Rom 5.1-21 tells us about being justified by faith and having peace with God; how sin entered the human race through Adam’s sin; how Messiah made righteousness and eternal life available to all who have faith.
v 1…Therefore (Paul will continue his presentation from the previous chapters on how the Gentiles are included into the faith of Israel) having been justified by faith (there is a difference between justification before God where we are passive and this was accomplished at the cross and justification by faith is done by the person when faith comes to us and we are born again), we have peace (this is a judicial peace) with God through our Lord Yeshua the Messiah,
v 2… through whom also we have obtained our introduction by faith into this grace (salvation is by grace and the tool is faith) in which we stand and we exult in hope of the glory of God.
v 3… And not only this, but we also exult in our tribulations (the Lord said we would have tribulation in this world-Matt 5.45) knowing that tribulation brings about perseverance (outside pressure produces fortitude and experience);
v 4… and perseverance, proven character; and proven character, hope (the effect of his troubles will produce spiritual maturity, developed over years);
v 5…and hope does not disappoint because the love of God has been poured out within our hearts through the Holy Spirit (actually the Shekinah with us) who was given to us.
v 6…For while we were weak (weak in the sense that we did not know Yeshua), at the right time Messiah died for the ungodly (godless).
v 7… For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die.
v 8… But God demonstrates his own love towards us, in that while we were yet sinners (there are three types of people in the world. The “tzaddikim” or righteous by faith; the “chata’im” or sinner, the average people; and the “rashim” or desperately wicked who have no chance of salvation. The “chata’im” are rebels who didn’t want God and out of control because of the sin nature), Messiah died for us.
v 9… Much more then (Hillel rule #1), having now been justified (acquitted; a present state of status that is finished) by his blood (this comes first), we shall be saved from the wrath of God through him.
v 10…For if while we were enemies (the state we were in), we were reconciled (a restored relationship that had gone wrong by substituting peace and goodwill) to God through the death of his son, much more (Hillel rule #1), having been reconciled, we shall be saved by his life (of the life of him; because we were reconciled we can be saved, both are God’s work and gift).
v 11…And not only this, but we also exult in God through our Lord Yeshua the Messiah, through whom we have now received the reconciliation (cancelation of, adjustment of a difference. The word “atonement” used here in some versions like the KJV was coined by Tyndale in 1526 AD because English had no word for reconciliation).
v 12… Therefore, just as through one man sin (the sin nature invaded the world from the outside. We were “in” our “federal head” Adam; his sin was ours) entered into the world, and death through sin (the sin nature) and so death spread to all men because all sinned
v 13… for until the Law (Torah) sin (the sin nature) was in the world (existed); but sin (the sin nature) is not imputed when there was no law (there was no Law of Moses).
v 14…Nevertheless (however, there was sin, even though the Law of Moses was not given yet) death reigned (death comes by the sin nature. There was no Torah to charge people with, yet they died. Logic leads us to conclude that their death comes by reason of Adam’s sin and inherited sin nature) from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of Adam’s offense, who is a type of him who was to come.
v 15… But the free gift is not like the transgression (everyone inherited the sin nature, but one does not inherit salvation). For if by the transgression of one the many died (including Gentiles), much more (Hillel rule #1) did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Yeshua the Messiah, abound to the many.
v 16… And the gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned (Adam’s sin condemned all men through a judicial act, but Yeshua justified the many); for on the one hand the judgment arose from one transgression resulting in condemnation, but on the other hand the free gift arose from many transgressions resulting in justification (transforming the sinner from a state of unrighteousness to righteousness. This is an act of God alone-5.14)
.v 17… For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more (Hillel rule #1) those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the one, Yeshua the Messiah (imparted to the believer)
v 18…So then as through one transgression (Adam’s single act) there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of life to all men (righteousness imputed by one act; it became available).
v 19… For as through the one man’s disobedience the many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one the many were made righteous (all are condemned by the one, and all who are justified by faith are justified because of the one, Yeshua).
v 20… And the Law (Torah) came so that the transgression might increase (to show how bad sin was; or to “bulk up, cause to grow. The Torah revealed sin to those who were unaware that they were sinning, which is one of the purposes of the Torah. By revealing sin for what it was, it becomes part of the solution); but where sin (the sin nature) increased, grace abounded all the more,
v 21… that, as sin (the sin nature) reigned in death, even so grace might reign through righteousness of eternal life through Yeshua the Messiah our Lord.