Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 6

Luke 6.1-49 tells us about a controversy between the Pharisees from Beit Shammai and Yeshua concerning the Sabbath, the selection of the twelve talmidim and a description of a sermon similar to Matt 5-7, but at a different time.

v 1…Now it came about that on a certain Sabbath (Greek it is “second chief Sabbath” and this would be the first Sabbath after the first day of Unleavened Bread or Nisan 15. So, it is the “second sabbath” and the festival of First Fruits when the barley can be eaten, or it was the second Sabbath of the seven leading up to Shavuot. What Yeshua does on the Sabbath is a prophecy about the Messianic Kingdom), he was passing through grainfields; and his talmidim were picking and eating the heads (of wheat), rubbing them in their hands (according to these Pharisees, this was a sub-category of harvesting).

v 2…But some of the Pharisees (from Beit Shammai) said, “why do you do what is not lawful on the Sabbath (according to the tradition of the elders of Shammai. Obviously it was not wrong or Yeshua would not have defended them)?

v 3…And Yeshua answering them said, “Have you not read what David did when he was hungry, he and those who were with him (1 Sam 21.1-6),

v 4…how he entered the house of God (Mishkan), and took and ate the consecrated bread (the Lechem ha Pannim or “bread of the faces”) which is not lawful for any to eat except the priests alone, and gave it to his companions?”

v 5…And he was saying to them, “The son of man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13 and an eschatological title for the Messiah) is Lord (Yehovah) of the Sabbath (the high priest Ahimelech gave David permission in 1 Sam 22.10; Yeshua created the Sabbath and is our high priest, and he can allow his talmidim to do what he wants or tells them to do; Yeshua sets the halakah, or how to walk in the commandments, and people come first over the sabbath).

v 6…And it came about on another Sabbath, that he entered the synagogue and was teaching; and there was a man there whose right hand was withered.

v 7…And the scribes and the Pharisees were watching him closely (his every move), if he healed on the Sabbath, in order that they might find a reason to accuse him (for violating the sabbath).

v 8…But he knew what they were thinking (their motives), and he said to the man with the withered hand, “Arise and come forward!” And he arose and came forward.

v 9…And Yeshua said to them, “I ask you (to be honest interpreters of the Torah), is it lawful on the sabbath to do good, or to do evil, to save a life, or to destroy it (remember he is talking to Pharisees from Beit Shammai who were very strict; Judaism as a whole always taught it was lawful based on Lev 18.15).

v 10…And after looking around at them all (scribes and Pharisees from Beit Shammai), he said to him, “Stretch out your hand!” And he did so, and his hand was restored.

v 11…But they themselves were filled with rage (because they couldn’t answer his question and he healed on the Sabbath), and discussed what they might do to Yeshua (to get rid of him out of their jealousy).

v 12…And it was at this time (as he taught in Galilee) that he went off to a mountain (above the sea of Galilee) to pray, and he spent the whole night in prayer to God (for guidance).

v 13…And when day came, he called his talmidim to him (the whole group); and chose twelve (like the twelve fathers of the nation, the twelve stones in the Jordan and the twelve stones in the ephod; at one point he sent out seventy-Luke 10.1) of them, whom he also named as apostles (shaliachim or sent ones; in the Jewish concept of a shaliach, a sent one is regarded as the person who sent them. However, the law of agency only applies to lawful, legal acts. If the person does not tell the truth or commits a crime, the sender is not held responsible. Spiritually, you have not been sent by God if you teach against the Torah, believe it has been done away with, or misrepresent the Lord according to replacement theology, etc).;

v 14…Simon (Shimon meaning to hear), and Andrew (Andrai or “manly”) his brother; James (Jacob or “heel”); Philip (Philipos or horse lover) and Bartholomew (Bar Talkmai or “son of Talmai);

v 15…Matthew (Mattai meaning given of Yehovah and probably a Levite) and Thomas (from the Hebrew “Ta’om” meaning twin); James (Jacob or heel) the son of Alphaeus, and Simon (Shimon or to hear) who was called the Zealot (a party of Jews who were very zealous for the Torah and wanted to incite people against Rome; they were aligned with Beit Shammai);

v 16… Judah (Yehudah or praise) the son of James (Jacob), and Judah (Yehudah meaning praise) Iscariot (nobody really knows for sure what this means; some say it means “ish Kerioth” or man from Kerioth-Josh 15.25; and the only one from Judea; and others say it means “man of the Sicarii” or assassins who advocated the overthrow of Rome using murder; others say it means “man from the cities), who became a traitor.

v 17…And he descended with them and stood on a level plain (the lower part of the mountain); and there was a great multitude of his talmidim (not just the twelve), and a great throng of people from all Judea and Jerusalem and the coastal region of Tyre and Sidon,

v 18…who had come to hear him and to be healed of their diseases; and those who were troubled with unclean spirits (shedim, demons) were being cured.

v 19…And all the multitude were trying to touch him, for power was coming from him and healing them all (like a fountain gushing forth-Jer 17.12-14).

v 20…And turning his gaze (eyes) on his talimidim, he began to say (we believe this was a different occasion than what we read in Matt 5-7; these verses are at a different time; they are very brief; this is as plain as he came down and Matt 5.1 says he went up a mountain; Luke says he taught his talimdim, but Matthew says he taught the multitude and his talmidim. However, there are others who believe this account is the same event as what is described in Matthew, with which we would not contend) and he began to say, “Blessed (empowered to succeed) are you who are poor (physically or spiritually) for yours (we do not possess the kingdom, it should read “of theses” or of such as these) is the kingdom of God (his movement is made up of these).

v 21…Blessed (empowered to succeed) are you who hunger (for righteousness as defined by the Torah) now, for you will be satisfied (filled). Blessed (empowered to succeed) are you who weep now (under affliction and pressures, for their sin and of others), for you shall laugh (have joy again).

v 22…Blessed (empowered to succeed) are you when men hate you (because of Yeshua) and ostracize (separate) you; and heap insults upon you, and spurn (cast out) your name as evil, for the sake of the son of man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13-a messianic title).

v 23…Be glad in that day (as if it is a great honor), and leap for joy, for behold (see, take note) your reward is great in heaven; for in the same way their fathers used to treat the prophets.

v 24…But woe (lamentations await you) who are rich (who put their trust in riches), for you are receiving your comfort in full (Luke has listed four blessings, now he will list four woes).

v 25…Woe to you (lamentations await you) who are well-fed now (covetous and in need of nothing), for you shall be hungry (come into need both physically and spiritually). Woe (lamentations await you) who laugh now, for you shall mourn and weep (with remorse and regret).

v 26…Woe to you (lamentations await you) when all men speak well of you (the world loves their own John 15.17-21), for in the same way their fathers used to treat the prophets.

v 27…But I say to you who hear (and obey), love your enemies (your personal enemy-don’t try to get even-this has nothing to do with a murderer, rapist or a violent person we are confronted with-see the book “Understanding the Difficult Words of Jesus” by David Bivin and Roy Blizzard, Destiny Image Pub, p.68-72), do good to those who hate you,

v 28…bless those who curse you (empower them to succeed), pray for those who mistreat you.

v 29…Whoever hits you on the cheek, offer him the other also (an idiom meaning don’t compete with evil-Matt 6.39); and whoever takes away your coat (talit), do not withhold your shirt (tunic) from him either (this doesn’t mean you do not stop a thief from stealing from you because God wants us to be good stewards of what he has given us).

v 30…Give everyone who asks (in the sense of borrow) of you, and whoever takes away (borrows) what is yours, do not demand it back (give with discernment, be good stewards of what he has given you-see also the book “Understanding the Difficult Words of Jesus” p. 72-75 for a deeper look).

v 31…Just as you want men to treat you, treat men in the same way.

v 32…And if (Greek “assuming”) you love those who love you, what credit is that to you (no evidence of grace there)? For even sinners (chata’im) love those who love them.

v 33…And if (assuming) you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you (no evidence of grace)? For even sinners (chata’im) do the same thing.

v 34…And if you lend (let them borrow) to those from whom you expect to receive, what credit is that to you (no evidence of grace there)? For even sinners lend to sinners, in order to receive back the same amount (chata’im).

v 35…But love your enemies (alienated neighbor, etc) and do good (don’t compete with evil, don’t get even) and lend (let them borrow), expecting nothing (no interest) in return, and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he himself is kind to ungrateful and evil men.

v 36…Be merciful, just as your Father is merciful.

v 37…And do not pass judgment (beyond what the Torah teaches; we don’t know all the reasons or motives) and you will not be judged (about matters where the Torah is silent); and do not condemn, and you will not be condemned; pardon (release them) and you will be pardoned (released).

v 38…Give, and it (whatever you have given) will be given to you; good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over, they will pour out into your lap. For whatever measure you deal out, will be dealt to you in return.”

v 39…And he also spoke a parable (midrashic agaddah) to them: “A blind man cannot guide a blind man, can he? Will they not both fall into a pit?

v 40…A pupil (talmid/student) is not above his teacher; but everyone after he has been fully trained, will be like his teacher (complete, mature).

v 41…And why do you look at the speck (a small sin by God’s standard) in your brother’s eye, but do not notice the log (a larger sin by God’s standard) that is in your own eye?

v 42…Or how can you say to your brother, ‘Brother, let me take out the speck (small sin) that is in your eye,’ when you yourself do not see the log (greater sin) that is in your own eye? You hypocrite, first take the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to take out the speck that is in your brother’s eye.

v 43…For there is no good tree (a type of a believer) which produces bad fruit (doctrines, etc-Matt 7.15-23), nor on the other hand, a bad tree which produces good fruit (doctrines-Matt 7.15-23).

v 44…For each tree is known by its own fruit. For men do not gather figs from thorns, nor do they pick grapes from a briar bush.

v 45…The good man out of the treasure of his heart brings forth what is good; and the evil man out of the evil treasure brings forth what is evil; for his mouth speaks (doctrine) from that which fills his heart (whether good or bad doctrine).

v 46…And why do you call me, ‘Lord, Lord (profess to follow me), and do not do what I say (in the Torah by action-John 14.15; Deut 4.30, Num 15.14-16; Jam 2.18).

v 47…Everyone who comes to me, and hears my words (the Torah is what he taught) and acts (does them-Jam 1.22; Matt 7.24-27) upon them, I will show you whom he is like:

v 48…he is like a man building a house who dug deep and laid a foundation (be built his life) upon the rock (the Torah from Sinai-Exo 17.6); and when a flood arose (danger, problems), the river burst against that house and could not shake it because it had been built upon a rock (your profession is revealed by the level of obedience to the Torah).

v 49…But the one who has heard (the Torah commands) and had not acted (obeyed the Torah by action-Jam 2.26) is like a man who built a house upon the ground without any foundation; and the river burst against it and immediately it collapsed, and the ruin of that house was great.”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

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