Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 22

Luke 22.1-71 tells us about the season of Pesach (Passover), Hag Ha Matzah (Unleavened Bread) and Yom Ha Bikkurim (First Fruits of the Barley). It will also reveal a plot to kill Yeshua by the chief priests and religious leaders; the Last Supper before Passover where Yeshua has one last instructional meal with his talmidim; Yeshua’s capture and Peter’s denial; Yeshua’s so-called “trial” before a hastily gathered Sanhedrin, made up of those from Beit Shammai who were aligned with Caiaphas.

v 1…Now the feast of Unleavened Bread (John 13.1) which is called the Passover (season, because it lasted for eight days) was approaching.

v 2 And the chief priests and the scribes (from Beit Shammai) were seeking how they might put him to death (like the parable in 20.9-18 said); for they were afraid of the people (called the “Am ha Eretz” or people of the land, common people who would be in the city for Passover from Galilee and Judea, and who followed his ministry and were blessed by it).

v 3…And Satan (meaning the adversary) entered into Judas (the corruptions of his heart) who is called Iscariot (meaning either “man of Kerioth” a town in Judah, or it may be related to the word “Sicarii” meaning assassin, who were aligned with Beit Shammai, who were aligned with the Zealot Party), belonging to the number of the twelve.

v 4…And he went away and discussed with the chief priests and officers (of the Temple guard) how he might betray him to them.

v 5…And they were delighted and agreed to give him money (he was a thief and a lover of money-John 12.6).

v 6…And he consented and began seeking a good opportunity to betray him to them apart from the multitude (who might attempt to rescue him and cause a riot).

v 7…Was coming (according to the Thayer Lexicon, future tense; it started at sunset of Nisan 13th) the day of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover had to be sacrificed (the whole eight days was called “Passover” or “Unleavened Bread” and it refers to the season and were interchangeable terms in the first century-Luke 22.1; John 13.1; for a breakdown of the final week of Yeshua, we refer you to a booklet called, “Chronology of the Crucifixion Week” by Wayne Carver, the Christian Jew Foundation, Charles Halff, Director, p. 36-40. We believe it is accurate and we will present a condensed version of it here: Friday, Nisan 9, six days before Passover-John 12.1, Mark 10.46; Saturday, Nisan 10, a weekly Sabbath, Yeshua enters Jerusalem-John 12.12-19, Mark 11.1-11; Sunday, Nisan 11, the first day of the week and the fig tree is cursed and the Temple cleansed-Mark 11.12-19; Monday, Nisan 12, a teaching on the Mount of Olives-Mark 11.20, 13.1-11; Tuesday, Nisan 13, the Passover room is prepared by deleavening and getting essential materials; Wednesday, Nisan 14 after sunset, the last supper before Unleavened Bread is eaten, Yeshua goes to the garden to be arrested and brought before PIlate later that morning, he is crucified by 9 am and dies at 3 pm, he is buried in the late afternoon because they cannot bury him the next day; Thursday, Nisan 15 is a high Sabbath and a guard is given and Yeshua is in the tomb-Lev 23.5-7; Friday, Nisan 16, Joseph and Nicodemus prepared the body for burial-John 19.38-42, Luke 23.50-56; Saturday, Nisan 17, a weekly Sabbath and the resurrection will occur at the end of the day, around sundown, three full days and nights in the tomb-Matt 28.1-8; John 20.11-18; Sunday, Nisan 18 relates the account of the women who came to the tomb very early that morning as witnesses that Yeshua had already risen-Luke 24.1-3).

v 8…And he sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and prepare Passover (the room for it; they had to deleaven it, get tables, pillows, bowls, pitchers and whatever else they would need-the lamb would not have been slain and roasted till the next day, and Yeshua would be dead) for us, that we may eat it (collectively, but Yeshua would not be there for the actual Passover meal because he would be in the tomb. The meal they will eat shortly is the last supper before unleavened bread, when no leaven can be eaten; this would be on the night of Nisan 13, going to Nisan 14 after sundown).”

v 9…And they said to him, “Where do you want us to prepare it (what room should we get ready)?”

v 10…And he said to them, “Behold (take note), when you have entered the city (the Passover must be eaten within the walls of Jerusalem, even though Yeshua will not eat the lamb the next day. The talmudim will keep the festival as directed by the Torah-Deut 16.2), a man will meet you (face to face) carrying a pitcher of water (probably a servant); follow him into the house he enters.

v 11…And you shall say to the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher (a messianic term) says to you, “Where is the guest room (same word as “inn” in Luke 2.7) in which I may eat the Passover with my talmidim (he is speaking for everyone even though he would not be there?” ‘

v 12…”And he will show you a large, furnished upper room; prepare there.”

v 13…And they departed and found everything just as he told them and they prepared the Passover (on the evening of the 13th of Nisan, as the 14th began; they had to deleaven the room and got everything arranged).

v 14…And when the hour had come (sundown) he reclined (sat down) and the talmidim with him (In the Jewish New Testament Commentary by David Stern, p.77, Stern suggests that this was a preparatory meal called the “Seudat Mitzvah” which was a celebratory banquet accompanying the performance of any mitzvah, like a wedding, the festivals, etc).

v 15…And he said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer (but he knows it will be impossible);

v 16…for I say to you, I shall never again eat it (in this life because he would be gone) until it (not that very meal, but the upcoming Passover) is fulfilled (given meaning) in the kingdom of God (God’s rule and movement in power and action);

v 17…And having taken a cup, when he had given thanks (the Ha Gafin prayer), he said, ‘Take this and share it among yourselves;

v 18…for I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine from now on until the kingdom of God comes (in power, after the resurrection, when he drinks it with them in the kingdom).”

v 19…And having taken bread (the word for bread here in all the accounts is “arton”, a general term for bread-Matt 26.26. Unleavened bread is “azumon” as in Mark 14.12; we can’t be dogmatic about the type of bread used unless it says unleavened or “azumon” as in Luke 22.1), when he had given thanks (the Ha Motzi prayer), he broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body which is given for you, do this in remembrance of me.”

v 20…And in the same way, the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup which is poured out for you is the new (chadash or “renewed”) covenant (Deut 29.1 through 30.6; Jer 31.31-34; Ezek 37.26) in my blood (he is defining what the bread and wine symbolizes-1 Cor 10.16-17; 11.23-34-Yeshua’s blood is going to ratify this covenant).

v 21…But behold (see), the hand of the one betraying me is with me on the table (this made it even worse, he ate at his table, showing friendship, and betrayed him-Psa 41.9).

v 22…For indeed the son of Man is going (to die) as it has been determined (in the secret counsels of God before the world was, predestinated), but woe (lamentation awaits you) to that man through whom he is betrayed (there was no excuse for what he did)!”

v 23…And they began to discuss among themselves which one of them it might be who was going to do this thing.

v 24…And there arose also a dispute among them as to which one of them was regarded to be greatest (to be the administrative head, the leader, when Yeshua is gone).

v 25…And he said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them; and those who have authority over them are called ‘Benefactors (they sought popularity among the conquered peoples by doing good for ulterior motives; certain Egyptian kings had “Euergetes” or “benefactor” as a surname, like Ptolemy III Euergetes and Ptolemy VIII Euergetes; also Cyrus by the Armenians; Antigonus by the Greeks and Phylacus by the Persians).

v 26…But not so with you, but let him who is greatest among you become as the youngest, and the leader as the servant.

v 27…For who is greater, the one who reclines (at the table) or the one who serves? Is it not the one who reclines? But I am among you as one who serves (hoping to persuade them not to be ambitious and feel superior over each other).

v 28…And you are those who have stood by me in my trials (he valued this because so many others left him);

v 29…and just as my Father has granted me a kingdom, I grant you (places of authority),

v 30…that you may eat and drink at my table in the kingdom (eating at a table with someone denotes acceptance and friendship), and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (ruling over Israel in the Messianic Kingdom).

v 31…Simon, Simon (repeated because this is serious), behold, Satan has demanded (singled you out, desired) to sift you like wheat (Peeter was true wheat, but his carnal impulses were chaff; stan can’t touch anyone without permission);

v 32…but I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail (not his saving faith, that’s a gift, but his “faith” shield that quenches the fiery darts and testings from the enemy); and you, once you have turned again (in your desire for being greatest, and his coming test to deny Yeshua), strengthen your brothers (help them in their tests, be mature by your words and actions).”

v 33…And he said to him, “Lord, with you I am ready to go both to prison and to death and the others said the same thing in John 13.37)!”

v 34…And he said, “I tell you, Peter, the cock will not crow today until you have denied me three times that you know me (the “cock” was a term for the Temple Crier who would give a three-fold cry for the priests to go to their posts, the Levites to their stations, and for the Ma’Amad, or the standing men who were there for the morning service called the Tamid, to arise for prayer; for Temple purity, chickens and roosters were prohibited in the city; in the Machzor for Yom Kippur by Artscroll Publications, p.196, it says, “The call of the crier,i.e., the priest who was appointed to wake up the kohanim at daybreak. An alternative meaning for “gever” is rooster. Thus, at the cry of the rooster”-see Matt 26.75 notes for more information).”

v 35…And he said to him, “When I sent you out without purse and bag and sandals (the necessities of life), you did not lack anything, did you?” And they said, “No, nothing.”

v 36…And he said to them, “But now (because you won’t be so well received, and be in danger), let him who has a purse take it along, likewise also a bag (a small bag) and let him who has no sword sell his robe and have one (they were to use normal means to provide for themselves in support and protection, danger would be imminent).

v 37…For I tell you, that this which is written must be fulfilled in me, ‘And he was classed among criminals’, for that which refers to me has its fulfillment (an end purpose).”

v 38…And they said, “Lord, look, here are two swords.” And he said to them, “It is enough (they obviously did not understand his meaning, so he says it is enough for now, or “Never mind”).”

v 39…And he came out (of the room) and proceeded as was his custom to the Mount of Olives; and the talmidim also followed him (to see what was going to happen).

v 40…And when he arrived at the place (Gethsemane) he said to them (Peter, James and John, who went with him a little further-Matt 26.37; Mark 14.33), “Pray that you may not enter temptation (a time of testing to see if your faithfulness will remain loyal to Yehovah).”

v 41…And he withdrew from them about a stone’s throw, and he knelt down and began to pray,

v 42…saying, “Father, if thou art willing, remove this cup (of sorrow) from me, yet not my will, but thine be done (will keep being done, will occur-Heb 10.5-7).”

v 43…Now an angel (messenger) from heaven appeared to him, strengthening him (helping his flesh to be in agreement with his spirit; assuring him that the redemption of man and the creation will be accomplished; he also did not want his enemies to see him like this).

v 44…And being in agony (distress, conflict, feat, etc) he was praying very fervently (earnestly, eagerness, intensely); and his sweat became like drops of blood, falling down upon the ground (Luke, being a physician, is the only gospel writer who reports this; it is a condition called “Hermatidosis” where blood pours into one’s perspiration).

v 45…And when he arose from prayer, he came to his talmidim (Peter, James, and John) and found them sleeping from sorrow (from the emotional strain after his account about the betrayal, his death, suffering; it was wearing them down, too; they gratified the fleshly desire to escape instead of watching and praying; they saw from his gestures and body language that he was in distress and this affected them also, and sleep helped them escape);

v 46…and he said to them, Why are you sleeping? Rise and pray that you may not enter into temptation (testing, the one coming right now; the Hebrew concept of a test is to be brought into difficult circumstances that will try one’s faithfulness to remain loyal to Yehovah; for a detailed look into this concept, see the book called “A Prayer to our Father-The Hebrew Origins of the Lord’s Prayer” by Nehemiah Gordon and Keith Johnson, Hilkiah Press, p. 153-162).”

v 47…While he was still speaking, behold (see), a multitude came (officers of the chief priests, Temple guards, and elders), and the one called Judas (Yehudah), one of the twelve, was preceding them; and he approached Yeshua to kiss him (that being the signal he had given them to identify Yeshua-Matt 26.48).

v 48…But Yeshua said to him, “Judas, are you betraying the son of Man (an eschatological title for the Messiah based on Dan 7.13; he assumed his human state and nature for the benefit of man)?”

v 49…And when those who were around him saw what was going to happen, they said, “Lord, shall we strike with the sword (their two swords)?”

v 50…And a certain one (Peter, not one to wait for an answer-John 18.10) of them struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his ear (no doubt aiming for his head).

v 51…But Yeshua answered and said, “Stop (don’t intervene)! No more of this.” And he touched his ear and healed him (to show his willingness to be arrested, and that he could have used his power to deliver himself).

v 52…And Yeshua said to the chief priests and officers of the Temple and elders who had come against him, “Have you come out with swords and clubs as against a robber?

v 53…While I was with you daily in the Temple, you did not lay hands on me; but this is your delegated hour and the power of darkness are yours (they could only take him by God’s design, and coming in darkness is suitable for this deed).”

v 54…And having arrested him, they led him away, and brought him to the house of the high priest (Annas, it was close to the Temple and they could hear the Temple crier from there-John 18.12-24); but Peter was following at a distance.

v 55…And after they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter was sitting among them (as if he was one of them).

v 56…And a certain servant girl, seeing him as he sat in the firelight, and looking intently at him, said, “This man was with him, too.”

v 57…But he denied it, saying, “Woman, I do not know him.”

v 58…And a little later, another saw him and said, “You are one of them, too!” But Peter said, “Man, I am not!”

v 59…And after an hour had passed, another man began to insist, saying, “Certainly this man also was with him, for he is a Galilean too (his dialect gave him away-Matt 26.73).”

v 60…But Peter said, “Man, I do not know what you are talking about.” And immediately, while he was still speaking, a cock crowed (the Temple crier-see Luke 22.34 and Matt 26.75 notes).

v 61…And the Lord turned and looked at Peter (putting him in remembrance of what he said earlier). And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had told him, “Before a cock crows today, you will deny me three times.”

v 62…And he went outside and wept bitterly (aloud).

v 63…And the men who were holding Yeshua in custody were mocking him, and beating him (the word here means to pluck the skin, pinched or tore with their hands-Isa 50.6, 52.14),

v 64…and they blindfolded him (but they were the ones who could not see) and were asking him, saying, “Prophesy (tell us a truth; this is the same word used in 1 Cor 13.8, 14.1, 5, 24, 31, 39 meaning to communicate a truth for the benefit of others), who is the one who hit you?”

v 65…And they were saying many other things against him (his person, his office, and his mission).

v 66…And when it was day (of Nisan 14-Passover), the council of elders (Sanhedrin who agreed with Caiaphas) of the people assembled, both chief priests and scribes (sympathetic with Caiaphas for the most part). And they led him away to their council chamber (possibly in the Royal Stoa; they had moved out of the Chamber of Hewn Stones earlier in protest against Pilate-this shows us Yehovah is in control of all of these trials because they could not pronounce a death penalty on Yeshua, they had to give him to the Romans, and they crucified people, which was how Yeshua was to die according to the Tanak; Yeshua was not the one on trial here anyway, it was Israel, Rome, Pilate, Caiaphas, Annas, etc),

v 67…”If you are the Messiah, tell us.” But he said to them, “If I tell you, you will not believe (they were obstinate-they had already decided his fate);

v 68…and if I ask a question (on this subject, proving me to be the Messiah), you will not answer (in truth, not wanting to have a legitimate conversation about the subject fairly).

v 69…But from now on the son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God (Caiaphas could only go into the Holy of Holies one time a year in the earthly Temple, but Yeshua says he will be sitting with God himself in the heavenly Temple to judge Caiaphas. So it is Yeshua judging Caiaphas).”

v 70…And they all said, “Are you the son of God then?” And he said to them, “Yes, I am.”

v 71…And they said, “What further need do we have of testimony? For we have heard ourselves from his own mouth (his blasphemous statement; this gave them sufficient evidence to give him into the hands of Rome because they could not pronounce a death sentence upon him unless they were in the Lishkat Ha Gazit, or Chamber of Hewn Stones, in the Temple. In protest to some atrocities by Pilate, they had moved out of there into the southeastern end of the Royal Stoa).

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