appears (in order that) we may have confidence (boldness in action) and not shrink away (Hab 2.4; Heb 10.38) from him in shame at his coming.

v 29…If you know that he is righteous (Yeshua walked in the righteousness as defined in the Torah), you know that everyone also who practices righteousness (as defined in the Torah) is born of him (good works from the Torah is a result of being justified; proof that one is born again-1 John 2.3-4).

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Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in First John-Introduction and Chapter 1

The author of this letter is not named, but some believe it was written by John (Yochanon), the youngest shaliach (apostle) of Yeshua. His Hebrew name is Yochanon ben Zebedee, the son of Zebedee and Salome. His brother was Ya’akov or Jacob, written in English Bibles as “James.” The letter was written around 85-90 AD to Jewish believers possibly in Asia Minor. This is a halachic commentary on the Torah and he is giving basic instructions for the congregations who will read it about loving the Lord and one another, and that a believer in Yeshua may know that they have eternal life by giving certain things to look for. It exhorts believers to walk in the Torah and to study the Scriptures, which at that time was the Tanak, using Hebrew thought as opposed to Greek thought. We need to define four words in Greek that are used quite often in this letter for sin. These definitions will come from the classic Greek lexicon by Walter Bauer, augmented by William F. Arndt, F.W. Gingrich, and Frederick Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature, London, England: The University of Chicago Press, 1979, p.42, section 5. We will try to translate these words with the understanding we have according to these definitions. The Greek word “ah-mar-tea-on” means sins or sinful acts; the Greek word “ah-mar-tea-as” or “ah-mar-tea-ah” means the sin nature; the Greek word “ah-mar-tah-nay” or “ah-mar-tah-nain” means to direct sin against someone; and the Greek word “ah-mar-tah-no” is a great sin or a special sin leading to death. Before reading and studying any of the writers of the Brit Chadasha, we suggest that you read the teachings on this website called, “Torah and New Testament Foundations-Was Paul Torah Observant” and Torah and New Testament Foundations-The Real Paul” before proceeding with any study of these books. It will show that these writers had a Torah-based faith in Yeshua.

1 John 1.1-10 begins with a summary very similar to John’s gospel.

v 1…What was from the beginning (Greek “arches” or archaic, ancient) what we have heard, what we have seen (he is revealed) with our own eyes, what we beheld and our hands touched (Yeshua was not a “spirit”), concerning the word of Life (Yeshua is the audible, visible, tangible Torah)-

v 2…and the life was manifested (broke forth) and we have seen and bear witness and proclaim to you the eternal life (he is experienced in this), which was with the Father (the kind of life possessed by Yehovah) and manifested to us (what John experienced)-

v 3…what we have seen and heard we proclaim to you (share) also, that you may have fellowship with us (in hearing, seeing and handling him spiritually); and truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son (heir) Yeshua the Messiah (believers born into the family of God receives the very life and nature that Yehovah has).

v 4…And these things we write, so that our joy may be made complete (what Yeshua said at the last supper-John 16.24).

v 5…And this is the message we have heard from him and announce (preach) to you, that God is light (of perfect understanding and truth), and in him there is no darkness (that would contradict that perfect understanding and truth; ignorance).

v 6…If we say that we have fellowship with him and walk in darkness (ignorance of the truth as defined in the Torah/Scriptures) we lie and do not practice the truth (as defined in the Torah-1 John 2.1-4; Psa 119.105, 142, 151);

v 7…but if we walk in the light (of understanding and truth as defined in the Torah-Psa 119.105) as he himself is in the light, we have fellowship with one another (communion with Yehovah) and the blood of Yeshua his son cleanses us from all sin (“ah-mar-tea-ah” or sin nature).

v 8…If we say that we have no sin (“ah-mar-tea-on” or sinful acts), we are deceiving ourselves, and the truth is not in us.

v 9…If we confess our sins (“ah-mar-tea-as” or sin nature), he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins (“ah-mar-tea-as” or sin nature) and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.

v 10…If we say that we have not sinned (“hemartekamen” meaning against the Torah) we make him a liar and his word is not in us-Rom 3.23).

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Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Second Peter-Chapters 1-3 can be found earlier on this site

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Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in First Peter-Chapter 5

1 Pet 5.1-14 tells us that Peter exhorts the elders (zekanim) to shepherd the flock voluntarily and instructs them about their duties; a reward is promised for faithful service by the Chief Shepherd; instruction to the younger people to submit to their elders and to one another; be on guard against Ha Satan and resist his lies in spiritual warfare; a prayer for strength and a conclusion to the letter.

v 1…Therefore, I exhort the elders (zekanim) among you, as a fellow elder and witness of the sufferings of Messiah, and a partaker also of the glory that is to be revealed (he had a glimpse into the Olam Haba at the transfiguration in Matt 17.1-8; Luke 9.28-36),

v 2…shepherd (feed) the flock of God among you, not under compulsion (by force-1 Tim 3.1-7; Titus.1.5-9; Acts 20.17-30) but voluntarily according to God (his calling on you and purposes) and not for sordid gain, but with eagerness;

v 3…nor yet as lording it over (exercise dominion over-Matt 20.25-28; intimidate like a dictator) those allotted to your charge, but proving to be examples to the flock.

v 4…And when the Chief Shepherd appears you will receive the unfading crown of glory (unlike the crowns given in worldly pursuits like the Olympics, conquering armies which were olive or some other tree).

v 5…You younger men (of the assembly; the elders were seen as “fathers” and the others “children”), likewise be subject to your elders (in the function of a zekan – has nothing to do with age), and all of you (in the assembly), clothe yourselves (gird yourself) with humility (a mind of subjection) toward one another, for God is opposed to the proud (scoffer) but gives grace to the humble (Prov 3.34).

v 6…Humble yourselves (not with some outward show of denying the flesh, fasting, sackcloth, etc, but with true inward mourning and weeping over the plague of the heart and impure nature, our sins) therefore; under the mighty hand of God (the “critical” hand of God who blesses or chastises), that he may exalt you at the proper time (*Luke 14.11; 18.14),

v 7…casting all your anxiety upon him, because he cares for you.

v 8…Be sober (well-balanced in emotions) and vigilant (watchful). Your adversary (Hebrew (“satan”) the devil (“diabolos” in Greek), prowls about like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour (it has been known that lions eat their own cubs).

v 9…But resist him (stand against him), firm in the faith (the body of doctrinal truth found in their Torah-based faith in Yeshua), knowing that the same experiences of suffering are being accomplished by your brethren who are in the world.

v 10…And after you have suffered for a little while (in comparison to eternity), the God of all grace (the source of all blessings), who called you to his eternal glory in Messiah Yeshua (in the Olam Haba), will himself perfect you (reconstruct you), confirm (assure the certainty of it), strengthen, establish (to set firmly with a strong foundation) you.

v 11…To him (Yehovah) be glory and dominion (the kingdom-Dan 7.13-14; 1 Chr 2911-13; Matt 6.13) forever and ever (L’Olam Vaed). Amen (so be it; to be trusted).

v 12…Through Silvanus our faithful brother, for so I regard him, I have written to you briefly, exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God. Stand firm in it.

v 13…She (the kahal; bride) who is in Babylon (Babylon was a Torah center for 500 years and had the largest Jewish population in the world; Pater was sent to the “circumcision” in Gal 2.9), chosen together with you, sends you greetings (Peter was writing from there), and so does my son Mark (John Mark possibly or some other Mark; John Mark was an interpreter of Peter and it is said that he wrote his book based on what he had heard from Peter).

v 14…Greet one another with a kiss of love (a common expression of affection even today), Peace be to you all who are in Messiah (called by him and who represent him, reflecting his life, teachings, purposes, and under his control).

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Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in First Peter-Chapter 4

1 Pet 4.1-19 exhorts these believers to remain enthusiastic in their love for Messiah and to not be surprised about any trials or testings they may encounter.

v 1…Therefore (in light of what was just said), since Messiah has suffered for us in the flesh, arm (fortify) yourselves also with the same purpose (same mind or disposition) because he who has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin (from the guilt of it; the charges and indictment and punishment has been dropped),

v 2…so as to live the rest of the time in the flesh no longer for the lusts of men (the unrestrained pattern of sin), but for the will of God.

v 3…For the time already past is sufficient to have carried out the desire of the Gentiles (to live with the unregenerate mindset of the non-Jews), having pursued a course of sensuality (intense sexual craving), lusts (personal desires), drunkenness, carousels, drinking parties, and abominable idolatries.

v 4…And in this, they are surprised that you do not run with them into the same excess of dissipation (riot), and they malign you (speak evil of you).

v 5…But they shall give an account to him (so don’t avenge yourself) who is ready to judge the living and the dead.

v 6…For the gospel (Hebrew “basar”) has for this purpose been preached even to those who are dead (formerly alive physically; they may have already died or were killed for their faith); that though they are judged in the flesh by men (unregenerate, unbelieving men) they may live in the spirit according to God (eternally in the Olam Haba).

v 7…The end of all things is at hand (fleshly things as far as they were concerned according to the context of v 1-6). Therefore, be of sound judgment and sober for the purpose of prayer (be watching for what to pray for; maintain a proper perspective about life; be serious).

v 8…Above all, keep fervent (enthusiastic) in your love (in action) for one another because love (in action) covers a multitude of sins (overlooks the sins of others against a believer; be ready to forgive).

v 9…Be hospitable (love of others) to one another without complaint (murmuring).

v 10…As each one has received a gift (a spiritual gift-Rom 12.3-8; 1 Cor 12.4-10), employ it in serving one another (minister among yourselves), as good stewards of the manifold (many phases) of the grace of God (from where all blessings come from).

v 11…Whoever speaks (this is how to apply a specific gift of public ministry of the word), as it were, the utterance of God (the oracles in their context); whosoever serves, as by the strength which God supplies; so that in all things God may be glorified (be honored; deserving of the highest regard) through Yeshua the Messiah, to whom belongs the glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen (to be trusted).

v 12…Beloved, do not be surprised at the fiery ordeal among you (it was common; it happens to all of God’s people through the years), which comes upon you for your testing (of your faith through adverse circumstances), as though some strange thing were happening to you (not unusual).

v 13…But to the degree that you share the sufferings of Messiah, keep on rejoicing; so that also at the revelation (Greek “apocalypsei”) of his glory (at Yom Ha Din, the day of judgment) you may rejoice with exultation (when the Olam Ha Zeh passes away into the Olam Haba).

v 14…If you are reviled for the name of Messiah (on account of him, you are blessed (empowered to succeed), because the spirit of glory (the Ruach Ha Kodesh) and of God rests on you; on their part (who reproach God) he is evil spoken of. But on your part he is glorified (bearing a testimony of the favor of God).

v 15…By no means let any of you suffer as a murderer, or thief, or evildoer, or a troublesome meddler (a busybody);

v 16…but if as a Christian (the Greek term was used in Greek-speaking areas like Antioch, etc; in the first century this was a term of ridicule-Acts 11.26, 26.18; these believers were Torah observant and had little resemblance to the term today), let him not feel ashamed, but in that name let him glorify God (the Hebrew term for this is “Mashiachim”).

v 17…Because the time (has come) to begin the judgment from the house of God (Yeshua’s prophecies about the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple); and if it begins with us first (also includes the Jewish people who believe), what shall be the outcome for those who do not obey the gospel (basar) of God (unbelieving Israel)?

v 18…And if it the righteous (tzadikim) is scarcely saved, where will the ungodly (rashim) and the sinner (chataim) appear (if the righteous are chastened for sin and transgressions, how much more the wicked and sinner-a quote from the Septuagint of Prov 11.31).

v 19…Therefore, let those also who suffer according to the will of God entrust their souls to a faithful Creator in doing what is right (when it comes time to suffer affliction, believers should entrust their case to God).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Festivals of the Lord, The Tanak, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in First Peter-Chapter 3

1 Pet 3.1-22 tells us how wives should relate to their husbands; letting their dress and ornaments not be for an outward show only, but internal as well; how husbands are to give proper honor to their wives, living with them as co-heirs of the Olam Haba so that their prayers may not be hindered; a general admonition to pursue unity and kindness; never competing with evil and quoting Psa 34 demonstrating the blessing that awaits those who do not compete with evil; to remember Yeshua’s example about trials, patience and victory.

v 1…In the same way, you wives, be submissive to your own husbands (as her head of influence-1 Cor 11.1-16) so that even if any are disobedient to the word (not Torah observant) they may be won over without a word (of preaching) by their behavior (conduct, lifestyle) of their wives,

v 2…as they observe your chaste and respectful behavior (in all areas).

v 3…And let not your adornment be merely external-braiding the hair and wearing gold jewelry, and putting on dresses (there is nothing wrong with these things, but don’t let your intent be on outward appearances only);

v 4…but the hidden person of the heart, with imperishable quality and of a gentle and quiet spirit (parallelism with “heart”) which is precious in the sight of God.

v 5…For in this way in former times the holy women (wives of the patriarchs) also, who hoped in God, used to adorn themselves being submissive to their own husbands (as their head of influence).

v 6…Thus Sarah obeyed Abraham calling him lord, and you have become her daughters if you do what is right without being frightened by any fear (being kind, hospitable, with love and faith in action, no timidity).

v 7…You husbands likewise, live with your wives in an understanding way (according to knowledge) as with weaker vessels (physically), since she is a woman; and grant her honor as a fellow-heir of the grace of life (eternal life), so that your prayers may not be hindered (this refers to the prayers of the husband if he does not respect her needs, etc).

v 8…To sum up (finally), let all harmonious (of one mind), sympathetic (compassion), brotherly, kind-hearted, and humble in spirit;

v 9…not returning evil for evil (competing with evil), or insult for insult, but giving a blessing instead; for you were called for the very purpose that you might inherit a blessing.

v 10…For “Let him who means to love life and see good days refrain his tongue from evil and his lips from speaking guile.

v 11…And let him turn away from evil and do good; let him seek peace and pursue it.

v 12…For the eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and his ears attend to their prayer, but the face of the Lord is against those who are evil (Psa 34.12-16).”

v 13…And who is there to harm you if you prove zealous for what is good (in general; God’s protection can carry us through the world and its challenges)?

v 14…But even if you should suffer for the sake of righteousness (on account of it; as defined in the Torah-Matt 5.10), you are blessed. And do not fear their intimidation, and do not be troubled,

v 15…but sanctify (with a kedusha; set apart) Messiah as Lord in your hearts, always ready to make a defense (Greek “apologian” or answer-Col 4.6) to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence (to do this one must study the Scriptures);

v 16…and keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Messiah may be put to shame.

v 17…For it is better if God should will it so (the two wills of God are the will of command and the will of decree), that you suffer for doing what is right rather than for doing what is wrong.

v 18…For Messiah also died for sins once and for all, just for unjust, in order that he might bring us to God (who were afar off in unbelief), having been put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit;

v 19…in which he went and made proclamation (through Noah-2 Pet 2.4-5; he preached to that evil generation), whose spirits are now in prison,

v 20…who once were disobedient when the patience of God kept waiting in the days of Noah, during the construction of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons were brought safely through water.

v 21…And corresponding to that, immersion now saves you (Messiah is the place of safety, not the water; faith brings us into the Messiah, like the ark, and all his benefits and purposes)-not the removal of dirt from the flesh, but an appeal to God to have a good conscience through the resurrection of Yeshua the Messiah,

v 22…who is at the right hand of God (position of power), having gone into heaven, after angels and authorities and powers had been subjected to him (and under his control).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Festivals of the Lord, The Tanak, Tying into the New Testament