Brit Chadasah Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 23

Luke 23.1-56 will tell us about Yeshua’s trials before Pilate and Herod; the crowd choosing Barabbas in an allusion to the Yom Kippur ceremony; Simon carries Yeshua’s cross; his words to the women of Jerusalem; his crucifixion and events and words will on the cross; his death at the time the Passover lambs were being slain; the witnesses to his death; Yeshua’s burial in the tomb of Joseph.

v 1…Then the whole body of them arose and brought him to Pilate (those who sided with Caiaphas, except Joseph and Nicodemus who did not consent-Luke 23.51; John 19.39).

v 2…And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this man misleading (troubling-like Elijah did to Ahab-1 Kings 18.17 and like Jeremiah in Jer 38.4) our nation and forbidding to pay taxes to Caesar (but Yeshua upheld Caesar’s right to collect taxes in Luke 20.20-25) and saying that he himself is Messiah, a king”

v 3…And Pilate asked him, saying, “Are you the king of the Jews (John 18.33-37 gives a fuller account; Piate realized that the kingdom Yeshua spoke about was not of this world and was not evidence of treason)?” And he answered him and said, “You have said (meaning “Yes”).”

v 4…And Pilate said to the chief priests and the multitudes, “I find no guilt n this man (the only honest judgment that day was given by the Romans-he was acquitted).”

v 5…But they kept insisting, saying, “He stirs up the people, teaching all over Judea, starting from Galilee, even as far as this place.”

v 6…But when Pilate heard it, he asked whether the man was a Galilean (Zealots had been causing trouble in Galilee and other places as far back as 6 AD-Acts 5.37 with Judas the Galilean, and his father Hezekiah started the Zealot movement, and Judas had a brother named Hananiah who held a meeting in his house in 20 BC with Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, where the Zealots aligned with Beit Shammai killed members of Beit Hillel before a vote on the 18 Edicts, passing these edicts. These edicts restricted interaction between Jews and non-Jews and we see this as an issue in Acts and Galatians).

v 7…And when he learned that he belonged in Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who himself was in Jerusalem at that time (for Passover).

v 8…And Herod was very glad when he saw Yeshua; for he had wanted to see him for a long time (from the time John was beheaded, to see if he was John or not-Matt 14.1-2), because he had been hearing about him and was hoping to see some sign performed by him.

v 9…And he questioned him at some length, but he answered him nothing.

v 10…And the chief priests and the scribes were standing there, accusing him vehemently (they did not want their case against Yeshua to turn against them).

v 11…And Herod with his soldiers (bodyguard), after treating him with contempt and mocking him, dressed him in a gorgeous robe and sent him back to Pilate.

v 12…Now Herod and Pilate became friends with one another that very day; for before they had been at enmity with each other (on account of the trouble with the Galilean Zealots who were killed in Luke 13.1-Pilate, who might have been reconciled to Yehovah through all of this, emerged with nothing but a worthless friendship with Herod).

v 13…And Pilate summoned the chief priests and the rulers of the people,

v 14…and said to them, “You brought this man to me as one who incites the people to rebellion and behold, I have found no guilt in this man regarding the charges that you make against him.

v 15…No, nor has Herod, for he sent him back to us; and behold, nothing deserving of death has been done by him.

v 16…I will therefore punish him (for what?) and release him (after he was scourged-John 19.1).”

v 17…Now he was obligated (by custom) to release to them at the feast one prisoner.

v 18…But they cried out all together, saying, “Away with this man, and release for us Barabbas (meaning “son of the father”-some believe he was the oldest son of a Zealot named Abbas Ben Judas, or Judas the Galilean, the official founder of the Zealot Party-Acts 5.37).”

v 19…He was one who had been thrown into prison for a certain insurrection made in the city, and for murder.

v 20…And Pilate, wanting to release Yeshua, addressed them again,

v 21…but they kept on calling out, saying, “Crucify, crucify him!”

v 22…And he said to them the third time, “Why, what evil has this man done (show me the evidence)? I have found in him no guilt demanding death; I will therefore punish him and release him.”

v 23…But they were insistent, with loud voices asking that he be crucified. And their voices, and of the chief priests, prevailed.

v 24…And Pilate pronounced sentence that their demand be granted (Yeshua and Barabbas standing before Pilate is like the two goats standing before the high priest on Yom Kippur).

v 25…And he released the man they were asking for who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder, but he turned Yeshua over to their will.

v 26…And when they had led him away (from Pilate’s hall to Golgotha), they laid hold of one Simon (to hear) a Cyrenian (father of Alexander and Rufus-Mark 15.21), coming in from the country (the Cyrenians had a synagogue in Jerusalem-Acts 6.9, 11.20- he was there to keep Passover), and placed on him the cross to carry behind Yeshua (due to exhaustion).

v 27…And there were following him a great multitude of people, and of women who were mourning and lamenting for him (from Jerusalem not Galilee).

v 28…But Yeshua turning to them said, “Daughters of Jerusalem (a doomed city), stop weeping for me, but weep for yourselves and for your children.

v 29…For behold (take note), the days are coming (when Jerusalem will be destroyed in 70 AD when they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bore, and the breasts that never nursed (because you won’t see your children die or starve to death during the coming siege of Jerusalem).’

v 30…Then they will begin to say to the mountains, ‘Fall on us,’ and to the hills, ‘Cover us (because to be buried under the ruins of mountains and hills would be better than to live during the coming siege).’

v 31…For if they do these things in the green tree (has life; a righteous one, living in innocence-Psa 1.3; Ezek 20.47), what will happen in the dry (no life; the unrighteous who are guilty; they were a tree to be burned-Psa 1.4-6).”

v 32…And two others also, who were criminals, were being led away to be put to death with him (Isa 53.9, 12).

v 33…And when they came to a place called the Skull (Greek”Kranion” where we get the word “cranium”-also called Golgotha which is related to the word “gilgal” where Israel was circumcised and their reproach was “rolled away” in the first redemption; Yeshua will ratify the new covenant and circumcise the heart of a believer and “roll away” our reproach in the second redemption), there they crucified him and the criminals, one on the right and the other on the left.

v 34…But Yeshua was saying, “Father forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing (Yeshua calls for compassion on the ignorant-Acts 3.17, but it did not excuse their sin; they were blind to the truth of Yehovah; had they known it they would have never crucified him-1 Cor 2.8).” And they cast lots (Psa 22.18), dividing up his garments among themselves (John 19.23-24 gives more detail).

v 35…And the people stood by, looking on (this gruesome scene because of curiosity, anger, mourning, gloating-Psa 22.17; Zech 12.10). And even the rulers were sneering at him, saying, “He saved others (they knew he healed and raised others from the dead); let him save himself if this is the Messiah of God, his chosen one (with all their religious knowledge of the Torah, they should have known).”

v 36…And the soldiers also mocked him, coming up to him, offering him sour wine (and then possibly not allowing him to drink it),

v 37…and saying, “If you are the king of the Jews save yourself!”

v 38…Now there was also an inscription above him (in Greek, Latin and Hebrew), “This is the king of the Jews (John 19.19 says, “Yeshua the Nazarene, the king of the Jews.” In Hebrew, it may have been written as an acrostic saying, “(Y)eshua (H)a Notzri (V) melek (H)a Yehudim” with YHVH as the beginning letters. Pilate was not only mocking the Jewish Messiah, but the Jewish God also).”

v 39…And one of the criminals who were hanged was hurling abuse at him, saying, “Are you not the Messiah? Save yourself and us!”

v 40…But the other answered and rebuking him said, “Do you not even fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation?

v 41…And we indeed justly, for we are receiving what we deserve for our deeds, but this man has done nothing wrong.”

v 42…And he was saying, “Yeshua, remember me when you come in your kingdom (something happened to him on the cross because earlier they both were insulting him-Matt 27.44; Mark 15.32)!”

v 43…And he said to him, “Truly I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise (a term for Gan Eden, the Olam Haba-this statement refutes the belief that “sacraments” were needed for salvation, like baptism, the Lord’s Supper, church ceremonies or good works; it refutes the Catholic dogma of Purgatory; soul sleep, etc).”

v 44…And it was now about the sixth hour (noon), and darkness fell over the whole land until the ninth hour (3 pm when the Passover lambs were slain),

v 45…the sun being obscured; and the veil (paroket) of the Temple was torn in two (notice this is singular; this was the veil to the sanctuary building that all could see called “The Heavens” because there was “an image of the heavens” on it-Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book 5, Chapter 5.4-see our notes in Matt 27.51 and Mark 15.38).

v 46…And Yeshua, crying out with a loud voice, said, “Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit (quotes Psa 31.5-he was not “forsaken”).”

v 47…Now when the centurion saw what happened (the darkness, what Yeshua said, etc), he began praising God, saying, “Certainly this man was innocent (something the religious leaders and their hard hearts would not recognize).”

v 48…And all the multitudes who came together for this spectacle (this scene), when they observed what had happened, began to return, beating their breasts (their heart, the root of all sin-Jer 17.9-10; Matt 15.19).

v 49…And all his acquaintances (those known to him) and the women who accompanied him from Galilee, were standing at a distance, seeing these things.

v 50…And behold (see), a man named Joseph (he will add) who was a member of the council (Sanhedrin), a good and righteous man (a talmid of Yeshua-Matt 27.57, waiting for the kingdom of God-Mark 15.43)

v 51…he had not consented to their plan and action (he either took no part in it, or he did not vote to sanction what they wanted, probably along with Nicodemus-John 19.39), a man from Arimathea (meaning a “high place”, from “Ramah” and a hellenized version of “haramataim” most likely), a city of the Jews, who was waiting for the kingdom of God (now remember Joseph of Egypt? Pharaoh knew Israel was not coming back when Moses went to the Faiyum to take the remains of Joseph back to Canaan, leaving Joseph’s tomb empty. Egypt was a “high place” of idolatry. Satan knows that believers are not coming back because there will be another tomb of Joseph of the “high place” that will be empty);

v 52…This man went to Pilate (after gathering enough courage-Mark 15.43) and asked for the body of Yeshua (to give it a decent Jewish preparation for burial).

v 53…And he took it down and wrapped it in a linen cloth (John 19.40 says “linen wrappings”), and laid him in a tomb cut into the rock, where no one has ever lain (so that he was the only one buried there to confirm the resurrection. Yeshua was born to a Joseph and his mother had a “new womb”, and now he is buried in a “new tomb” of another Joseph).

v 54…And it was the preparation day (Wednesday, Nisan 14, Passover), and the Sabbath was about to begin (Nisan 15, the first day of Unleavened Bread-Lev 23.6-7).

v 55…Now the women who had come with him out of Galilee followed after, and saw the tomb and how his body was laid.

v 56…And they returned and prepared spices and perfumes (for anointing him later). And on the Sabbath (of Nisan 15, a Thursday) they rested according to the commandment (Lev 23.6-they would buy spices on Friday, Nisan 16 to anoint him-Mark 16.1).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

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