Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 19

Luke 19.1=48 gives us the account of Yeshua going to the house of Zacchaeus; the parable of the minas; Yeshua’s entry into Jerusalem on Nisan 10, four days before Passover; and his teachings in the Temple.

v 1…And he entered and was passing through Jericho (it was a Jewish custom to meet a festive party as they passed through a town on their way to a festival, so this explains the multitude in 18.36-37).

v 2…And behold (see), there was a man called by the name of Zacchaeus (Hebrew Zakkai meaning “just one”) and he was a chief tax-gatherer (a supervisor over the other tax gatherers in the area) and he was rich (some of it was ill-gottens gains).

v 3…And he was trying to see who Yeshua was, and he was unable because of the crowd, for he was small in stature.

v 4…And he ran ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree in order to see him, for he was about to pass through that way (Yeshua was using the regular route of travel for people going up to Jerusalem-in a few days Yeshua would go up a tree for Zacchaeus).

v 5…And when Yeshua came to the place, he looked up (he knew he would be there by his sovereignty, like Adam and Nathaniel-Gen 3.8; John 1.48; Zacchaeus was ordained by Yehovah to be there) and said to him, “Zacchaeus (he knew his name because Yehovah had given him to Yeshua), hurry and come down, for today I must stay at your house (to meet his need-Yeshua “knocked” and he was let in-Rev 3.20).”

v 6…And he hurried and came down and received him gladly (John 1.12; Rev 22.17).

v 7…And when they (the multitude) saw it, they all began to mumble (murmur like the scribes and Pharisees in Luke 15.2), saying, “He has gone to be the guest of a man who is a sinner (table fellowship was seen as acceptance).”

v 8…And Zacchaeus (Zakkai) stopped and said to the Lord, “Behold (take note), Lord, half of my possessions I will give to the poor (to show his repentance for his sins due to conviction), and if I have defrauded anyone of anything, I will give back four times as much (the Torah required double-Exo 22.1-4; Lev 6.1-5. Num 5.6-7 says add twenty percent; we see that Zacchaeus was not like the self-righteous young ruler in Luke 18.22-23).”

v 9…And Yeshua said to him, “Today salvation (Yeshua in Hebrew) has come to this house, because he, too, is a son of Abraham (an heir of faith who trusted in me spiritually, not just physically).

v 10…For the son of Man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13, an eschatological title) has come to seek and to save that which was lost.”

v 11…And while they were listening to these things, he went on to tell a parable (midrashic agaddah), because he was near Jerusalem, and they supposed that the kingdom of God was going to appear immediately (that is why they did not understand Luke 18.31-34; their expectations were far from what was going to happen, so Yeshua tells them the following parable).

v 12…And he said therefore, “A certain nobleman (Messiah) went to a distant country (Israel) to receive a kingdom (of God) for himself and then return (back home/heaven).

v 13…And he called ten (the number of judgment and government) of his servants and gave them ten minas (a system of weight equalling about 50 shekels, a type of spiritual gifts) and said to them, ‘Do business (for the kingdom) until I come back.’

v 14…But his citizens hated him (Israel-John 1.11), and sent a delegation after him (Yeshua), saying, ‘We do not want this man to reign over us (as Messiah-they said “this man” because they did not even want to say his name out of contempt)!

v 15…And it came about that when he returned (eschatologically a Yom Ha Din or day of judgment, alluding to Yom Kippur at the end of the birth-pains) after receiving the kingdom (seven years earlier on Yom Ha Din Rosh Ha Shannah, year 6001 from creation-Dan 7.9-14), he ordered that these servants to whom he had given the money (spiritual gifts) be called to him in order that he might know what business they had done (give an account of their trustworthiness).

v 16…And the first appeared, saying, ‘Master, your mina has made ten minas more (he made good use of his gifts and not claiming any merit).’

v 17…And he said to him, ‘Well done, good servant, because you have been faithful (action) in a very little thing, be in authority over ten cities (in the kingdom).’

v 18…And the second came, saying, ‘Your mina, master, has made five minas (he, too, is not claiming any merit, those gifts were given to him).’

v 19…And he said to him also, ‘And you are to be over five cities (in the kingdom).’

v 20…And another came, saying, ‘Master, behold your mina, which I kept (put away) in a handkerchief;

v 21…For I was afraid of you (not of the right kind, not out of love but contempt; he didn’t know him), because you are an exacting (austere, bitter) man; you take up what you did not lay down, and reap where you did not sow?’

v 22…He said to him, ‘By your own words I will judge you (it’s Yom Ha Din Yom Kippur remember, a day of judgment), you worthless servant. Did you know that I am an exacting man, taking up what I did not lay down, and reaping what I did not sow?

v 23…Then why did you not put the money back in the bank, and having come, I would have collected it with interest?’

v 24…And he said to the bystanders (other servants nearby), ‘Take the mina away from him, and give it to the one who has the ten minas (who invested and showed his wisdom).’

v 25…And they said to him, Master, he has ten minas already (but he wants his gifts in the hand of someone who will use them the best).’

v 26…I tell you, that to everyone who has (manages what is entrusted to him by Yehovah) shall more be given, but from the one who does not have (not managing the gifts God has given him), what he does have shall be taken away.

v 27…But these enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them (the scribes and Pharisees of Shammai, the Sadducees, Zealots, Sicarii or any unbeliever) bring them here, and slay them in my presence (Matt 25.41-46; eschatologically, Yeshua returns on Tishri 10, and the unbelievers will be judged as Yeshua sits on the Mount of Olives between Tishri 10 and 15; they will be slain at the “feast of Leviathan” and put into the Tophet south of Jerusalem, also called the valley of Yehoshaphat-Isa 66.24; Matt 24.27-28; Luke 17.37; Rev 19.21-this also alludes to the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD).”

v 28…And after he said these things, he was going on ahead (leading his talmidim) ascending to Jerusalem.

v 29…And it came about that when he approached Bethphage (house of figs) and Bethany (house of dates), near the mount that is called Olivet (olives), he sent two of the talmidim,

v 30…saying, “Go into the village opposite you, in which as you enter you will find a colt tied on which no one has ever sat (Matt 21.2 says its mother was also there), untie it, and bring it here (Yeshua waited where he was).

v 31…And if anyone asks you, ‘Why are you untying it?’ Thus shall you speak, ‘The Lord has need of it (Psa 50.10).’ “

v 32…And those who were sent went away and found it just as he had told them (the word of God can be trusted).

v 33…And as they were untying the colt, its owners said to them, “Why are you untying the colt?”

v 34…And they said, “The Lord (Yehovah) has need of it.”

v 35…And they brought it to Yeshua, and they threw their garments on the colt, and put Yeshua on it (to fulfill Zech 9.9).

v 36…And as he was going, they were spreading their garments in the road (also palms in admiration-Matt 21.8).

v 37…And as he was now approaching, near the descent of the Mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the talmidim began to praise God joyfully with a loud voice for all the miracles which they had seen,

v 38…saying, “Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the Lord (Yehovah, in his authority); peace in heaven and glory in the highest (before the throne in heaven, even in Jerusalem, the city of peace)!”

v 39…And some of the Pharisees (from Beit Shammai who hated Yeshua) in the multitude said to him, “Teacher, rebuke your talmidim (they are getting out of hand, this is embarrassing).”

v 40…And he answered and said, “I tell you, if these (people) become silent, the stones will cry out (tombstones of the dead; they know who Yeshua is, as in Luke 16.28-31; Yehovah placed his name in the stones of the three valleys forming a “Shin”)!”

v 41…And when he approached he saw the city and wept over it (convulsively; David wept on the same spot as he was leaving the city after they rejected him in 2 Sam 15.30),

v 42…saying, “If you had known this day, even you, the things which make for peace (now keep in mind, this is Nisan 10, the day the lambs for Passover are being set apart to be inspected. Yeshua is the Passover lamb for Israel and he will be inspected to make sure he is without blemish-Exo 12.3. It is also 69 weeks exactly from the decree to rebuild the city in Neh 2.1-8 to Nisan 10 and the coming of the Messiah here, based on the prophecy in Dan 9.25. That is 173,880 days. If they would have understood this, they would have known who he was, but it was too late)! But now they have been hidden from your eyes (by God).

v 43…For the days shall come upon you when your enemies will throw up a bank before you, and surrounding you, and hem you in on every side (Luke 21.20-before Passover in Nisan, forty years later the Romans with Vespasian will encircle the city; see “History of the Jewish People-The second Temple Era” by Mesorah Publications, Ltd, p.186-194; quotes Isa 29.1-3; believers will flee to Pella and the Jordanian wilderness before they are trapped in the city, believing Luke 21.20-22),

v 44…and will level you to the ground and your children within you, and they will not leave in you one stone upon another (this is not to be taken literally, this is an idiom for massive and total destruction caused by war), because you did not recognize the time of your visitation (Joseph, a type of Messiah, says in Gen 50.24, “I will visit, visit you” in Hebrew. Why twice? It teaches the first redemption visitation with Moses, and the second redemption visitation with Yeshua-Luke 1.68).”

v 45…And he entered the Temple and began to cast out those who were selling (in the Bazaars of Annas in the Royal Stoa; keep in mind this is Passover and Yeshua is cleaning out the leaven from his father’s house),

v 46…saying to them, “It is written (already on record), ‘And my house shall be a house of prayer.’ but you have made it a robbers den (he quotes Jer 7.11-In Herod’s Temple, Yeshua is standing in the Royal Stoa, right above where Jeremiah was standing when he said Jer 7.11).”

v 47…And he was teaching daily in the Temple (from Nisan 10-13); but the chief priests and the scribe and the leading men among the people were trying to destroy him,

v 48…and they could be anything (a blemish, like they were inspecting the Passover lamb) that they might do, for all the people were hanging upon (being attentive to) his words.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

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