Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in John-Chapters 1-21 can be found earlier on this site

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Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 24

Luke 24.1-53 tells us about the discovery of Yeshua’s resurrection and the announcement by two angels about it; how the women returned to tell the talmidim about what happened and were not believed, Peter and John race to the tomb to see it for themselves, Yeshua’s appearance to two talmidim on the road to Emmaus and their conversation about how the Messiah had to suffer, starting with Moses and the Prophets; Yeshua reveals himself to them; their report to the eleven; Yeshua’s appearance to all of them, his final instructions and ascension to heaven.

v 1…But on the first day of the week (Sunday, Nisan 18) at early dawn (Yeshua had arisen earlier, around sunset of Nisan 17) they (the women from Galilee-23.55) came to the tomb, bringing the spices they had prepared (on Friday, Nisan 16-they rested on the weekly Sabbath, Nisan 17), and others were with them.

v 2…And they found the stone rolled away from the tomb (he was already gone),

v 3…but when they entered, they did not find the body of the Lord Yeshua (they saw how and where his body was laid in 23.55).

v 4…And it happened that while they were perplexed about this, behold, two men (angels; two witnesses of the resurrection) suddenly stood near them in dazzling apparel;

v 5…and as the women were terrified and bowed their faces to the ground, the two men said to them, “Why do you seek the living among the dead (this is the basic definition of clean and unclean, what is “in place” and “out of place”, proper and improper)?

v 6…He (Yeshua) is not here, but has risen. Remember how he spoke to you while he was in Galilee (before you came for Passover-Matt 17.22-23; Mark 8.31, 9.30-31),

v 7…saying that the son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.”

v 8…And they remembered his words (how he specifically said this),

v 9…and returned from the tomb and reported all these things to the eleven and all the rest (the trial of Yeshua was the justice of men, and God overturned their earthly verdict by vindicating Yeshua by raising him from the dead).

v 10…Now they (the women) were Mary Magdalene, and Joanna and Mary the mother of James; also the other women with them were telling these things to the shaliachim.

v 11…And these words appeared to them as nonsense, and they would not believe them.

v 12…But Peter arose (with John) and ran to the tomb (John outran him-John 20.3-4); stooping and looking in, he saw the linen wrappings only (John 19.40), and went away to his home (temporary home in Jerusalem-John 20.9-10) marveling at that which had happened (he did not understand it).

v 13…And behold, two of them (of his talmidim, not the shaliachim) were going that very day to a village named Emmaus (hot springs), which was about seven miles from Jerusalem.

v 14…And they were conversing with each other about all the things which had taken place (the whole Passover scenario, and were among the group the women told about the resurrection, which they didn’t believe-v 22.-24).

v 15…And it came about that while they were conversing and discussing, Yeshua himself approached, and began traveling with them (as a fellow pilgrim).

v 16…But their eyes were prevented (by God) from recognizing him.

v 17…And he said to them, “What are these words that you are exchanging with one another as you were walking?” And they stood still looking sad (what sad story are you talking about that makes you seem so sad).

v 18,…And one of them, named Cleopas (a talmid but not the Cleopas of John 19.25, but possibly Luke’s source for this story), answered and said to him, “Are you the only one visiting Jerusalem (or have just arrived) and unaware of the things which have happened here in these days?”

v 19…And he said, “What things?” And they said to him, “The things about Yeshua the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deeds and word in the sight of God and the people,

v 20…and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to the sentence of death and crucified him (he didn’t hesitate to charge them with his death, so did Peter in Acts 4.10.

v 21…But we were hoping (trusting) that it was he who was going to redeem Israel (as the Messiah). Indeed, besides all this, it is the third day (literal Greek, “Today is after the three days since these things were done).

v 22…But also some women (certain women-Luke 24.9-10) among us amazed us. When they were at the tomb early in the morning,

v 23…and did not find his body (in the tomb where they saw it last), they came, saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said he was seen alive.

v 24…And some of those (talmidim) who were with us (Peter and John in particular-John 20.2-3) went to the tomb and found it exactly as the women also had said; but him they did not see.”

v 25…And he said to them, “O foolish men and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken (now he is going to help their unbelief, but how much evidence did they need)!

v 26…Was it not necessary for the Messiah to suffer these things and to enter into his glory (which he had before the world was-John 14.1-3; John 17.1-5; Acts 1.9-11)?”

v 27…And beginning with Moses (Torah) and with all the prophets (with Matt 13.52 as a basis) he explained to them the things concerning himself in all the Scriptures (the Tanak-Rom 15.4; Acts 13.23, 17.1-3, 24.24, 28.23-27, 26.22 tell us Paul did the same thing, according to Isa 8.20 and John 5.39-47).

v 28…And they approached the village where they were going, and he acted as though he would go farther (he is “passing by” in his glory like with Moses in Exo 33.18-20, and with the talmidim on the lake in Mark 6.48).

v 29…And they urged him, saying, “Stay with us (Yeshua was not going to force himself on them, they had to ask. He is not playing games because no guile was in him-1 Pet 2.22) for it is getting toward evening, and the day is now nearly over.” And he went in to stay with them.

v 30…And it came about that when he had reclined at the table with them, he took the bread (Greek “artos”-the generic term for bread in general. This bread was unleavened) and blessed (Yehovah), breaking, he gave it to them.

v 31…And their eyes were opened and they recognized him; and he vanished from their sight (hidden from them).

v 32…And they said to one another, “Was not our hearts burning within us while he was speaking to us on the road, while he was explaining to us the Scriptures (their sadness was turning to joy as he explained to them clearly that the Scriptures were being played out right before their eyes and were true, and he was the Messiah)?”

v 33…And they arose that very hour and returned (seven miles) to Jerusalem, and found gathered together the eleven and those who were with them,

v 34…saying, “The Lord has really risen, and has appeared to Simon (sometime after Peter was at the tomb, and before these two returned to Jerusalem from Emmaus; Paul records this meeting but nothing is recorded about what happened in the meeting but Yeshua certainly comforted him in his distress, knowing he denied knowing him and now knowing Yeshua had resurrected; all of this was put to rest).”

v 35…And they began to relate their experiences on the road and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread.

v 36…And while they were telling these things, he himself stood in their midst (like the manna appeared in the wilderness) and said to them, “Peace to you (Shalom Aleichem).”

v 37…But they were startled (terrified) and frightened and thought they were seeing a spirit (a phantom or apparition; perhaps Yeshua’s physical appearance in his glorified body had changed).

v 38…And he said to them, “Why are you troubled, and why do doubts arise in your hearts (you should be full of joy and gladness right now)?

v 39…See my hands and my feet (the wounds that were made there; John adds “and side” in John 20.20), that it is myself; touch me and see, for a spirit (phantom) does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have (they could see and feel his flesh and bones and this does not mean that he did not have blood, they could not see and feel blood; the resurrection body is not lacking in anything that the mortal body has, but something has been added to the perishable-1 Cor 15.53-54; Yeshua in his resurrected body is in the Olam Haba, or world to come; he is appearing to people still in the Olam Ha Zeh with limited, perishable bodies; the Scriptures do not state all the capabilities of the new body or whether it has blood or not specifically, however, we know if the Lord wills it, the physical body is not bound by the laws of physics because Peter walked on water, and Philip was transported in Acts 8.35, and the shaliachim were transported out of prison with the doors shut, with guards at the door. They were found in the Temple teaching-Acts 5.17-25).”

v 40…And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.

v 41…And while they still could not believe (their own eyes) for joy and were marveling, he said to them, “Have you anything here to eat (to give them more proof he was not an apparition)?”

v 42…And they gave him a piece of broiled fish and some honeycomb;

v 43…and he took it and ate in their sight (to show them he could).

v 44…And he said to them, “These are my words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things which are written about me in the Law (Torah) of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled (given meaning).”

v 45…Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures (even with the best teacher and training men have ever had, they still needed the illumination of God and his grace to drive away the darkness (2 Cor 4.3-6),

v 46…and he said to them, “Thus it is written (already on record), that the Messiah should suffer and rise again from the dead the third day;

v 47…and that repentance for the forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name (by those representing me) to all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem (Acts 2.1-4-wherever his elect ones are).

v 48…You are my witnesses of these things.

v 49…And behold, I am sending forth the promise of my Father upon you (the kingdom of God in action and power, through the Ruach Ha Kodesh-Acts 1.4-8), but you are to stay in the city (stay put for now) until you are clothed with power from on high (what Adam had lost is going to be restored-he was clothed in Gen 2.25 and had no sin, and needed no atonement, or a restored covering, until Gen 3.10; Yeshua will restore the Kivod, the radiance of God in Acts 2.3; the Shekinah, the presence of God in John 20.22-23; and the Ruach Ha Kodesh, the power of God in Acts 2.4, before they are sent out into the world).”

v 50…And he led them out as far as Bethany (ten days before Shavuot in Acts 1.3-4), and he lifted up his hands and blessed them.

v 51…And it came about that while he was blessing them, he parted from them and was carried up into heaven.

v 52…And they returned to Jerusalem with great joy,

v 53…and were continually in the Temple praising God (at the times of worship and the prayer services; this was strange behavior and a strange place to be if Yeshua came to do away with all of this. There are only two possibilities: they disobeyed him or he never said that the Torah was done away with).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasah Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 23

Luke 23.1-56 will tell us about Yeshua’s trials before Pilate and Herod; the crowd choosing Barabbas in an allusion to the Yom Kippur ceremony; Simon carries Yeshua’s cross; his words to the women of Jerusalem; his crucifixion and events and words will on the cross; his death at the time the Passover lambs were being slain; the witnesses to his death; Yeshua’s burial in the tomb of Joseph.

v 1…Then the whole body of them arose and brought him to Pilate (those who sided with Caiaphas, except Joseph and Nicodemus who did not consent-Luke 23.51; John 19.39).

v 2…And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this man misleading (troubling-like Elijah did to Ahab-1 Kings 18.17 and like Jeremiah in Jer 38.4) our nation and forbidding to pay taxes to Caesar (but Yeshua upheld Caesar’s right to collect taxes in Luke 20.20-25) and saying that he himself is Messiah, a king”

v 3…And Pilate asked him, saying, “Are you the king of the Jews (John 18.33-37 gives a fuller account; Piate realized that the kingdom Yeshua spoke about was not of this world and was not evidence of treason)?” And he answered him and said, “You have said (meaning “Yes”).”

v 4…And Pilate said to the chief priests and the multitudes, “I find no guilt n this man (the only honest judgment that day was given by the Romans-he was acquitted).”

v 5…But they kept insisting, saying, “He stirs up the people, teaching all over Judea, starting from Galilee, even as far as this place.”

v 6…But when Pilate heard it, he asked whether the man was a Galilean (Zealots had been causing trouble in Galilee and other places as far back as 6 AD-Acts 5.37 with Judas the Galilean, and his father Hezekiah started the Zealot movement, and Judas had a brother named Hananiah who held a meeting in his house in 20 BC with Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, where the Zealots aligned with Beit Shammai killed members of Beit Hillel before a vote on the 18 Edicts, passing these edicts. These edicts restricted interaction between Jews and non-Jews and we see this as an issue in Acts and Galatians).

v 7…And when he learned that he belonged in Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who himself was in Jerusalem at that time (for Passover).

v 8…And Herod was very glad when he saw Yeshua; for he had wanted to see him for a long time (from the time John was beheaded, to see if he was John or not-Matt 14.1-2), because he had been hearing about him and was hoping to see some sign performed by him.

v 9…And he questioned him at some length, but he answered him nothing.

v 10…And the chief priests and the scribes were standing there, accusing him vehemently (they did not want their case against Yeshua to turn against them).

v 11…And Herod with his soldiers (bodyguard), after treating him with contempt and mocking him, dressed him in a gorgeous robe and sent him back to Pilate.

v 12…Now Herod and Pilate became friends with one another that very day; for before they had been at enmity with each other (on account of the trouble with the Galilean Zealots who were killed in Luke 13.1-Pilate, who might have been reconciled to Yehovah through all of this, emerged with nothing but a worthless friendship with Herod).

v 13…And Pilate summoned the chief priests and the rulers of the people,

v 14…and said to them, “You brought this man to me as one who incites the people to rebellion and behold, I have found no guilt in this man regarding the charges that you make against him.

v 15…No, nor has Herod, for he sent him back to us; and behold, nothing deserving of death has been done by him.

v 16…I will therefore punish him (for what?) and release him (after he was scourged-John 19.1).”

v 17…Now he was obligated (by custom) to release to them at the feast one prisoner.

v 18…But they cried out all together, saying, “Away with this man, and release for us Barabbas (meaning “son of the father”-some believe he was the oldest son of a Zealot named Abbas Ben Judas, or Judas the Galilean, the official founder of the Zealot Party-Acts 5.37).”

v 19…He was one who had been thrown into prison for a certain insurrection made in the city, and for murder.

v 20…And Pilate, wanting to release Yeshua, addressed them again,

v 21…but they kept on calling out, saying, “Crucify, crucify him!”

v 22…And he said to them the third time, “Why, what evil has this man done (show me the evidence)? I have found in him no guilt demanding death; I will therefore punish him and release him.”

v 23…But they were insistent, with loud voices asking that he be crucified. And their voices, and of the chief priests, prevailed.

v 24…And Pilate pronounced sentence that their demand be granted (Yeshua and Barabbas standing before Pilate is like the two goats standing before the high priest on Yom Kippur).

v 25…And he released the man they were asking for who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder, but he turned Yeshua over to their will.

v 26…And when they had led him away (from Pilate’s hall to Golgotha), they laid hold of one Simon (to hear) a Cyrenian (father of Alexander and Rufus-Mark 15.21), coming in from the country (the Cyrenians had a synagogue in Jerusalem-Acts 6.9, 11.20- he was there to keep Passover), and placed on him the cross to carry behind Yeshua (due to exhaustion).

v 27…And there were following him a great multitude of people, and of women who were mourning and lamenting for him (from Jerusalem not Galilee).

v 28…But Yeshua turning to them said, “Daughters of Jerusalem (a doomed city), stop weeping for me, but weep for yourselves and for your children.

v 29…For behold (take note), the days are coming (when Jerusalem will be destroyed in 70 AD when they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bore, and the breasts that never nursed (because you won’t see your children die or starve to death during the coming siege of Jerusalem).’

v 30…Then they will begin to say to the mountains, ‘Fall on us,’ and to the hills, ‘Cover us (because to be buried under the ruins of mountains and hills would be better than to live during the coming siege).’

v 31…For if they do these things in the green tree (has life; a righteous one, living in innocence-Psa 1.3; Ezek 20.47), what will happen in the dry (no life; the unrighteous who are guilty; they were a tree to be burned-Psa 1.4-6).”

v 32…And two others also, who were criminals, were being led away to be put to death with him (Isa 53.9, 12).

v 33…And when they came to a place called the Skull (Greek”Kranion” where we get the word “cranium”-also called Golgotha which is related to the word “gilgal” where Israel was circumcised and their reproach was “rolled away” in the first redemption; Yeshua will ratify the new covenant and circumcise the heart of a believer and “roll away” our reproach in the second redemption), there they crucified him and the criminals, one on the right and the other on the left.

v 34…But Yeshua was saying, “Father forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing (Yeshua calls for compassion on the ignorant-Acts 3.17, but it did not excuse their sin; they were blind to the truth of Yehovah; had they known it they would have never crucified him-1 Cor 2.8).” And they cast lots (Psa 22.18), dividing up his garments among themselves (John 19.23-24 gives more detail).

v 35…And the people stood by, looking on (this gruesome scene because of curiosity, anger, mourning, gloating-Psa 22.17; Zech 12.10). And even the rulers were sneering at him, saying, “He saved others (they knew he healed and raised others from the dead); let him save himself if this is the Messiah of God, his chosen one (with all their religious knowledge of the Torah, they should have known).”

v 36…And the soldiers also mocked him, coming up to him, offering him sour wine (and then possibly not allowing him to drink it),

v 37…and saying, “If you are the king of the Jews save yourself!”

v 38…Now there was also an inscription above him (in Greek, Latin and Hebrew), “This is the king of the Jews (John 19.19 says, “Yeshua the Nazarene, the king of the Jews.” In Hebrew, it may have been written as an acrostic saying, “(Y)eshua (H)a Notzri (V) melek (H)a Yehudim” with YHVH as the beginning letters. Pilate was not only mocking the Jewish Messiah, but the Jewish God also).”

v 39…And one of the criminals who were hanged was hurling abuse at him, saying, “Are you not the Messiah? Save yourself and us!”

v 40…But the other answered and rebuking him said, “Do you not even fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation?

v 41…And we indeed justly, for we are receiving what we deserve for our deeds, but this man has done nothing wrong.”

v 42…And he was saying, “Yeshua, remember me when you come in your kingdom (something happened to him on the cross because earlier they both were insulting him-Matt 27.44; Mark 15.32)!”

v 43…And he said to him, “Truly I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise (a term for Gan Eden, the Olam Haba-this statement refutes the belief that “sacraments” were needed for salvation, like baptism, the Lord’s Supper, church ceremonies or good works; it refutes the Catholic dogma of Purgatory; soul sleep, etc).”

v 44…And it was now about the sixth hour (noon), and darkness fell over the whole land until the ninth hour (3 pm when the Passover lambs were slain),

v 45…the sun being obscured; and the veil (paroket) of the Temple was torn in two (notice this is singular; this was the veil to the sanctuary building that all could see called “The Heavens” because there was “an image of the heavens” on it-Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book 5, Chapter 5.4-see our notes in Matt 27.51 and Mark 15.38).

v 46…And Yeshua, crying out with a loud voice, said, “Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit (quotes Psa 31.5-he was not “forsaken”).”

v 47…Now when the centurion saw what happened (the darkness, what Yeshua said, etc), he began praising God, saying, “Certainly this man was innocent (something the religious leaders and their hard hearts would not recognize).”

v 48…And all the multitudes who came together for this spectacle (this scene), when they observed what had happened, began to return, beating their breasts (their heart, the root of all sin-Jer 17.9-10; Matt 15.19).

v 49…And all his acquaintances (those known to him) and the women who accompanied him from Galilee, were standing at a distance, seeing these things.

v 50…And behold (see), a man named Joseph (he will add) who was a member of the council (Sanhedrin), a good and righteous man (a talmid of Yeshua-Matt 27.57, waiting for the kingdom of God-Mark 15.43)

v 51…he had not consented to their plan and action (he either took no part in it, or he did not vote to sanction what they wanted, probably along with Nicodemus-John 19.39), a man from Arimathea (meaning a “high place”, from “Ramah” and a hellenized version of “haramataim” most likely), a city of the Jews, who was waiting for the kingdom of God (now remember Joseph of Egypt? Pharaoh knew Israel was not coming back when Moses went to the Faiyum to take the remains of Joseph back to Canaan, leaving Joseph’s tomb empty. Egypt was a “high place” of idolatry. Satan knows that believers are not coming back because there will be another tomb of Joseph of the “high place” that will be empty);

v 52…This man went to Pilate (after gathering enough courage-Mark 15.43) and asked for the body of Yeshua (to give it a decent Jewish preparation for burial).

v 53…And he took it down and wrapped it in a linen cloth (John 19.40 says “linen wrappings”), and laid him in a tomb cut into the rock, where no one has ever lain (so that he was the only one buried there to confirm the resurrection. Yeshua was born to a Joseph and his mother had a “new womb”, and now he is buried in a “new tomb” of another Joseph).

v 54…And it was the preparation day (Wednesday, Nisan 14, Passover), and the Sabbath was about to begin (Nisan 15, the first day of Unleavened Bread-Lev 23.6-7).

v 55…Now the women who had come with him out of Galilee followed after, and saw the tomb and how his body was laid.

v 56…And they returned and prepared spices and perfumes (for anointing him later). And on the Sabbath (of Nisan 15, a Thursday) they rested according to the commandment (Lev 23.6-they would buy spices on Friday, Nisan 16 to anoint him-Mark 16.1).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 22

Luke 22.1-71 tells us about the season of Pesach (Passover), Hag Ha Matzah (Unleavened Bread) and Yom Ha Bikkurim (First Fruits of the Barley). It will also reveal a plot to kill Yeshua by the chief priests and religious leaders; the Last Supper before Passover where Yeshua has one last instructional meal with his talmidim; Yeshua’s capture and Peter’s denial; Yeshua’s so-called “trial” before a hastily gathered Sanhedrin, made up of those from Beit Shammai who were aligned with Caiaphas.

v 1…Now the feast of Unleavened Bread (John 13.1) which is called the Passover (season, because it lasted for eight days) was approaching.

v 2 And the chief priests and the scribes (from Beit Shammai) were seeking how they might put him to death (like the parable in 20.9-18 said); for they were afraid of the people (called the “Am ha Eretz” or people of the land, common people who would be in the city for Passover from Galilee and Judea, and who followed his ministry and were blessed by it).

v 3…And Satan (meaning the adversary) entered into Judas (the corruptions of his heart) who is called Iscariot (meaning either “man of Kerioth” a town in Judah, or it may be related to the word “Sicarii” meaning assassin, who were aligned with Beit Shammai, who were aligned with the Zealot Party), belonging to the number of the twelve.

v 4…And he went away and discussed with the chief priests and officers (of the Temple guard) how he might betray him to them.

v 5…And they were delighted and agreed to give him money (he was a thief and a lover of money-John 12.6).

v 6…And he consented and began seeking a good opportunity to betray him to them apart from the multitude (who might attempt to rescue him and cause a riot).

v 7…Was coming (according to the Thayer Lexicon, future tense; it started at sunset of Nisan 13th) the day of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover had to be sacrificed (the whole eight days was called “Passover” or “Unleavened Bread” and it refers to the season and were interchangeable terms in the first century-Luke 22.1; John 13.1; for a breakdown of the final week of Yeshua, we refer you to a booklet called, “Chronology of the Crucifixion Week” by Wayne Carver, the Christian Jew Foundation, Charles Halff, Director, p. 36-40. We believe it is accurate and we will present a condensed version of it here: Friday, Nisan 9, six days before Passover-John 12.1, Mark 10.46; Saturday, Nisan 10, a weekly Sabbath, Yeshua enters Jerusalem-John 12.12-19, Mark 11.1-11; Sunday, Nisan 11, the first day of the week and the fig tree is cursed and the Temple cleansed-Mark 11.12-19; Monday, Nisan 12, a teaching on the Mount of Olives-Mark 11.20, 13.1-11; Tuesday, Nisan 13, the Passover room is prepared by deleavening and getting essential materials; Wednesday, Nisan 14 after sunset, the last supper before Unleavened Bread is eaten, Yeshua goes to the garden to be arrested and brought before PIlate later that morning, he is crucified by 9 am and dies at 3 pm, he is buried in the late afternoon because they cannot bury him the next day; Thursday, Nisan 15 is a high Sabbath and a guard is given and Yeshua is in the tomb-Lev 23.5-7; Friday, Nisan 16, Joseph and Nicodemus prepared the body for burial-John 19.38-42, Luke 23.50-56; Saturday, Nisan 17, a weekly Sabbath and the resurrection will occur at the end of the day, around sundown, three full days and nights in the tomb-Matt 28.1-8; John 20.11-18; Sunday, Nisan 18 relates the account of the women who came to the tomb very early that morning as witnesses that Yeshua had already risen-Luke 24.1-3).

v 8…And he sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and prepare Passover (the room for it; they had to deleaven it, get tables, pillows, bowls, pitchers and whatever else they would need-the lamb would not have been slain and roasted till the next day, and Yeshua would be dead) for us, that we may eat it (collectively, but Yeshua would not be there for the actual Passover meal because he would be in the tomb. The meal they will eat shortly is the last supper before unleavened bread, when no leaven can be eaten; this would be on the night of Nisan 13, going to Nisan 14 after sundown).”

v 9…And they said to him, “Where do you want us to prepare it (what room should we get ready)?”

v 10…And he said to them, “Behold (take note), when you have entered the city (the Passover must be eaten within the walls of Jerusalem, even though Yeshua will not eat the lamb the next day. The talmudim will keep the festival as directed by the Torah-Deut 16.2), a man will meet you (face to face) carrying a pitcher of water (probably a servant); follow him into the house he enters.

v 11…And you shall say to the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher (a messianic term) says to you, “Where is the guest room (same word as “inn” in Luke 2.7) in which I may eat the Passover with my talmidim (he is speaking for everyone even though he would not be there?” ‘

v 12…”And he will show you a large, furnished upper room; prepare there.”

v 13…And they departed and found everything just as he told them and they prepared the Passover (on the evening of the 13th of Nisan, as the 14th began; they had to deleaven the room and got everything arranged).

v 14…And when the hour had come (sundown) he reclined (sat down) and the talmidim with him (In the Jewish New Testament Commentary by David Stern, p.77, Stern suggests that this was a preparatory meal called the “Seudat Mitzvah” which was a celebratory banquet accompanying the performance of any mitzvah, like a wedding, the festivals, etc).

v 15…And he said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer (but he knows it will be impossible);

v 16…for I say to you, I shall never again eat it (in this life because he would be gone) until it (not that very meal, but the upcoming Passover) is fulfilled (given meaning) in the kingdom of God (God’s rule and movement in power and action);

v 17…And having taken a cup, when he had given thanks (the Ha Gafin prayer), he said, ‘Take this and share it among yourselves;

v 18…for I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine from now on until the kingdom of God comes (in power, after the resurrection, when he drinks it with them in the kingdom).”

v 19…And having taken bread (the word for bread here in all the accounts is “arton”, a general term for bread-Matt 26.26. Unleavened bread is “azumon” as in Mark 14.12; we can’t be dogmatic about the type of bread used unless it says unleavened or “azumon” as in Luke 22.1), when he had given thanks (the Ha Motzi prayer), he broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body which is given for you, do this in remembrance of me.”

v 20…And in the same way, the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup which is poured out for you is the new (chadash or “renewed”) covenant (Deut 29.1 through 30.6; Jer 31.31-34; Ezek 37.26) in my blood (he is defining what the bread and wine symbolizes-1 Cor 10.16-17; 11.23-34-Yeshua’s blood is going to ratify this covenant).

v 21…But behold (see), the hand of the one betraying me is with me on the table (this made it even worse, he ate at his table, showing friendship, and betrayed him-Psa 41.9).

v 22…For indeed the son of Man is going (to die) as it has been determined (in the secret counsels of God before the world was, predestinated), but woe (lamentation awaits you) to that man through whom he is betrayed (there was no excuse for what he did)!”

v 23…And they began to discuss among themselves which one of them it might be who was going to do this thing.

v 24…And there arose also a dispute among them as to which one of them was regarded to be greatest (to be the administrative head, the leader, when Yeshua is gone).

v 25…And he said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them; and those who have authority over them are called ‘Benefactors (they sought popularity among the conquered peoples by doing good for ulterior motives; certain Egyptian kings had “Euergetes” or “benefactor” as a surname, like Ptolemy III Euergetes and Ptolemy VIII Euergetes; also Cyrus by the Armenians; Antigonus by the Greeks and Phylacus by the Persians).

v 26…But not so with you, but let him who is greatest among you become as the youngest, and the leader as the servant.

v 27…For who is greater, the one who reclines (at the table) or the one who serves? Is it not the one who reclines? But I am among you as one who serves (hoping to persuade them not to be ambitious and feel superior over each other).

v 28…And you are those who have stood by me in my trials (he valued this because so many others left him);

v 29…and just as my Father has granted me a kingdom, I grant you (places of authority),

v 30…that you may eat and drink at my table in the kingdom (eating at a table with someone denotes acceptance and friendship), and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (ruling over Israel in the Messianic Kingdom).

v 31…Simon, Simon (repeated because this is serious), behold, Satan has demanded (singled you out, desired) to sift you like wheat (Peeter was true wheat, but his carnal impulses were chaff; stan can’t touch anyone without permission);

v 32…but I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail (not his saving faith, that’s a gift, but his “faith” shield that quenches the fiery darts and testings from the enemy); and you, once you have turned again (in your desire for being greatest, and his coming test to deny Yeshua), strengthen your brothers (help them in their tests, be mature by your words and actions).”

v 33…And he said to him, “Lord, with you I am ready to go both to prison and to death and the others said the same thing in John 13.37)!”

v 34…And he said, “I tell you, Peter, the cock will not crow today until you have denied me three times that you know me (the “cock” was a term for the Temple Crier who would give a three-fold cry for the priests to go to their posts, the Levites to their stations, and for the Ma’Amad, or the standing men who were there for the morning service called the Tamid, to arise for prayer; for Temple purity, chickens and roosters were prohibited in the city; in the Machzor for Yom Kippur by Artscroll Publications, p.196, it says, “The call of the crier,i.e., the priest who was appointed to wake up the kohanim at daybreak. An alternative meaning for “gever” is rooster. Thus, at the cry of the rooster”-see Matt 26.75 notes for more information).”

v 35…And he said to him, “When I sent you out without purse and bag and sandals (the necessities of life), you did not lack anything, did you?” And they said, “No, nothing.”

v 36…And he said to them, “But now (because you won’t be so well received, and be in danger), let him who has a purse take it along, likewise also a bag (a small bag) and let him who has no sword sell his robe and have one (they were to use normal means to provide for themselves in support and protection, danger would be imminent).

v 37…For I tell you, that this which is written must be fulfilled in me, ‘And he was classed among criminals’, for that which refers to me has its fulfillment (an end purpose).”

v 38…And they said, “Lord, look, here are two swords.” And he said to them, “It is enough (they obviously did not understand his meaning, so he says it is enough for now, or “Never mind”).”

v 39…And he came out (of the room) and proceeded as was his custom to the Mount of Olives; and the talmidim also followed him (to see what was going to happen).

v 40…And when he arrived at the place (Gethsemane) he said to them (Peter, James and John, who went with him a little further-Matt 26.37; Mark 14.33), “Pray that you may not enter temptation (a time of testing to see if your faithfulness will remain loyal to Yehovah).”

v 41…And he withdrew from them about a stone’s throw, and he knelt down and began to pray,

v 42…saying, “Father, if thou art willing, remove this cup (of sorrow) from me, yet not my will, but thine be done (will keep being done, will occur-Heb 10.5-7).”

v 43…Now an angel (messenger) from heaven appeared to him, strengthening him (helping his flesh to be in agreement with his spirit; assuring him that the redemption of man and the creation will be accomplished; he also did not want his enemies to see him like this).

v 44…And being in agony (distress, conflict, feat, etc) he was praying very fervently (earnestly, eagerness, intensely); and his sweat became like drops of blood, falling down upon the ground (Luke, being a physician, is the only gospel writer who reports this; it is a condition called “Hermatidosis” where blood pours into one’s perspiration).

v 45…And when he arose from prayer, he came to his talmidim (Peter, James, and John) and found them sleeping from sorrow (from the emotional strain after his account about the betrayal, his death, suffering; it was wearing them down, too; they gratified the fleshly desire to escape instead of watching and praying; they saw from his gestures and body language that he was in distress and this affected them also, and sleep helped them escape);

v 46…and he said to them, Why are you sleeping? Rise and pray that you may not enter into temptation (testing, the one coming right now; the Hebrew concept of a test is to be brought into difficult circumstances that will try one’s faithfulness to remain loyal to Yehovah; for a detailed look into this concept, see the book called “A Prayer to our Father-The Hebrew Origins of the Lord’s Prayer” by Nehemiah Gordon and Keith Johnson, Hilkiah Press, p. 153-162).”

v 47…While he was still speaking, behold (see), a multitude came (officers of the chief priests, Temple guards, and elders), and the one called Judas (Yehudah), one of the twelve, was preceding them; and he approached Yeshua to kiss him (that being the signal he had given them to identify Yeshua-Matt 26.48).

v 48…But Yeshua said to him, “Judas, are you betraying the son of Man (an eschatological title for the Messiah based on Dan 7.13; he assumed his human state and nature for the benefit of man)?”

v 49…And when those who were around him saw what was going to happen, they said, “Lord, shall we strike with the sword (their two swords)?”

v 50…And a certain one (Peter, not one to wait for an answer-John 18.10) of them struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his ear (no doubt aiming for his head).

v 51…But Yeshua answered and said, “Stop (don’t intervene)! No more of this.” And he touched his ear and healed him (to show his willingness to be arrested, and that he could have used his power to deliver himself).

v 52…And Yeshua said to the chief priests and officers of the Temple and elders who had come against him, “Have you come out with swords and clubs as against a robber?

v 53…While I was with you daily in the Temple, you did not lay hands on me; but this is your delegated hour and the power of darkness are yours (they could only take him by God’s design, and coming in darkness is suitable for this deed).”

v 54…And having arrested him, they led him away, and brought him to the house of the high priest (Annas, it was close to the Temple and they could hear the Temple crier from there-John 18.12-24); but Peter was following at a distance.

v 55…And after they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter was sitting among them (as if he was one of them).

v 56…And a certain servant girl, seeing him as he sat in the firelight, and looking intently at him, said, “This man was with him, too.”

v 57…But he denied it, saying, “Woman, I do not know him.”

v 58…And a little later, another saw him and said, “You are one of them, too!” But Peter said, “Man, I am not!”

v 59…And after an hour had passed, another man began to insist, saying, “Certainly this man also was with him, for he is a Galilean too (his dialect gave him away-Matt 26.73).”

v 60…But Peter said, “Man, I do not know what you are talking about.” And immediately, while he was still speaking, a cock crowed (the Temple crier-see Luke 22.34 and Matt 26.75 notes).

v 61…And the Lord turned and looked at Peter (putting him in remembrance of what he said earlier). And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had told him, “Before a cock crows today, you will deny me three times.”

v 62…And he went outside and wept bitterly (aloud).

v 63…And the men who were holding Yeshua in custody were mocking him, and beating him (the word here means to pluck the skin, pinched or tore with their hands-Isa 50.6, 52.14),

v 64…and they blindfolded him (but they were the ones who could not see) and were asking him, saying, “Prophesy (tell us a truth; this is the same word used in 1 Cor 13.8, 14.1, 5, 24, 31, 39 meaning to communicate a truth for the benefit of others), who is the one who hit you?”

v 65…And they were saying many other things against him (his person, his office, and his mission).

v 66…And when it was day (of Nisan 14-Passover), the council of elders (Sanhedrin who agreed with Caiaphas) of the people assembled, both chief priests and scribes (sympathetic with Caiaphas for the most part). And they led him away to their council chamber (possibly in the Royal Stoa; they had moved out of the Chamber of Hewn Stones earlier in protest against Pilate-this shows us Yehovah is in control of all of these trials because they could not pronounce a death penalty on Yeshua, they had to give him to the Romans, and they crucified people, which was how Yeshua was to die according to the Tanak; Yeshua was not the one on trial here anyway, it was Israel, Rome, Pilate, Caiaphas, Annas, etc),

v 67…”If you are the Messiah, tell us.” But he said to them, “If I tell you, you will not believe (they were obstinate-they had already decided his fate);

v 68…and if I ask a question (on this subject, proving me to be the Messiah), you will not answer (in truth, not wanting to have a legitimate conversation about the subject fairly).

v 69…But from now on the son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God (Caiaphas could only go into the Holy of Holies one time a year in the earthly Temple, but Yeshua says he will be sitting with God himself in the heavenly Temple to judge Caiaphas. So it is Yeshua judging Caiaphas).”

v 70…And they all said, “Are you the son of God then?” And he said to them, “Yes, I am.”

v 71…And they said, “What further need do we have of testimony? For we have heard ourselves from his own mouth (his blasphemous statement; this gave them sufficient evidence to give him into the hands of Rome because they could not pronounce a death sentence upon him unless they were in the Lishkat Ha Gazit, or Chamber of Hewn Stones, in the Temple. In protest to some atrocities by Pilate, they had moved out of there into the southeastern end of the Royal Stoa).

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Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke -Chapter 21

Luke 21.1-37 gives us a lesson using a widow’s two coins; the beauty of the Temple and its coming destruction; the midrashic aggadah about the budding of the fig tree. The date would be about Nisan 12, 30 AD.

v 1…And he looked up and saw the rich (they wanted attention, too) putting their gifts into the treasury (there were thirteen trumpet shaped receptacles with openings in the court of the women. Each was designated for certain projects or donations).

v 2…And he saw a certain poor widow putting in two small copper coins (it’s not the amount that counts in this story).

v 3…And he said, “Truly I say to you, this poor widow put in more than all (of them);

v 4…for they all out of their surplus put into the offering of God (no pain for them at all); but she out of her poverty (a sacrifice for her) put in all that she had to live on (it is the relation to what we keep; a gift’s value is determined by the giver; this is what Yeshua was trying to teach the ruler in Luke 18.18-23 also).”

v 5… And while some were talking about the Temple, that it was adorned with beautiful stones (some 60 feet long and 15 feet high) and votive gifts (like the Golden Vine with its clusters which hung over the entrance of the sanctuary, each leaf given as a gift-Mishnah Middot 3.8; Yeshua may have had this in mind when he said, “I am the vine” in John 15.1), he said,

v 6…”As for these things which you are looking at the days will come (in 40 years) in which there will not be left one stone upon another which will not be torn down (by the Romans in 70 AD; Yeshua is talking about the buildings, not the retaining wall-this was done to a “leprous” house in Lev 14.40; this was part of the plan-Mic 4.10; Deut 28.49-57).”

v 7…And they questioned him, saying, “When therefore will these things be (the destruction of the Temple in v 6)? And what will be the sign (signal) when these things are about to take place (the Jewish historian Josephus was an eyewitness to the destruction of the Temple and listed at least seven signs in Wars of the Jews, Book 6, Chapter 5.3-4; everything described in the following verses can be seen if you read Wars of the Jews by Josephus, especially as things led up to the destruction of the Temple and Jerusalem)?”

v 8…And he said, “Take heed (beware) that you be not misled (to be deluded or deceived; we have an active part in making sure so one deceives us by studying and knowing the Scriptures in its proper context, and not involving ourselves in Replacement Theology of any kind); for many will come in my name (saying they represent Yeshua, not in opposition to him like in many denominations today; the question to ask is, “Am I following a Torah-based faith in Yeshua found in the Scriptures, or a messiah that tells them that they are not “under the law” or that it has been “done away with?” It is those from the last group that Yeshua speaks about as those who will mislead-Matt 7.21-23), saying, ‘I am he (Yeshua, or possibly a person who will claim to be the Messiah but is a counterfeit) am the Messiah and will mislead many)’, and, ‘The time is at hand (for the redemption and deliverance from Rome-Acts 5.34-38)’; do not go after them (the first sign).

v 9…And when you hear of wars (against Rome) and disturbances (internal factions), do not be terrified; for these things must take place first, but the end does not follow immediately (as if the destruction of the Temple and Jerusalem and the nation would happen all at once).”

v 10…Then he continued by saying to them, “Nation (Greek “ethnos” or race) will rise against nation (race will clash with race (the Jews rose up against the Samaritans), and kingdom against kingdom (Rome fought each other for power and other kingdoms),

v 11…and there will be great earthquakes (there was one in Crete and Asia during the time of Nero, also in Phrygia, Laodicea, Hierapolis and Colossae; Rome had a small one), and in various places plagues and famines (Acts 11.28 speaks of a famine all over during the reign of Claudius about 41 AD); and there will be terror (fearful sights; after 30 AD the Yom KIppur lot never turned up in the right of the high priest again; the crimson, or shanni, cloth didn’t turn white again; the western lamp of the Menorah would not stay lit and the doors of the sanctuary building opened by themselves, meaning the enemy would enter easily-See the book, “History of the Jewish People-Second Temple Era” by Mesorah Publications, p. 153) and great signs (signals) from heaven (Josephus describes chariots and troops seen in the clouds by many; a star resembling a sword stood over the city; a comet continued a whole year; on Nisan 8, at the ninth hour, a great light shone around the altar and sanctuary).

v 12…But before all these things (come to pass) they (high priest, chief priests, Temple guard, Sadducees for example) will lay hands on you (Acts 4.1-3 for instance) and will persecute you, delivering to the synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for my name’s sake (on his behalf).

v 13…It will lead to an opportunity for your testimony (like Peter and other talmudim, or Paul in Acts 24.24-26, 26.19-28).

v 14…So make up your minds not to prepare beforehand to defend yourselves (a premeditated defense);

v 15…for I will give you utterance and wisdom which none of your opponents will be able to resist of refute.

v 16…But you will be betrayed even by parents and brothers and relatives and friends, and they will put some of you to death (like Stephen and James),

v 17…and you will be hated by all on account of my name (what he has said and done; for his sake).

v 18…Yet not a hair of your head will perish (you will be resurrected with a new body and reign in the Olam Haba).

v 19…By your perseverance (endurance and patience in what you experience) you will win your souls (be delivered from the present distress, possess peace and joy even during the above afflictions and not be deceived by false prophets).

v 20…And when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies (the Roman army with Vespasian and Titus did this on Nisan 12, right before Passover, trapping multitudes inside the city), then recognize that her desolation is at hand.

v 21…Then let those who are in Judea (where Jerusalem was; they saw the Romans coming) flee to the mountains (ranges, away from the city), and let those who are in the midst of the city depart (before the city is closed up), and let not those who are in the country enter the city (for protection-many fled to Pella and other places when Vespasian approached because they were watching; believers will flee there from the False Messiah in the birth-pains);

v 22…because these are days of vengeance (for rejecting Yeshua as the Messiah and the kingdom), in order that all things which are written (in the Scriptures) may be fulfilled (given meaning).

v 23…Woe (lamentations await you) to those who are with child and to those who nurse babes in those days (because of the extra burden and not being able to move fast to escape; some will decide to stay and endure the siege); for there will be great distress upon the land, and wrath to his people (the generation in 70 AD),

v 24…and they will fall by the edge of the sword (Josephus says over a million were slain), and will be led captive unto all nations (97,000 were sold to Egypt, and then dispersed from there); and Jerusalem will be trampled underfoot (treated lightly, dominated) by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles (their domination of the city) be fulfilled (eschatologically, then Israel will be regathered and Yeshua returns to set up Israel and the kingdom of God, the Temple and the Torah-Rom 11.25-26; Ezek 37.11-28).

v 25…And there will be signs (signals) in the sun and moon and stars (may be literal, but Ecc 12.2 uses these in a figurative sense, too; true knowledge of God in Torah facts will be dark, believers will be persecuted and individual people and teachers will fall), and upon the land dismay among the nations (the surrounding nations) in perplexity at the roaring of the sea and the waves (turbulence among the wicked-Isa 57.20),

v 26…men fainting from fear and the expectation of the things which are coming upon the land (of Judea), for the powers of the heavens will be shaken (government stability will be removed by Yehovah).

v 27…And then will they see the son of Man (Bar Enosh and an eschatological title from Dan 7.13) coming in (or with) a cloud with power and great glory (in the kingdom to bring judgment upon Judea, the city, and the Temple-Luke 12.49-53).

v 28…But when these things begin to take place, straighten up and lift up your heads (don’t get down); because your redemption is drawing near (Jewish persecution of the believers in Yeshua, as evidenced all through the book of Acts, will cease).”

v 29…And he told them a parable (a midrashic aggadah), “Behold (take note) the fig tree (Israel) and all the trees (nations);

v 30…as soon as they put forth (leaves), you see it (for yourselves, you don’t need a hint because it is so obvious) that summer is near (here).

v 31…Even so you, too (likewise), when you see these things happening (like the leaves coming forth), recognize the kingdom of God (his movement and rule in action and power) is near (here to overthrow his enemies).

v 32…Truly I say to you, this generation (in the first century) will not pass away until all things (just described) take place.

v 33…Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away.

v 34…Be on guard (for yourselves) that your hearts may not be weighed down by dissipation and drunkenness (eating and drinking to dull the senses) and the worries of life, and that day (when Rome comes to destroy Jerusalem) come upon you suddenly like a trap (and you are caught);

v 35…for it will come upon all those who dwell on the face of the land (Galilee, Judea, Israel as a whole).

v 36…But keep on the alert at all times (and seasons), praying in order that you may have strength to escape all these things that are about to take place (concerning the fall of Galilee, Judea, Jerusalem, the Temple, etc), and stand (with confidence to prevail) before the son of Man (when this judgment comes).”

v 37…Now during the day he was teaching in the Temple (as the Passover lamb he was being inspected for blemishes), but at evening he would go out and spend the night on the mount that is called Olivet (watching like Jonah-Jonah 4.3).

v 38…And all the people would get up early in the morning and come to him in the Temple to listen to him (directly; zeal motivated them to come repeatedly because “Never did a man speak the way this man speaks”-John 7.46).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 20

Luke 20.1-47 tells us how Yeshua deals with a challenge to his authority; he gives a midrashic aggadah about the wicked vinedressers; answers a question about paying taxes to Caesar; another question by a Sadducee about the resurrection and a warning about the scribes.

v 1…And it came about on one of the days (Nisan 12) while he was teaching the people in the Temple and preaching the gospel (“basar” and was preached before his death; it was preached to Abraham and t Israel in the wilderness; for more information on the concept of the Basar or “gospel” see our teaching called “The Basar” on this site), that the chief priests and the scribes with the elders confronted him (came upon him).

v 2…And they spoke, saying to him, “Tell us by what authority you are doing these things (cleansing the Temple of the sellers-19.45-46), or who is the one who gave you this authority?”

v 3…And he answered and said to them, “I shall ask you a question, and you tell me (Yeshua is displaying his authority by saying in essence, “You render an account to me”);

v 4…was the immersion of John from heaven or from men (did God send him or was he acting on his own)?”

v 5…And they answered among themselves (debated) saying, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ then he will say, ‘Why did you not believe him (and repent-Luke 7.30)?’

v 6…But if we say, ‘From men,’ all the people (many believed) will stone us to death, for they are convinced that John was a prophet (and he pointed to Yeshua).”

v 7…And they answered that they did not know where it came from (they won’t tell).

v 8…And Yeshua said to them, “Neither will I tell you by what authority I am doing these things (so Yeshua won’t tell either).”

v 9…And he began to tell the people this parable (midrashic aggadah-keep in mind the story of Joseph): “A man (Yehovah) planted (in the land) a vineyard (Israel-Isa 5.1-2) and rented it out to vinegrowers (priests, Levites, kings, leaders, etc) and went on a journey for a long time (Israel’s history from Sinai).

v 10…And at the harvest time he sent a servant (a prophet) to the vine growers in order that they might give him some of the produce of the vineyard (Torah-based works of righteousness, etc). But the vine growers beat him and sent him away empty-handed.

v 11…And he proceeded to send another servant (prophet); and they beat him also and treated him shamefully, and sent him away empty-handed.

v 12…And he proceeded to send a third; and this one also they wounded and cast out.

v 13…And the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What shall I do (still showing mercy)? I will send my beloved son (Yeshua); perhaps they will respect him.’

v 14…But when the vine-growers (priests, kings, rulers, leaders, etc) saw him, they reasoned with one another, saying, ‘This is the heir (to the estate-implying the leaders knew who Yeshua was-John 11.49-52); let us kill him that the inheritance may be ours (the nation, city, the Temple and the benefits of being the heir).’

v 15…And they cast him out of the vineyard and killed him. What therefore, will the owner of the vineyard do to them?

v 16…He will come and destroy these vine-growers and he will give the vineyard to others (to the Romans and the non-Jews in general).” And when they heard it, they said, “May it never be (that the Messiah would be killed; that did not fit their eschatological view of overthrowing Rome, etc; they didn’t see it)!”

v 17…But he looked at them and said, “What then is this that is written (already on record), ‘The stone (the son; the Messiah) which the builders rejected (the vine-growers killed him), this became (he was promoted after) the chief cornerstone (to build his “Temple” of believers; the eschatological Kahal; if this parable was not true, what is their interpretation of it, what is the meaning then)?

v 18…Everyone who falls (stumbles) on that stone will be broken to pieces (that generation stumbled over Yeshua and were crushed in 70 AD); but on whomever it falls, it will scatter him like dust (they were scattered to the four winds, the nations; driven out of their inheritance).

v 19…And the scribes and the chief priests tried to lay hands on him that very hour, and they feared the people; for they understood that he spoke this parable against them (and failed to accept it as true, and they were going to fulfill it).

v 20…And they watched him (to take advantage of him) and sent spies who pretended to be righteous, in order that they might catch him in some statement (like religious people today), so as to deliver him up to the rule and authority of the governor (who was in town because of the festival to keep peace).

v 21…And they questioned him, saying, “Teacher (faked friendship as an angel of light), we know that you speak and teach correctly, and you are not partial to any, but teach the way of God (Torah) in truth (deceitful flattery-they didn’t believe him or they would have followed him).

v 22…Is it lawful (permissible) for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not (these people were aligned with Beit Shammai who did not want to support Rome; the poll tax was an issue with the Sicarii and the Zealots who were aligned with Beit Shammai, and it causes them to rebel against Rome, like Theudus, and Judah the Galilean. Judah was the son of the founder of the Zealot movement in Galilee. His brother Hananiah tried to get Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel together to discuss the 18 Edicts of Shammai, but some Zealots killed some from Beit Hillel in 20 BC, making it easier for Shammai’s 18 Edicts to pass. These edicts were designed to limit any intercourse between Jew and non-Jew and dominated Jewish life until right before the destruction of the Temple. Some of these edicts can be seen throughout the gospels and epistles and were behind what Paul was teaching in the book of Galatians; after the destruction of the Temple they were annulled)?’

v 23…But he detected their trickery and said to them,

v 24…”Show me a denarius. Whose head and inscription does it have?” And they said, “Caesar’s.”

v 25…And he said to them, “Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s (it has his image), and to God the things that are God’s (man is in God’s image, so give what belongs to him-Torah observance and love, mercy, kindness, justice, and not man-made traditions)!”

v 26…And they were unable to catch him in a saying in the presence of the people (they were humiliated again); and marveling at his answer, they became silent (in awe).

v 27…Now there came to him some of the Sadducees (this name comes from “Zadok” who was the first high priest during the time of Solomon; the leaders were priests; they were non-eschatological, denied the resurrection, angels, there was no afterlife and that man has free will-Acts 23.6-8) who say there was no resurrection,

v 28…And they questioned him, saying, “Teacher, Moses wrote us (Deut 25.5) that if a man’s brother dies, having a wife, and he is childless, his brother should take the wife and raise up offspring to his brother.

v 29…Now there were seven brothers, and the first took a wife, and was childless;

v 30…and the second

v 31…and the third took her; and in the same way the seven also died, leaving no children.

v 32…Finally the woman dies also.

v 33…In the resurrection therefore, which one’s wife will the woman be? For the seven had her as a wife.”

v 34…And Yeshua said to them, “The sons of this age (the Olam Ha Zeh) marry and are given in marriage,

v 35…but those who are considered worthy to attain that age (the Olam Haba by faith in Yeshua) and the resurrection of the dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage;

v 36…for neither can they die anymore, for they are like the angels (the Sadducees didn’t believe in angels either, so Yeshua brings angels into his answer, too), and are sons of God (heirs of God and in resurrection bodies like God-1 John 3.2).

v 37…But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed, at the bush, where he calls the Lord (Yehovah) the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.

v 38…Now he is not the God of the dead (corpses of these men), but the living (they exist now); for all live to him (they were in error, drawing false doctrines out of their false premises they invented-Mark 12.27).”

v 39…And some of the scribes answered and said, “Teacher, you have spoken well (in silencing the Sadducees by putting this matter into a clear light).”

v 40…For they did not have courage to question him any longer about anything (they failed and were humiliated).

v 41…And he said to them, “How is it that they say the Messiah is David’s son (but he wasn’t done with them yet)?

v 42…For David himself says in the book of Psalms (Tehillim), “The Lord (Yehovah) said to my Lord (Messiah), ‘Sit at my right hand

v 43…until I make thine enemies a footstool for thy feet.’

v 44…David therefore calls him ‘Lord’ and how is he his son (in what sense can he be both Lord and son? The only possible answer is that Messiah is a descendant of David in the flesh, but in the spirit he is Yehovah himself-1 Tim 3.16)?”

v 45…And while all the people were listening, he said to the talmidim,

v 46…”Beware of the scribes (stay aloof from), who walk around in long robes (to get attention) and love respectful greetings in the market places and chief seats in the synagogues, and places of honor at banquets (Beit Shammai would do this; they would form a group called a “chavurah” and meet to eat meals consecrated to God, also called a Lord’s Supper; Beit Hillel would not do this and would take the back seats),

v 47…who devour widows houses (took advantage of them for gain) and for appearance sake offer long prayers; theses will have greater condemnation (these scribes were Pharisees from Beit Shammai and these charges by Yeshua were also seen in other Jewish literature about Beit Shammai-Josephus; Talmud, etc. For additional information on Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, see the book called “Jesus the Pharisee” by Harvey Falk).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 19

Luke 19.1=48 gives us the account of Yeshua going to the house of Zacchaeus; the parable of the minas; Yeshua’s entry into Jerusalem on Nisan 10, four days before Passover; and his teachings in the Temple.

v 1…And he entered and was passing through Jericho (it was a Jewish custom to meet a festive party as they passed through a town on their way to a festival, so this explains the multitude in 18.36-37).

v 2…And behold (see), there was a man called by the name of Zacchaeus (Hebrew Zakkai meaning “just one”) and he was a chief tax-gatherer (a supervisor over the other tax gatherers in the area) and he was rich (some of it was ill-gottens gains).

v 3…And he was trying to see who Yeshua was, and he was unable because of the crowd, for he was small in stature.

v 4…And he ran ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree in order to see him, for he was about to pass through that way (Yeshua was using the regular route of travel for people going up to Jerusalem-in a few days Yeshua would go up a tree for Zacchaeus).

v 5…And when Yeshua came to the place, he looked up (he knew he would be there by his sovereignty, like Adam and Nathaniel-Gen 3.8; John 1.48; Zacchaeus was ordained by Yehovah to be there) and said to him, “Zacchaeus (he knew his name because Yehovah had given him to Yeshua), hurry and come down, for today I must stay at your house (to meet his need-Yeshua “knocked” and he was let in-Rev 3.20).”

v 6…And he hurried and came down and received him gladly (John 1.12; Rev 22.17).

v 7…And when they (the multitude) saw it, they all began to mumble (murmur like the scribes and Pharisees in Luke 15.2), saying, “He has gone to be the guest of a man who is a sinner (table fellowship was seen as acceptance).”

v 8…And Zacchaeus (Zakkai) stopped and said to the Lord, “Behold (take note), Lord, half of my possessions I will give to the poor (to show his repentance for his sins due to conviction), and if I have defrauded anyone of anything, I will give back four times as much (the Torah required double-Exo 22.1-4; Lev 6.1-5. Num 5.6-7 says add twenty percent; we see that Zacchaeus was not like the self-righteous young ruler in Luke 18.22-23).”

v 9…And Yeshua said to him, “Today salvation (Yeshua in Hebrew) has come to this house, because he, too, is a son of Abraham (an heir of faith who trusted in me spiritually, not just physically).

v 10…For the son of Man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13, an eschatological title) has come to seek and to save that which was lost.”

v 11…And while they were listening to these things, he went on to tell a parable (midrashic agaddah), because he was near Jerusalem, and they supposed that the kingdom of God was going to appear immediately (that is why they did not understand Luke 18.31-34; their expectations were far from what was going to happen, so Yeshua tells them the following parable).

v 12…And he said therefore, “A certain nobleman (Messiah) went to a distant country (Israel) to receive a kingdom (of God) for himself and then return (back home/heaven).

v 13…And he called ten (the number of judgment and government) of his servants and gave them ten minas (a system of weight equalling about 50 shekels, a type of spiritual gifts) and said to them, ‘Do business (for the kingdom) until I come back.’

v 14…But his citizens hated him (Israel-John 1.11), and sent a delegation after him (Yeshua), saying, ‘We do not want this man to reign over us (as Messiah-they said “this man” because they did not even want to say his name out of contempt)!

v 15…And it came about that when he returned (eschatologically a Yom Ha Din or day of judgment, alluding to Yom Kippur at the end of the birth-pains) after receiving the kingdom (seven years earlier on Yom Ha Din Rosh Ha Shannah, year 6001 from creation-Dan 7.9-14), he ordered that these servants to whom he had given the money (spiritual gifts) be called to him in order that he might know what business they had done (give an account of their trustworthiness).

v 16…And the first appeared, saying, ‘Master, your mina has made ten minas more (he made good use of his gifts and not claiming any merit).’

v 17…And he said to him, ‘Well done, good servant, because you have been faithful (action) in a very little thing, be in authority over ten cities (in the kingdom).’

v 18…And the second came, saying, ‘Your mina, master, has made five minas (he, too, is not claiming any merit, those gifts were given to him).’

v 19…And he said to him also, ‘And you are to be over five cities (in the kingdom).’

v 20…And another came, saying, ‘Master, behold your mina, which I kept (put away) in a handkerchief;

v 21…For I was afraid of you (not of the right kind, not out of love but contempt; he didn’t know him), because you are an exacting (austere, bitter) man; you take up what you did not lay down, and reap where you did not sow?’

v 22…He said to him, ‘By your own words I will judge you (it’s Yom Ha Din Yom Kippur remember, a day of judgment), you worthless servant. Did you know that I am an exacting man, taking up what I did not lay down, and reaping what I did not sow?

v 23…Then why did you not put the money back in the bank, and having come, I would have collected it with interest?’

v 24…And he said to the bystanders (other servants nearby), ‘Take the mina away from him, and give it to the one who has the ten minas (who invested and showed his wisdom).’

v 25…And they said to him, Master, he has ten minas already (but he wants his gifts in the hand of someone who will use them the best).’

v 26…I tell you, that to everyone who has (manages what is entrusted to him by Yehovah) shall more be given, but from the one who does not have (not managing the gifts God has given him), what he does have shall be taken away.

v 27…But these enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them (the scribes and Pharisees of Shammai, the Sadducees, Zealots, Sicarii or any unbeliever) bring them here, and slay them in my presence (Matt 25.41-46; eschatologically, Yeshua returns on Tishri 10, and the unbelievers will be judged as Yeshua sits on the Mount of Olives between Tishri 10 and 15; they will be slain at the “feast of Leviathan” and put into the Tophet south of Jerusalem, also called the valley of Yehoshaphat-Isa 66.24; Matt 24.27-28; Luke 17.37; Rev 19.21-this also alludes to the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD).”

v 28…And after he said these things, he was going on ahead (leading his talmidim) ascending to Jerusalem.

v 29…And it came about that when he approached Bethphage (house of figs) and Bethany (house of dates), near the mount that is called Olivet (olives), he sent two of the talmidim,

v 30…saying, “Go into the village opposite you, in which as you enter you will find a colt tied on which no one has ever sat (Matt 21.2 says its mother was also there), untie it, and bring it here (Yeshua waited where he was).

v 31…And if anyone asks you, ‘Why are you untying it?’ Thus shall you speak, ‘The Lord has need of it (Psa 50.10).’ “

v 32…And those who were sent went away and found it just as he had told them (the word of God can be trusted).

v 33…And as they were untying the colt, its owners said to them, “Why are you untying the colt?”

v 34…And they said, “The Lord (Yehovah) has need of it.”

v 35…And they brought it to Yeshua, and they threw their garments on the colt, and put Yeshua on it (to fulfill Zech 9.9).

v 36…And as he was going, they were spreading their garments in the road (also palms in admiration-Matt 21.8).

v 37…And as he was now approaching, near the descent of the Mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the talmidim began to praise God joyfully with a loud voice for all the miracles which they had seen,

v 38…saying, “Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the Lord (Yehovah, in his authority); peace in heaven and glory in the highest (before the throne in heaven, even in Jerusalem, the city of peace)!”

v 39…And some of the Pharisees (from Beit Shammai who hated Yeshua) in the multitude said to him, “Teacher, rebuke your talmidim (they are getting out of hand, this is embarrassing).”

v 40…And he answered and said, “I tell you, if these (people) become silent, the stones will cry out (tombstones of the dead; they know who Yeshua is, as in Luke 16.28-31; Yehovah placed his name in the stones of the three valleys forming a “Shin”)!”

v 41…And when he approached he saw the city and wept over it (convulsively; David wept on the same spot as he was leaving the city after they rejected him in 2 Sam 15.30),

v 42…saying, “If you had known this day, even you, the things which make for peace (now keep in mind, this is Nisan 10, the day the lambs for Passover are being set apart to be inspected. Yeshua is the Passover lamb for Israel and he will be inspected to make sure he is without blemish-Exo 12.3. It is also 69 weeks exactly from the decree to rebuild the city in Neh 2.1-8 to Nisan 10 and the coming of the Messiah here, based on the prophecy in Dan 9.25. That is 173,880 days. If they would have understood this, they would have known who he was, but it was too late)! But now they have been hidden from your eyes (by God).

v 43…For the days shall come upon you when your enemies will throw up a bank before you, and surrounding you, and hem you in on every side (Luke 21.20-before Passover in Nisan, forty years later the Romans with Vespasian will encircle the city; see “History of the Jewish People-The second Temple Era” by Mesorah Publications, Ltd, p.186-194; quotes Isa 29.1-3; believers will flee to Pella and the Jordanian wilderness before they are trapped in the city, believing Luke 21.20-22),

v 44…and will level you to the ground and your children within you, and they will not leave in you one stone upon another (this is not to be taken literally, this is an idiom for massive and total destruction caused by war), because you did not recognize the time of your visitation (Joseph, a type of Messiah, says in Gen 50.24, “I will visit, visit you” in Hebrew. Why twice? It teaches the first redemption visitation with Moses, and the second redemption visitation with Yeshua-Luke 1.68).”

v 45…And he entered the Temple and began to cast out those who were selling (in the Bazaars of Annas in the Royal Stoa; keep in mind this is Passover and Yeshua is cleaning out the leaven from his father’s house),

v 46…saying to them, “It is written (already on record), ‘And my house shall be a house of prayer.’ but you have made it a robbers den (he quotes Jer 7.11-In Herod’s Temple, Yeshua is standing in the Royal Stoa, right above where Jeremiah was standing when he said Jer 7.11).”

v 47…And he was teaching daily in the Temple (from Nisan 10-13); but the chief priests and the scribe and the leading men among the people were trying to destroy him,

v 48…and they could be anything (a blemish, like they were inspecting the Passover lamb) that they might do, for all the people were hanging upon (being attentive to) his words.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 18

Luke 18.1-43 tells us about the persistent widow; the Pharisee from Beit Shammai and the tax-gatherer; receiving the kingdom like a child; a ruler asking Yeshua what he must do to inherit eternal life; and the healing of a blind man.

v 1…Now he was telling them a parable (midrashic aggadah) to show that at all times (when you have the opportunity) they ought to pray and not lose heart (quit, give up because we don’t see answers to our prayers yet),

v 2…saying, “There was in a certain city a judge who did not fear God and did not respect man (no regard).

v 3…And there was a widow (helpless in this world, like a believer) in that city, and she kept coming to him, saying, ‘Give me legal protection from my opponent (adversary).’

v 4…And for awhile he was unwilling; but afterward he said to himself, ‘Even though I do not fear God nor respect man,

v 5…yet this widow bothers me (by her repeated appeals for help), I will give her legal protection, lest by continually coming she wears me out (by her persistence).’ “

v 6…And the Lord said, “Hear what the unrighteous judge said;

v 7…now shall not God bring about justice for his elect, who cry to him day and night, and will he delay long over them (be patient over them-yes; he hears our prayers but his plan for others is involved, too; 2 Pet 3.9 says he won’t delay forever)?

v 8…I tell you that he will bring about justice for them speedily. However, when the son of Man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13, a messianic title) comes, will he find faith (emunah based on the body of doctrinal truth found in the Torah-Jer 5.3; 1 Tim 4.1) on the earth?”

v 9…And he also told this parable (midrashic aggadah) to certain ones who trusted in themselves that they were righteous and viewed others with contempt (to expose their pride and arrogance and self-confidence).

v 10…”Two men went up into the Temple to pray, one a Pharisee (probably from Beit Shammai), and the other a tax-gatherer.

v 11…The Pharisee (self-righteous) stood and was praying thus to himself (to commend himself), ‘God, I thank you that I am not like other people: swindlers, unjust, adulterers, or even like this tax-gatherer (Beit Shammai hated Rome and the tax-gatherers were seen as helping them).

v 12…I fast twice a week (the oral law says they did this on Mondays and Thursdays) and I pay tithes of all I get (income).

v 13…But the tax-gatherer, standing afar off (conscious of his own sin, possibly in the court of the non-Jews), was even unwilling to lift his eyes to heaven (his countenance had fallen, could not even look towards the sanctuary building), but was beating his breast (the source of his sin was his heart) saying, ‘God, be merciful to me, the sinner (definite article in Greek here; not just “a” sinner but “the” sinner meaning if there ever was a sinner, it’s me)!’

v 14…I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other; for every one who exalts himself shall be humbled, but he who humbles himself shall be exalted.”

v 15…And they were bringing even their babies (infants) to him, in order that he might touch them (in a blessing-Gen 48.14-15), but when the talmidim saw it, they were rebuking them (for taking up his time with this).

v 16…But Yeshua called for them (children) saying, “Permit (allow) the children (Greek “Paidia” or children, other than the infants of v 15) to come to me, and stop hindering them (obstructing them from coming on their own), for the kingdom of God (his movement and rule in action and power) belongs to such as these (how Matt 5.3-11 should read).

v 17…Truly I say to you, whoever does not receive the kingdom of God like a child (without pride, prejudice, ambition, vanity) shall not enter into it (his movement and rule in power and action in their life; unfit to enjoy it).”

v 18…And a certain ruler (a synagogue ruler) questioned him, saying, “Good teacher, what shall I do to obtain eternal life (first of all, his premise is wrong)?”

v 19…And Yeshua said to him, “Why do you call me good? No one is good except God alone (he must see that all men are not good, including himself, and Yeshua is emphasizing that fact here-Rom 3.10-18).

v 20…You know the commandments, ‘Do not commit adultery, do not murder, do not steal, do not bear false witness, honor your father and mother (notice he doesn’t say, “Accept me into your heart.’ He made it very clear here that obedience to the Torah is essential, not to earn salvation, but as evidence that you have received salvation, and on how to live after you have received the redemption-John 14.15; 1 John 2.1-4; Jam 2.14-26).”

v 21…And he said, “All these things I have kept from my youth (but really didn’t because his “god” is money-v 23).”

v 22…And when Yeshua heard this, he said to him, “One thing you still lack; sell all that you possess, and distribute it to the poor, and you shall have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me (he is basically getting to the heart of the matter he made in Matt 5 through 7, showing him he can’t be saved by his own works, like selling his possessions and giving to the poor because he can’t do it, and he needed a redeemer; Yeshua gave this answer to others also-Luke 14.33).”

v 23…But when he heard these things, he became very sad; for he was extremely rich (truth be known, he was relying on good works not faith, and Yeshua showed him an area where he was weak. He was greedy and had no compassion for the needy, which is the heart of the Torah-Deut 15.7-11. This is to show that if any of us try to keep the Torah for salvation, there will be something in the Torah that will show us we fall far short, bringing us to the realization we cannot be saved by our own efforts, but need a redeemer).

v 24…And Yeshua looked at him and said, “How hard it is for those who are wealthy to enter the kingdom of God (because riches can be a distraction, it’s “hard” but not impossible, but you need God’s perspective of riches and a redeemer)!

v 25…For it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle (a Hebrew idiom meaning “impossible”), than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God (the Aramaic word for “rope” is “kamilon” and is almost identical to the Greek word for “camel” which is “kamelon.” Some scholars believe the word may have been misspelled and Yeshua was making an analogy about threading a thick rope through the eye of a needle-see the article called, “What is the Meaning of a Camel Going Through the Eye of a Needle” by Wendy McMahan on the Internet; on the other hand, this is an idiom and is seen in the Talmud, Bava Mezia 38b, where it talks about two rabbis arguing, and one suggests the other is speaking impossible things by saying he is trying to “make an elephant pass through the eye of a needle.” In another case in the Talmud, Barakot 55b, it shows the impossibility or unlikelihood about what men dream, it is said, “They do not show a man a palm of gold, nor an elephant going through the eye of a needle”).”

v 26…And they who heard it said, “Then who can be saved (for who does not try or desire to have wealth; they heard “impossible”)?”

v 27…But he said, “The things impossible with men are possible with God.”

v 28…And Peter said, “Behold, we have left our own homes and followed you (what reward can we expect)?”

v 29…And he said to them, “Truly I say to you, there is no one who has left house or wife or brothers or parents or children, for the sake of the kingdom of God,

v 30…who shall not receive many times as much at this time (in the Olam Ha Zeh) and in the age to come (the Olam Haba) eternal life (which is what the ruler wanted in v 18).”

v 31…And he took the twelve aside and said to them, “Behold (take note), we are going up to Jerusalem (for Passover), and all things which are written through the prophets about the son of Man will be accomplished (Psa 40.7-8; Luke 24.27; John 5.39-47).

v 32…For he will be delivered up to the Gentiles (for the first time Yeshua is implying he will be crucified, used by Rome for death sentences), and will be mocked and mistreated and spit upon,

v 33…and after they have scourged him, they will kill him; and the third day he will rise again.”

v 34…And they understood none of these things, and this saying was hidden from them (they could not reconcile this with their messianic expectations-19.11), and they did not comprehend the things that were said.

v 35…And it came about that as he was approaching Jericho, a certain blind man was sitting by the road begging (his name was Bartimaeus meaning “son of honor”).

v 36…Now hearing a multitude going by, he asked what it meant (what was going on).

v 37…And they told him that Yeshua of Nazareth was passing by.

v 38…And he called out, saying, Yeshua, son of David (a term for the Messiah- he believed in him), have mercy on me!”

v 39…And those who led the way were sternly telling him to be quiet, but he kept on crying all the more (he was persistent, the theme of v 1-7), “Son of David, have mercy on me!”

v 40…And Yeshua stopped and commanded that he be brought to him; and when he had come near, he questioned him,

v 41…What do you want me to do for you (Yeshua already knew, but he was saying this to elicit a response from the man and for the others to hear)?” And he said, Lord, I want to receive my sight!”

v 42…And Yeshua said to him, “Receive your sight; your faith (confidence in action) has saved you (from your blindness).”

v 43…And immediately he received his sight, and began following him, glorifying God; and when all the people saw it, they gave praise to God (for manifesting his mercy and power to heal this man, and for sending Yeshua, who they believed was the Messiah).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 17

Luke 17.1-37 speaks about stumbling blocks (offenses) and forgiveness; what kind of faith we have; the cleansing of ten lepers; the coming of the kingdom of God and the coming of the Messiah in “his day.”

v 1…And he said to his talmidim (after turning from his discussion with the Pharisees of Beit Shammai), “It is inevitable that stumbling blocks should come (as long as we are carnal, sinful and in this world), but woe to him (lamentations await you) through whom they come (Talmud, Ta’anit 24a says, “It would be better were you to return to dust than to cause mankind to sin on account of you”)!

v 2…It would be better for him if a millstone were hung around his neck and he were thrown into the sea, than that he should cause one of these little ones to stumble.

v 3…Be on your guard! If your brother sins, rebuke him (reprimand, criticize sharply with compassion), and if he repents, forgive him (lay it away; don’t bring it up again).

v 4…And if he sins against you seven times a day, and returns to you seven times, saying, ‘I repent,’ forgive him (on the other hand, we have no moral right to forgive sin done to others).”

v 5…And the shaliachim said to the Lord, “Increase our faith (this is a high standard you have set for us in this kind of matter; we don’t want to take advantage as leaders)!

v 6…And the Lord said, “If you have faith like a mustard seed (small) you would say to this mulberry tree,’Be uprooted and be planted in the sea’, and it would obey you (any obstacle can be removed so that you can do it-v 1-5).

v 7…But which of you, having a servant plowing or tending sheep, will say to him when he is coming from the field, ‘Come immediately and sit down to eat’?

v 8…But will he not say (more likely to say) to him, ‘Prepare something for me to eat, and gird yourself and serve me until I have eaten and drunk; and afterward you will eat and drink (we serve Yehovah, not ourselves in our own interests)’?

v 9…He does not thank the servant because he did the thing which he was commanded does he (he shouldn’t expect thanks, it was his duty)?

v 10…So you too, when you do all the things which are commanded you say, “We are unworthy servants and have only done that which we ought to have done.’ “

v 11…And it came about while he was on the way to Jerusalem that he was passing between Samaria and Galilee.

v 12…And as he entered a certain village, there he met ten (number of judgment) leprous men (called “Meztorim”), who stood at a distance (according to the Torah-Lev 13.45-46; Num 5.2);

v 13…and they raised their voices (being at a distance), “Yeshua, master, have mercy on us (normally they would have begged for provisions, etc).

v 14…And when he saw them, he said to them, “Go and show yourselves to the priests (to be examined according to the Torah).” And it came about that as they were going, they were cleansed.

v 15…Now one of them, when he saw that he had been healed, turned back (to Yeshua), glorifying God (each examined themselves and saw the cure) with a loud voice,

v 16…and he fell on his face at his feet (in respect and awe), giving thanks to him. And he was a Samaritan (Jews believed that the Samaritans were not religious, ignorant and basically heathens, yet this man behaved is a religious attitude of thanks to God for his mercy; the other nine were probably Jewish-v 18).

v 17…And Yeshua answered and said, “Were there not ten cleansed? But the nine-where are they?

v 18…Were none found who turned back to give glory to God, except this foreigner?”

v 19…And he said to him, “Rise, go your way; your faith (action in confidence) has made you well.

v 20…Now having been questioned by the Pharisees (from Beit Shammai) as to when the kingdom of God was coming (Beit Shammai was interested in deliverance from Rome; they did not like non-Jews), he answered them and said, “The kingdom of God (God’s rule and movement in action and power) is not coming with signs to be observed (you can’t see a soul saved-John 3.1-8),

v 21…nor will they say, ‘Look here,’ or ‘There!’ For behold (take note), the kingdom of God is in your midst (even now among you, being offered because the Messiah is here).”

v 22…And he said to his talmidim, “The days shall come when you will long to see one of the days of the Son of Man, and you will not see it (such a time of opportunity and visitation; sometimes we don’t know what we’re missing till it’s gone-Luke 19.41-44; the following verses allude to the coming of Rome in 70 AD to destroy Jerusalem and the Temple).

v 23…And they will say to you, ‘Look there! Look here!’ Do not go away and do not turn after them (false Messiahs and false signs-Matt 24.23-27).

v 24…For just as lightning, when it flashes out of one part of the sky shines to the other part of the sky, so will the Son of Man (Bar Enosh and a messianic title from Dan 7.13) be in his day (when Rome comes by the will of God to destroy Jerusalem, the Temple and disperse the people; also alludes to the Day of the Lord).

v 25…But first (before that happens) he must suffer many thing and be rejected by this generation (Yeshua will ratify the covenant before Rome comes and Yeshua returns).

v 26…And just as it happened in the days of Noah, so will it be also in the days of the Son of Man (the morals, the manner of conduct, etc);

v 27…they were eating, they were drinking, they were marrying, they were being given in marriage (in other words they were engaging in normal, everyday activities and ignoring Noah’s message), until the day that Noah entered the ark, and the flood came and destroyed them all (they were warned about judgment because they were corrupt-Gen 6.5).

v 28…It was the same that happened with Lot; they were eating, they were drinking, they were buying, they were selling, they were planting, they were building (normal activities but failed in the important things-Ezek 16.49);

v 29…but on the day that Lot went out from Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven and destroyed them all.

v 30…It will be just the same on the day that the Son of Man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13) is revealed (when Rome comes by God’s will and fulfills Yeshua’s predictions).

v 31…On that day (when Rome surrounds the city) let not one who is on the housetop and whose goods are in the house go down to take them away; and likewise let not the one who is in the field turn back (no time for it, be ready to go and hurry).

v 32…Remember Lot’s wife (her final end-she hesitated and turned back).

v 33…Whoever seeks to keep (save) his life (by staying in Jerusalem) shall lose it (either by death or slavery- this was seen when many stayed behind the walls of Jerusalem in 70 Ad and were slaughtered or enslaved), and whoever loses his life (exposing it to danger by fleeing to the mountains, or to Pella beyond the Jordan, which many did) shall preserve it alive (many survived if they listened to what Yeshua said here).

v 34…I tell you, on that night (of calamity by Rome) there will be two in one bed (or couch for meals); one will be taken (by the Romans and killed or as a prisoner, and the other will be left (preserved by God’s will and design).

v 35…There will be two women grinding at the same place; one will be taken (killed or as a prisoner by Rome) and the other left (preserved by God’s will and design).”

v 36…And answering they said to him, “Where, Lord?” And he said, “Where the body is (the Jewish people), there also will the eagles (plural for the legions of Rome; their emblem was an eagle) be gathered (they were coming upon them in the land of Israel, the cities and villages, Jerusalem and the Temple; to devour them and their gold, silver, and possessions. This saying was an idiom for an impending disaster).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 16

Luke 16.1-31 contains several midrashic aggadot (parables) aimed primarily at the Pharisees of Beit Shammai who dominated Jewish life in the first century and were lovers of money. It will contain a parable about an unjust steward, using money, faithfulness in little things and serving two masters, the scoffing of the Pharisees from Shammai, God’s Torah is unchanging, divorce or separating from a wife without a biblical cause (see Matt 19.8-9 notes), and the parable about Lazarus and the rich Man (the Pharisees of Beit Shammai). Again, for a deeper understanding about Beit Shammai and how these Pharisees are interacting with Yeshua in the gospels, read the book, “Jesus the Pharisee: by Harvey Falk, WIPF and Stock Publishers.

v 1…Now he was also saying to his talmidim, “There was a certain rich man who had a steward (the Pharisees of Beit Shammai will see themselves in this parable in v 14), and this steward was accused to him as wasting his possessions.

v 2…And he called him (as Yeshua has called them through the Torah, the Prophets, John as to why they corrupted the word of God; their covetousness for money, houses, land, and worldly things) and said to him, ‘What is this I hear about you? Give an account of your stewardship, for you can no longer be steward.’

v 3…And the steward said to himself, ‘What shall I do, since my master is taking the stewardship away from me. I am not strong enough to dig (do manual labor), I am ashamed to beg (like a blind man or cripple).

v 4…I know what I will do (it dawned on him), so that when I am removed from the stewardship, they will receive me into their homes (of the debtors-the Pharisees took more time in preparing for acceptance into an earthly house than most do securing a place in the house of God).’

v 5…And he summoned each one of his master’s debtors, and he began saying to the first, ‘How much do you owe my master?’

v 6…And he said, ‘A hundred measures of oil.’ And he said to him, ‘Take your bill, and sit down quickly and write fifty.’

v 7…And he said to another, ‘And how much do you owe?’ And he said, ‘A hundred measures of wheat.’ And he said to him, ‘Take your bill and write eighty (a twenty percent loss).’

v 8…And his master praised the unrighteous steward because he acted wisely (prudently), for the sons of this age are wiser in relation to their own kind than the sons of light (he commended him not for the injustice of it all, but for his shrewdness in providing for himself in the future).

v 9…And I say to you, make friends for yourselves by means of the unrighteous mammon (giving money to help the poor and needy), that when it fails (at your death), they may receive you into everlasting dwellings (not just earthly ones-the unrighteous steward used his master’s money to buy worldly favors; believers are to use Yehovah’s money to invest in the kingdom to bring sinners to eternal life and be welcomed by them into the kingdom. Yeshua is using this parable to show that even the wicked are shrewd enough to provide for themselves against future calamity).

v 10…He who is faithful in a very little thing is faithful also in much, and he who is unrighteous in a very little thing is unrighteous also in much.

v 11…If therefore you have not been faithful in the use of unrighteous mammon (money), who will entrust the true riches to you (heavenly, spiritual matters)?

v 12…And if you have not been faithful is the use of that which is another’s, who will give you that which is your own (to manage)?

v 13…No servant can serve two masters (with equal allegiance); for either he will hate (take lightly) the one, and love the other, or else he will hold (fast) to one and despise the other (take it lightly). You cannot serve God and Mammon (money (you are not able to do it).”

v 14…Now the Pharisees (from Beit Shammai), who were lovers of money (and will be seen as the Rich Man in the following aggadah), were listening to all these things, and were scoffing at him (turning up their noses because they were greedy and covetous).

v 15…And he said to them, “You are those who justify yourselves (boasted of their righteousness-Luke 10.25-59; they posed as righteous-Matt 5.20) in the sight of men, but God knows your hearts (desires, thoughts, intentions); for that which is highly esteemed among men (outward appearances) is detestable in the sight of God.

v 16…The Law (Torah) and the Prophets (Nevi’im) prophesied concerning John, since then the gospel (basar) of the kingdom of God (this movement and rule in action and power) is preached and everyone is entering his way into it (that he may enter into it; but Beit Shammai tried to hinder it by their doctrines-Matt 23.13; see Matt 11.12 notes and also the book called “Understanding the Difficult Words of Jesus” by David Bivin and Roy Blizzard, p. 84-87).

v 17…But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for one stroke of the letter of the Law (Torah) to fail (the weakness is in man, not the Torah).

v 18…Everyone who divorces (sends out or separates) without a biblical bill of divorce) and marries another commits adultery (divorce with a biblical cause is allowed-Deut 24.1-4; Exo 21.10-11); and he who marries one who is divorced (sent out or separated without a biblical bill of divorce) from a husband commits adultery (on a side note, there was a controversy in the first century between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel. Beit Shammai said a man should not divorce his wife unless he has found an indecency in her biblically. On the other hand, Beit Hillel allowed divorce for any reason, even trivial transgressions).

Luke 16.19-31 is a midrashic aggadah (parable) that has Beit Shammai in mind (the context) who were rich, religious leaders and lovers of money, and he is dealing with the Pharisees (v 14). This parable was to show them that with all their riches and outward appearance of righteousness, they may be lost.

v 19…Now there was a certain rich man (the Pharisees and scribes of Beit Shammai in particular for this parable, but not limited to them only) and he dressed habitually in purple (worn by the rich and royal) and fine linen (alludes to their self-righteousness-Matt 23.5), gaily living in splendor every day (Matt 23.6).

v 20…And a certain poor man named Lazarus (Eliezer meaning “God helps; he is a type of Yeshua) laid at his gate (Yeshua had no place to lay his head) covered in sores (Isa 53.4),

v 21…and longing to be fed with the crumbs which were falling down from the man’s table (left-overs; Yeshua left out of the religious circles); besides, even the dogs were coming and licking his sores (the non-Jews who came to him like the Samaritans, the Syro-Phoenician woman, and those who will come later; they encouraged him with their faith in him).

v 22…Now it came about that the poor man died (Yeshua died) and he was carried away by the angels to Abraham’s Bosom (Paradise, a term for heaven) and the rich man also died (in unbelief) and was buried.

v 23…And in Hades (Hebrew “Sheol” or the abide of the dead) he lifted up his eyes, being in torment (because his eyes were now open to see his spiritual mistakes and lost opportunities); and saw Abraham far away (distance in spiritual space does not relate to a measurable distance as in physical space and movement; “near” means “similar to” and “far” means “different or opposite”), and Lazarus in his bosom.

v 24…And he cried out and said, ‘Father Abraham (his seed, a type of Yehovah)), have mercy on me and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue, for I am in agony in this flame (his conscience-dipping his finger in water alludes to an oblation and washing purification ceremonies, referring to pardon, forgiveness, comfort and rest)!’

v 25…But Abraham said, ‘Child (in flesh only), remember that during your life you received your good things (earthly blessings), and likewise Lazarus bad things (poverty, surrounded by evil); but now he is being comforted here, and you are in agony.

v 26…And besides all this, between us and you is a great chasm (the decree of God that fixes the eternal state of the righteous and the wicked) in order that those who wish to come over from here to you may not cross over from there to us.’

v 27…And he said, ‘Then I beg you Father, that you send him to my father’s house,

v 28…for I have five brothers (the Jewish people that were not being taught correctly and were unprepared)-that he may warn them, lest they also come to this place of torment.’

v 29…But Abraham said, ‘They (the Jewish people) have Moses (Torah) and the Prophets (John 5.39-47); let them hear them.’

v 30…But he said to him, ‘No, Father Abraham, but if someone goes to them from the dead, they will repent!”

v 31…But he said to him, ‘If they do not listen to Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be persuaded if someone rises from the dead (“Lazarus” did come back from the dead but they were negligent of the Torah and the Prophets and were ignorant of the prophecies, and the story was met with unbelief-Matt 28.11-15; Luke 24.25-27).’ “

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 15

Luke 15.1-32 tells us about the grumbling of the Pharisees and scribes from Beit Shammai; the midrashic aggadot of the Lost Sheep, the Lost Coin and the Merciful Father, also known as the parable of the Prodigal Son. This may have occurred during the time called Teshuvah (Elul1 to Tishri 10) due to the context.

v 1…Now all the tax-gatherers and the sinners (chata’im, whom the Pharisees of Beit Shammai shunned) were coming near him to listen to him (they were sincere).

v 2…And both the Pharisees and the scribes began to grumble (murmur), saying, “This man receives sinners (there are three categories of people in the Scriptures. The Tzaddikim are the righteous, the Chata’im are the regular sinners, and the Rashim are the desperately wicked) and eats with them.”

v 3…And he told them this parable (midrashic aggadah), saying,

v 4…”What man among you, if he has a hundred sheep and has lost one of them, does not leave the ninety-nine in the open pasture, and go after the one which is lost, until he finds it (in the parable Yeshua is vindicating his behavior in dealing with the sinners and neglecting the scribes and Pharisees).

v 5…And when he has found it, he lays it upon his shoulders (speaking of security-John 10.27-30), rejoicing.

v 6…And when he comes home (it rode on his shoulders all the way home, it didn’t take one step of its own; we are not required to reach the kingdom home on our own-Jude 24-25), he calls together his friends and his neighbors, saying to them, ‘Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost!’

v 7…I tell you that in the same way, there will be much joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over the ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance.

v 8…Or what woman, if she has ten (the number of judgment) silver (redemption) coins and loses one coin does not light a lamp (a type of the Torah) and sweep the house and search carefully until she finds it?

v 9…And when she has found it, she calls together her friends and neighbors, saying, ‘Rejoice with me, for I have found the coin which I had lost!’

v 10…In the same way, I tell you, there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner who repents.”

Luke 15.11-32 tells us about the concept of Teshuvah (repentance) with a parable some call “The Prodigal Son” and it teaches repentance. This parable is based on Jer 31.1-22 which is read on Rosh Ha Shanah and called “The Merciful (perfect) Father. Eschatologically it is about the return of Ephraim as the “fullness of the nations (Gentiles)” or “M’loh ha Goyim” in Hebrew, as prophesied is Gen 48.19 and Rom 11.25-26.

v 11…And he said, “A certain man (Yehovah) had two sons (Israel/Ephraim and Judah being a type),

v 12…and the younger (Ephraim/Israel) of them said to his father, ‘Father, give me the share of the estate that falls to me.’ And he divided his living between them (alludes to the divided kingdom of Israel/Ephraim and Judah after Solomon).

v 13…And not many days later, the younger son gathered everything together and went on a journey into a distant country (Israel/Ephraim went into idolatry-1 Kings 12.16-33, and this led to their exile into Assyria) and there he squandered his estate with loose living.

v 14…Now when he had spent everything, a severe famine occurred (a spiritual famine-Amos 8.11) in that country, and he began to be in need.

v 15…And he went and attached himself to one of the citizens in that country and he sent him into fields to feed swine (Israel/Ephraim lost their identity-2 Pet 2.21-22).

v 16…And he was longing to fill his stomach with the pods (not the true bread) that the swine were eating, and no one was giving him anything to him.

v 17…But when he came to his senses (he had insanity in his heart-Ecc 9.3), he said, ‘How many of my father’s hired men have more than enough bread, but I am dying here with hunger.

v 18…I will get up and go to my father (Teshuvah meaning “to return”)m and I will say to him (confession), “Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in your sight (Psa 24).

v 19…I am no longer worthy to be called your son (but he still was a son-Jer 31.20); make me as one of your hired men (shows humility, the way to be exalted-Jam 4.6; 1 Pet 5.6).

v 20…and he got up and came to his father (God’s mercy is executed and he acts). But while he was still a long way off (spiritual space does not relate to measurable distance, as in physical space. Near means “similar to” and far means “different, opposite”), his father saw him (Yehovah was watching Israel/Ephraim the whole time-Jer 31.17-19) and felt compassion (mercy is one of the attributes of a perfect father and righteous king0_psa 29.13) for him, and ran (with speedy relief to his distressed son- this will happen at the end of the birth-pains) and embraced him, and kissed him (acknowledging him as his son-Jer 31.20).

v 21…And the son said to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven (God) and in your sight. I am no longer worthy to be called your son!”

v 22…But the father said to his servants, ‘Quickly bring the best robe and put it on him (alludes to righteousness-Isa 61.10), and put a ring on his hand (the ring is round and it alludes to the fact that Ephraim is a free man eternally), and sandals on his feet (servants did not wear sandals);

v 23…and bring the fattened calf, kill it, and let us eat and be merry (this alludes to the Marriage Supper in the Messianic Kingdom-Isa 25.6, Matt 8.11; Rom 11.25);

v 24…for this son of mine was dead (Israel/Ephraim was seen as no more) and has come to life again, he was lost (alludes to the ten “lost tribes”) and has been found (God knew where they were).’ And they began to be merry.

v 25…Now his older son (Judah) was in the land (Judah came back after Babylonian exile), and when he came and approached the house (the father’s house, the kingdom) he heard music and dancing.

v 26…And he summoned one of his servants and inquired what these things might be,

v 27…and he said to him, ‘Your brother has come, and your father has killed the fattened calf because he has received him back safe and sound (healed and forgiven).’

v 28…But he became angry and was not willing to go in, and his father came out and entreated him.

v 29…But he answered and said to his father, ‘Look! For so many years I have been serving you (Judah maintained the covenant after the fall of the first Temple) and I have never neglected a command of yours (Judah did stay closer to the Torah); and yet you have never given me a kid that I might be merry with my friends (they weren’t the sinners and reprobates of his brother; but this feast was not given to honor the returning son, who had no behavior to honor; the feast was given to express the father’s joy at the confession of his son’s sins, and his restoration into the father’s house);

v 30…but when this son of yours came, who has devoured your wealth with harlots (spiritual adultery) you killed the fattened calf for him.’

v 31…And he said to him, “Child, you have always been with me, and all that is mine is yours (so there was no real occasion for such a restoration, and your inheritance is intact).

v 32…But we had to be merry and rejoice (to express such joy in his return), for this brother of yours was dead (lifeless among the nations), and has begun to live (is now alive with a new nature), and was lost and has been found (this goes back to the joy expressed in finding the lost sheep and coin in Luke 15.4-10).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 14

Luke 14.1-35 tells us about a healing on the Sabbath at the home of a Pharisee, his midrashic aggadot about invited guests taking seas of honor; inviting the poor and crippled and blind to be guests to a banquet, not just relatives or friends; and the test for true discipleship and the cost.

v 1…And it came about when he went into the house of one of the leaders (from Beit Shammai) of the Pharisees on the Sabbath to eat bread, that they (others were there) were watching him closely (in order to take advantage of him).

v 2…And there, in front of him was a certain man suffering from dropsy (a heart illness causing water accumulation in parts of the body).

v 3…And Yeshua answered (meaning to begin a discourse; he knew why he was there and what he was going to do), saying, “Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath, or not (according to Beit Shammai, no; but Beit Hillel said it was permissible)?”

v 4…But they kept silent (because the Torah did not forbid it, and now was their chance to defend their doctrine). And he took hold of him (touched him to show the healing was from Yeshua), and healed him (if Yeshua can dry up the sea with his word, he can dry up the small amount of water this man had in his body), and sent him away.

v 5…And he said to them, “Which one of you shall have a donkey or an ox fall into a well, and will not immediately pull him out on a Sabbath day?”

v 6…And they could make no supply to this (because to Torah requires the righteous to show compassion and mercy to mankind and their animals-Deut 22.4).

v 7…And he began speaking a parable (midrashic aggadah) to the invited guests when he noticed how they had been picking out the places of honor (at the table-Beit Shammai had a habit of this-Matt 23.6), saying to them,

v 8…”When you are invited by someone to a wedding feast, do not take the place of honor (have humility), lest someone more distinguished more than you may have been invited by him (this was the belief of Beit Hillel),

v 9…and he who invited you both shall come and say to you, ‘Give place to this man’; and then in disgrace you proceed to occupy the last place.

v 10…But when you are invited, go and recline at the last place (this was the mindset of Beit Hillel, contrary to Beit Shammai who were seen as “pushy”), so that when the one who has invited you comes he may say to you, ‘Friend, move up higher; then you will have honor in the sight of all who are at the table with you.

v 11…For everyone who exalts himself shall be humbled, and he who humbles himself shall be exalted (Prov 15.33; Jam 4.6).”

v 12…And he went on to say to the one who had invited him, “When you give a luncheon or a dinner, do not invite your friends or your brothers or your relatives or rich neighbors (alluding to those from Beit Shammai), lest they also invite you in return, and repayment come back to you,

v 13…But when you give a reception invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, the blind (this story alludes to the fact that Beit Shammai was totally against the kingdom of God going out to the non-Jews-v 23; Beit Hillel taught that they were welcome; this concept will be illustrated in the next midrashic aggadah in v 16-24),

v 14…and you will be blessed, since they do not have the means to repay you; for you will be repaid at the resurrection of the righteous.”

v 15…And when one of those who were reclining at the table with him heard this, he said to him (Yeshua), “Blessed is everyone who shall eat bread in the kingdom of God (be welcomed in it)!”

v 16…But he said to him, “A certain man (Yehovah) was giving a big dinner (alludes to the wedding feast, a meal consecrated to God or a Lord’s Supper); and he invited many (the call of the basar, or gospel, came to Israel first).

v 17…And at the dinner hour he sent his servant to say to those who had been invited, ‘Come for everything is ready now (the kingdom is here now and being offered).’

v 18…But they all alike began to make excuses (never valid; disobeying God’s call-John 1.11, 5.40). The first one said to him, ‘I have bought a piece of land (not evil in itself) and I need to go out and look at it (who buys land without looking at it first); please consider me excused.’

v 19…And another one said, ‘I have bought five yokes of oxen, and I am going to try them out; please consider me excused (his priorities were wrong-Matt 6.21)!

v 20…And another one said, ‘I have married a wife, and for that reason I cannot come (no earthly ground of excuses justified the rejection of God’s calling).’

v 21…And the servant came back and reported this to his master (John 1.11-12). Then the head of the household became angry (at their hard hearts) and said to his servant, ‘Go out at once into the streets and lanes of the city signifies God’s elect among the Jews; to the Jew first) and bring in here the poor and crippled and blind and lame.’

v 22…And the servant said, ‘Master, what you have commanded has been done, and still there is room (there is always enough room in the kingdom).”

v 23…And the master said to the servant, ‘Go out into the highways and along the hedges (outside of the city, meaning God’s elect in the non-Jewish world; the non-Jews were welcomed into the kingdom by Beit Hillel; but not Beit Shammai, without becoming Jewish through ritual circumcision; the Jews were invited into the kingdom first, then the non-Jews-Rom 1.16) and compel them to come in (the kingdom, God’s rule and movement in action and power confronting you) that my house may be filled.

v 24…For I tell you, none of those men who were invited shall taste my dinner (the wedding supper in the kingdom-Matt 8.11.”

v 25…Now great multitudes (some curious, some anxious, some believed, etc) were going along with him; and he turned and said to them (to sift the multitude out of the uncommitted, unreliable, lazy, slackers, phonies, etc).

v 26…”If anyone comes to me (and wants to be a talmid/student) and does not hate (by comparison of his love for me) his own father and mother and wife and children and brothers and sisters, yes, and even his own life, he cannot be my talmid.

v 27…Whoever does not carry his cross (their own afflictions and persecutions; to carry a cross means you are under a death sentence, and to such, the affairs of this life have little concern) and come after me cannot be my talmid.

v 28…For which one of you, when he wants to build a tower (symbolic of reaching for heavenly things, take up a profession of faith), does not first sit down and calculate the cost, to see if he has enough to complete it (the people were interested in Yeshua but uncommitted; rather than making it easy to respond favorably, Yeshua presents a “high standard for a talmid, and advised them to count the cost before following him).

v 29…Otherwise, when he has laid a foundation, and is not able to finish, all who observe it began to ridicule him,

v 30…saying, ‘This man began to build and was not able to finish (don’t start something you can’t finish).’

v 31…Or what king, when he sets to meet another king in battle, will not first sit down and take counsel whether he is strong enough with ten thousand men to encounter the one coming against him with twenty thousand (Prov 11.14-there is safety in many counselors).

v 32…Or else, while the other is still far away, he sends a delegation and asks terms of peace (looks for alternatives; makes a plea for peace negotiations).

v 33…So therefore, no one of you can be my talmid who does not forsake all that he has (makes family, companions, material things, lands, fame secondary to being a talmid).

v 34…Therefore salt is good (Matt 5.13); but if even salt has become tasteless, with what shall it be seasoned (if men lose the truth, what can replace it-salt halts corruption and is used in a new birth (Ezek 16.4), gives flavor, used against germs and is an antiseptic and cleans the pores; used on slippery surfaces; there is a salt covenant-Lev 2.13; Num 18.18; Col 4.6-it speaks of perpetuity of the Torah and covenant at Sinai)?

v 35…It is useless for the soil (can’t plant it) or for the manure piles (can’t fertilize the land); it is thrown out. He who has an ear (to perceive truth), let him hear (be instructed).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasah Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 13

Luke 13.1-35 begins telling us about the news of Pilate killing a group of Galileans (probably Zealots) in the Temple and a warning to repent; the parable of the Fig Tree; the healing of a woman in a synagogue on the Sabbath; Yeshua being warned about Herod and that he is unsafe; the parable of the Mustard Seed; and a lamentation over the lack of faith he has experienced.

v 1…Now on the same occasion (that he was giving the previous teachings) there were some present who reported to him about the Galileans (Zealots who were aligned with Beit Shammai, and possibly followers of Judas the Galilean of Acts 5.37; he formerly started the Zealot Party (or sect) in 6 AD with Zadok, a Pharisee from Shammai-Josephus, Antiquities, Book 18, Chapter 1, paragraph 1. He is the brother of Hananiah, son of Hezekiah Ben Gurion, in whose chambers a meeting took place to discuss the adaptation of the 18 Edicts in 20 BC; some from Beit Hillel were murdered before the vote, and Yeshua refers to this in Matt 23.29-31) whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices (in the Temple).

2…And he answered and said to them, “Do you suppose that these Galileans were greater sinners (debtors obligated to pay a bill) than the other Galileans, because they suffered this fate (this incident was a warning to repent; it dispels their notion of calamity; they were no better or worse than the victims, so they better repent; if they didn’t, a greater slaughter was coming, and it did when the Romans not only slaughtered a few Zealot Galileans, but slaughtered the nation and destroyed the Temple-God had a reason for this-Amos 3.1-18)?

v 3…I tell you, no, but, unless you report, you will likewise perish (this event foreshadowed the judgment in 70 AD).

v 4…Or do you suppose that those eighteen on whom the tower of Siloam fell and killed were worse culprits (sinners, debtors and obligated to pay a bill) than all the men who live in Jerusalem?

v 5…I tell you, no, but, unless you repent you will all likewise perish (buried beneath the rubble of the whole city in 70 AD).”

v 6…Ad he began telling this parable (midrashic aggadah), “A certain man (Yehovah) had a fig tree (coming out of Egypt Israel was a vine/vineyard-Psa 80.8; Isa 5.1; in the first century Israel was the fig tree-Matt 21.19; after that Israel was seen as the olive tree-Hos 14.6; Rom 11.17-24) which had been planted in his vineyard (fig tree was a picture of the religious teachings coming out of the vineyard; and he came looking for fruit on this fig tree without finding any (they were following the Oral Law of the rabbis rather than the Torah, producing false teachers and prophets-Matt 7.15-23).

v 7…And he (Yehovah) said to the vineyard keeper (Yeshua), “Behold, for three years I have come looking for fruit on this fig tree without finding any (the length of Yeshua’s ministry at this point). Cut it down! Why does it even use up the ground (the land).

v 8…And he (the vineyard keeper/Yeshua) answered and said to him, “Let it alone, sir, for this year, too, until I dig around it and put fertilizer (the various means Yeshua will use to make Israel fruitful);

v 9…and if it bears fruit next year fine, (Lev 19.23-25); but if not, cut it down (they were running out of time; let justice run its course, and it did in 70 AD).”

v 10…And he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath.

v 11…And behold (see and take note), there was a woman (a type of Israel) who for eighteen years had a sickness caused by a spirit; and could not straighten up at all (to look up).

v 12… And when he saw her, he called her over and said to her, “Woman, you are freed from your sickness (“Greek, “You have been and are loosed”).”

v 13…And he laid his hands upon her (called “semicha” or “to lean and put your weight on and an attestation that it was this woman that was healed and the healing came from Yeshua; this concept is one of the elementary principles of the faith in Heb 6); and immediately she was made erect again, and began glorifying God.

v 14…And the synagogue official (the Nasi or “president”), indignant because Yeshua healed on the Sabbath (because he was a follower of Beit Shammai and a picture of unbelieving Israel; he was also jealous that he couldn’t do anything to help her) began saying to the multitude in response, “There are six in which work should do, therefore come during them and get healed, and not on the Sabbath day.”

v 15…But the Lord said, “You hypocrites (plural, not just him), does not each of you on the Sabbath untie his ox or donkey from the stall (this is the same word used in Luke 2.7, 12 for “manger”) and lead him away to water him (to draw water is work)?

v 16…And this woman, a daughter (descendant) of Abraham as she is, whom Satan bound for eighteen long years (but your animals you release after a few hours), should she not have been released (loosed) from this bond on the Sabbath day?”

v 17…And as he said this, all his opponents were being humiliated (by the truth being exposed); and the entire multitude was rejoicing over the glorious things being done by him.

v 18…Therefore he was saying, “What is the kingdom of God (his rule and movement in power and action confronting them) like and to what shall I compare it (resemblance)?

v 19…It is like a mustard seed (small at first), which a man took and threw into his own garden; and it grew and became a tree (a tree of life); and the birds (the righteous in this case, born of heaven) of the air (heaven-John 3.7-8) nest (rest) in its branches (a term for the Messiah).”

v 20…And again he said, “To what shall I compare the kingdom of God (his rule and movement in action and power confronting them);

v 21…it is like leaven (a type of teaching, a living thing) which a woman (Israel) took and hid in three pecks of meal (a few people at first) until it was all leavened (the elect of God are gathered into the kingdom; if the birds and leaven are meant in a negative sense, it speaks of the kingdom being “infected” with evil and false doctrine, like the tares being planted among the wheat in Matt 13.24-30, and false teaching in Mark 8.15).”

v 22…And he was passing through from one city and village to another, teaching and proceeding on his way to Jerusalem.

v 23…And someone (in the crowd) said to him, “Lord, are there few who are being saved (this question may have been prompted by the Jewish belief that few would enter the Olam Haba. There were only two people who came out of Egypt who made it into Canaan, so some believed a small number would enter the kingdom)?” And he said to them,

v 24…”Strive (enter a contest, contend as in athletics, struggle) to enter by the narrow gate (these were restricted doors and must be sought for, and opened only to those who knock; at night they are locked and it is too late); for many, I tell you, will seek to enter (at the judgment-Matt 7.21-23) and will not be able (mercy has ended, no more opportunity).

v 25…Once the head of the house gets up and shuts the door, and you begin to stand outside and knock on the door, saying, ‘Lord, open up to us!’ then he will answer and say to you, ‘I do not know where you are from’ (because they were not born from above, he does not know them-Matt 7.23; 1 John 2.3-4).

v 26…Then you will begin to say, “We ate and drank in your presence, and you taught in our streets (all this was given to show “proof” of a relationship);

v 27…and he will say, ‘I tell you, I do not know where you are from (or know them); depart from me all you evildoers (meaning “without or not Torah”).’

v 28…There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth (extreme anguish being separated from Yehovah) there when you see Abraham and Isaac and Jacob (in whom they boasted and trusted in, believing they were “favorites” to enter the kingdom because of a physical relationship) and all the prophets (whose books they read, and who desired to see what this generation was seeing) in the kingdom of God (his rule and movement in action and power), but yourselves being cast out (forcefully because they refused to enter in the narrow door and tried to climb in another way like a thief).

v 29…And they (the non-Jews will not be rejected because they were not Jewish, but accepted because of their faith) will come from east and west, and from north and south, and will recline at the table (be accepted) in the kingdom of God (this is called “ushpizin” or invited guests-Isa 25.6; Matt 8.11).

v 30…And behold (see), some are last (in priority) who will be first, and some are first who will be last (a reversal of the worldly order and what they thought was going to happen).”

v 31…Just at that time (same hour) some Pharisees (possibly from Beit Hillel and were more sympathetic to Yeshua than Beit Shammai; they showed favor to Peter and the shaliachim in Acts 5.17-42, and Paul in Acts 23.6-9) came up, saying to him, “Go away and depart from here (Galilee), for Herod wants to kill you (they are warning him).”

v 32…And he said to them, “Go and tell that fox (Hebrew “shual” meaning a small fox, insignificant; he was not a “lion” but the opposite in Hebraic, cultural thought), ‘Behold (see), I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and on the third day I will reach my goal (my work will be completed in Galilee, and then move into Judea; Herod cannot stop me because he is small, inept, and insignificant, the opposite of a lion).

v 33…Nevertheless, I must journey on today and tomorrow and the next, for it cannot be that a prophet should perish outside of Jerusalem (many prophets slain there because it was the religious and civil center; the Sanhedrin was dominated by Beit Shammai at the time).

v 34…O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, that kills the prophets and stones those sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, just as a hen her brood under her wings, and you would not have it!

v 35…Behold (see), your house (alluding to Beit, or “house” of Shammai who dominated the Sanhedrin he would appear before, and who were aligned with the Sadducees and Zealots, and plotted to kill him-John 11.47-57; Matt 12.14) is left to you (“desolate”-this was said about Beit Shammai by Bava Ben Buta in the first century, see the book “Jesus the Pharisee” by Harvey Falk, p.58), and I say to you, you shall not see me until the time comes when you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord (Yehovah-this account was earlier in Yeshua’s ministry, and then it was repeated when Yeshua was in the Temple in Matt 23.1-39; both discourses are against Beit Shammai who ruled Jewish life and halakah at the time).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 12

Luke 12.1-59 deals with the attitude believers should have in regard to persecution, material possessions, and eschatology and Yeshua’s return.

v 1…In the meantime (while he was dealing with the scribes and the Pharisees from Beit Shammai), when there were gathered together an innumerable multitude of people that they were stepping on one another, he began saying to his talmidim first (directly, first in order, “Beware (take heed) of the leaven (teaching and their lifestyle which was an outward show of religion) of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy (leaven starts out small and unseen at first, but in time it will infect everything).

v 2…But there is nothing covered up that will not be revealed, and hidden that will not be known (a parallelism-what they have studied with Yeshua will be revealed to others).

v 3…Accordingly whatever you have said in the dark shall be heard in the light, and what you have whispered in the inner rooms shall be proclaimed from the rooftops (held accountable for; what Yeshua has taught publicly will be published openly).

v 4…And I say to you, my friends (chaverim-distinguishing them from their hostile enemies), do not be afraid of those who kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do (to the soul, spirit, heart-the power of the enemy is limited to this life, and that is only what Yehovah will allow).

v 5…But I will warn you whom to fear; fear the one (Yehovah) who after he has killed (the body) has the authority to cast into hell (Gehenna); Yes, I tell you, fear him (Deut 32.39; Isa 45.7; Ecc 7.14, 12.14)!

v 6…Are not five sparrows sold for two cents (seen as of little value to me)? And yet not one of them is forgotten by God (He cares for his creation).

v 7…Indeed the very hairs of your head are all numbered (not only are our days numbered and our purpose on earth, but even more minute aspects of our lives are known). Do not fear, you are more valuable than many sparrows.

v 8…And I say to you, everyone who confesses me (acknowledges and defends me) before men, the son of Man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13 and an eschatological title) confess (acknowledge and defend) him also before the angels of God (as belonging to him, redeemed and chosen);

v 9…But he who denies me before men shall be denied before the angels of God (as belonging to him).

v 10…And everyone who will speak a word against the son of Man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13), it shall be forgiven him; but he who blasphemes (blasphemy is calling something unholy, when it isn’t; or calling something holy when it isn’t; some did this with Yeshua and said certain miracles were the work of Ha Satan, etc) against the Holy Spirit (Ruach Ha Kodesh), it shall not be forgiven him.

v 11…And when (not “if”-it is a certainty) they bring you before the synagogues and the rulers and authorities (which the book of Acts is full of), do not become anxious about how or what you should speak in your defense, or what you should say (to your accusers-Stephen wasn’t, Peter wasn’t, John wasn’t, Paul wasn’t, Barnabas wasn’t, etc);

v 12…for the Holy Spirit (Ruach Ha Kodesh- he has a kedusha) will teach you in that very hour what you ought to say (whether it will be to honor Yeshua, defend the Basar or confuse the enemy; this is not a promise to the lazy student or teacher-2 Tim 2.15 and 3.16-17).”

v 13…And someone in the crowd said to him, “Teacher, tell my brother to divide the inheritance with me (without delay, or litigation in court; when two brothers were involved, two-thirds went to the eldest and a third to the youngest-Deut 21.17. The elder was the “priest” of the family and was to help his family from what he inherited).”

v 14…But he said to him, “Man, who appointed me a judge or arbiter over you (he wasn’t a civil ruler…yet)?”

v 15…And he said to them (taking the opportunity to address covetousness), “Beware (take heed) and be on your guard against every form of greed, for not even when one has an abundance does his life consist of possessions (man’s natural life cannot be prolonged by all the good things of the world).”

v 16…And he told them a parable (midrashic aggadah), “The land of a certain rich man was very productive.

v 17…And he began reasoning to himself, saying, ‘What shall I do, since I have no place to store my crops (no room for more; notice the pronouns used in v 17-19 like (I, my, I, I, my, I, my, my, I, my).

v 18…And he said (without consulting Yehovah-Jam 4.15), ‘This is what I will do: I will tear down my barn and build larger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods (he didn’t even think about giving some of what he was hoarding to the poor, widows or orphans).

v 19…And will say to my soul (himself), “Soul (me), you have many goods laid up for many years; take your ease (don’t worry now), eat, drink and be merry (as he pleases).’

v 20…But God said to him, ‘You fool (senseless, stupid), this night your soul (himself) is required of you; and who will own what you have prepared?

v 21…So is the man who lays up treasure for himself and is not rich towards God (eternal life; it is vanity to hoard property and riches while not caring about the consequences of a life without God-Matt 6.19).”

v 22…And he said to the talmidim, “For this reason I say to you, do not be anxious for your life, as to what you shall eat; nor for your body, as to what you shall put on.

v 23…For life (physically) is more than food, and the body than clothing (God gives us life and breath, he will provide food and clothing also).

v 24…Consider the ravens (Job 38.41), for they neither sow nor reap; and they have no storeroom or barn, and yet God feeds them; how much more valuable you are than the birds (spiritually, intellectually, morally)!

v 25…And which of you by being anxious can add a single cubit to his life’s span (you won’t die before your appointed time-Psa 139.16; Job 7.1)?

v 26…If then you cannot do even a very little thing, why are you anxious about other matters?

v 27…Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they neither toil or spin (their clothing, what they wear-Matt 6.28); but I tell you, even Solomon in all his glory did not clothe himself as one of these (theirs was real, Solomon covering was artificial and an imitation).

v 28…But if God so arrays (clothes) the grass in the field, which is today and tomorrow is thrown into the furnace, how much more you, O men of little faith (emunah-will he not be even more careful to clothe you)!

v 29…And do not seek (chase, pursue) what you shall eat, and what you shall drink, and do not keep worrying (doubtful, off balance, mentally uncertain).

v 30…For all these things the nations of the world eagerly seek; but your Father knows that you need these things (he will provide if you seek him and his will as a priority).

v 31…But seek for his kingdom (his rule and movement), and these things will be added to you (to meet your needs as you carry out his will in obeying his word).

v 32…Do not be afraid, little flock (those in the kingdom-big numbers don’t always signal success or God’s blessings-John 10.16), for your Father has chosen gladly to give you the kingdom (according to his sovereignty and will-John 1.13; Eph 1.4).

v 33…Seek your possessions and give to charity (since we have a kingdom, we shouldn’t be anxious about physical things like food, clothes, houses, lands and worldly possessions); make yourselves purses which do not wear out (decay), an unfailing treasure in heaven (rather than on earth), where no thief comes near, nor moth destroys.

v 34…For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also (your priorities will be known).

v 35…Be blessed in readiness (girded in service to God in labor or battle-2 Tim 2.4; Eph 6.12-17), and your lamps a light (your Torah-based testimony in Yeshua-Rev 12.17).

v 36…And be like men (believers/servants) who are waiting (serving) their master when he returns from the wedding (after the birth-pains eschatologically) so that they may immediately open the door to him when he comes and knocks (to give an accounting).

v 37…Blessed (empowered to succeed) are those servants whom the master shall find on the alert when he comes, truly I say to you that he will gird himself to serve and have them recline at the table, and will come up and wait on them (all of their spiritual needs as promised-Matt 8.11; Rev 3.20-21; Jam 2.5; Matt 24.45, 21; 2 Tim 4.7-8; 1 Pet 5.1-4; Isa 25.6-8-all Sukkot themes).

v 38…Whether he comes in the second watch (9-12 midnight), or in the third (midnight to 3 am), and finds them so, blessed are those servants (alert and watching).

v 39…And be sure of this, that if the head of the house had known at what hour the thief was coming, he would not have allowed his house to be broken into (now Yeshua’s coming is switched to the comparison of a night thief or “kleptes” where we get the word “kleptomaniac”-coming suddenly is the meaning).

v 40…You too, be ready (on the alert); for the son of Man is coming at an hour that you do not expect (or least anticipate).”

v 41…And Peter said, “Lord, are you addressing this parable to us, or to everyone as well (Yeshua will now explain that the lord of the household gives directions to all who belong to his house, not to those of another house)?”

v 42…And the Lord said, “Who then is the faithful and sensible steward (who is he? He is the one who is given a specific responsibility to over see the estate of another), whom his master will put in charge of his servants, to give them their rations at the proper time (the steward gives the household their allotment; and alludes to the portion of the word of God and the true interpretation of it given to God’s servants)?”

v 43…Blessed is that servant whom his master finds doing (the Torah) when he comes (rewards are proportionate to faithfulness-Luke 19.17-26).

v 44…Truly (I say to you, that he will put him in charge of all his possessions (like Pharaoh did with Joseph).

v 45…But if that servant says in his heart (an evil servant), ‘My master will be a long time in coming,’ and he begins to beat the servants, men and women, and to eat and drink and get drunk (apostates and mere professors of religion can be some of the most cruel persecutors of the righteous);

v 46…the master of the slave will come on a day when he does not expect (he isn’t looking), and at an hour he does not know, and will cut him to pieces (cut him loose from his portion), and assign him a place with the unbelievers (Lake of Fire, the second death-Rev 21.8).

v 47…And that servant who knew his master’s will and did not get ready or act in accord with his will (he knew to obey the Torah-John 17.17), shall receive many lashes (Jam 4.17),

v 48…but the one who did not know (to obey the Torah because he was never told because they were in a replacement theology assembly who taught the Torah had been done away with), and committed deeds worthy of a flogging (though he was ignorant of the truth does not give him freedom from his sin) will receive but few (limited punishment because of ignorance). And from everyone who has been given much will be required; and to whom they entrusted much of him they will ask all the more.

v 49…I have come to cast fire upon the earth; and how I wish it were already kindled!

v 50…But I have a baptism to undergo, and how distressed I am until it is accomplished (these verses are pure Hebraic poetry called a parallelism; Yeshua recoils at the thought of judgment, but it had already begun and Yeshua had set the earth on fire, a baptism of fire or judgment-Matt 3.11. Yeshua’s original meaning here is quoted from the book called “Understanding the Difficult Words of Jesus” by David Bivin and Roy Blizzard, p. 98, where it says: “My task” Jesus said, “is to set the earth on fire. That I am doing. The earth is burning. I have already begun to sow the seeds of judgment, and one day there will be a final judgment. But I do not look forward to that Day of Judgment, that final moment-the moment of my return- when men will no longer have a chance to accept me as Lod. How could I wish for that? I am required to baptize the earth, to judge the world. That is the task I have been given by my Father. But in the meantime, until judgment is complete, how difficult it is for me! How I agonize as some men decide to become my disciples, and others decide to reject my messianic claims.” For additional information on this passage see the complete explanation found on p.87-103).

v 51…Do you suppose that I came to grant peace on the earth? I tell you, no, but rather division;

v 52…for from now on, five in one household will be divided three against two, and two against three.

v 53…They will be divided, father against son, and son against father, mother against daughter, and daughter against mother; mother-in-law against mother-in-law (the allegory in v 49-50 are understandable now because of v 51-53. Yeshua is the sign and is causing division, contention and discord between those who accept his messianic claims and those who don’t; people will have to decide-Luke 2.34-35; John 12.31-true conversion will bring conflict, even among family members).”

v 54…And he was also saying to the multitudes, “When you see a cloud rising in the west, immediately you say, ‘A shower is coming,’ and so it turns out.

v 55…And when you see a south wind blowing, you say, ‘It will be a hot day’, and it turns out (that way).

v 56…You hypocrites! You know how to analyze the appearance of the earth and the sky, but why do you not analyze this present time (of fulfilled messianic prophecies predicted in the Scriptures-Luke 24.27; Acts 26.22-23)?

v 57…And why do you not even on your own initiative judge what is right (you have seen prophecy fulfilled, why don’t you in like manner know that this is the time for the Messiah)?

v 58…When you go with your opponent to appear before the magistrate (to file charges because you won’t pay a just debt you owe), on your way make an effort to settle with him in order that he may not drag you before the judge, and the judge turns you over to the constable, and the constable throws you in prison.

v 59…I say to you, you shall not get out of there until you have paid the very last cent (this teaches that one should reconcile with God before the hour of judgment; accept Yeshua as the Messiah according to all the signs given you by the Scriptures before it’s too late. But Israel would not acknowledge their inability to pay the debt to the judge, who is Yehovah. It was beyond their ability to pay by doing works-Rom 9.31, 10.1-3).

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Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 11

Luke 11.1-54 tells us about Yeshua teaching his talmidim to pray; answers a question about demons and sings; and his warning to hypocrites.

v 1…And it came about that while he was praying in a certain place (perhaps the Mount of Olives or a desert place), after he had finished, one of his talmidim said to him, “Lord, teach us to pray just as John also taught his talmidim (rabbis would teach their students prayers; this is a model prayer based on what is called the “Amidah” or “standing prayer”, also known as the Shemoneh Esrai, also known as the Eighteen Benedictions; it is a typical Jewish prayer).

v 2…And he said to them, “When you pray say: Our Father, who is in heaven, may your name be sanctified (it has a kedusha and is set apart by certain limitations and restrictions) and your kingdom be blessed (and established), your will shall be done in heaven and on earth.

v 3…Give us our bread continually,

v 4…and forgive us our debts (caused by sin), as we forgive the debts of those who have sinned against us. And do not bring us into the hands of a test, but deliver us from all evil.”

v 5…And he said to them, “Suppose one of you shall have a friend, and shall go to him at midnight and say to him, ‘Friend, lend me three loaves;

v 6…For a friend of mine (he is interceding for him) has come to me (unexpectedly) from a journey (needing a place to stay), and I have nothing to set before (before he goes to bed, which was good hospitality)’;

v 7…and from inside he shall hear and say, ‘Do not bother me; the door has already been shut and my children and I are already in bed; I cannot get up and give you anything.’

v 8…I tell you, even though he will not get up and give him anything (for reasons of privacy and the late hour), because he is his friend, yet because of his persistence (the main point of this story) he will get up and give him as much as he needs (so don’t give up when praying.

v 9…And I say to you, ask (and keep on asking), and it shall be given to you; seek (and keep on seeking), and you shall find; knock (and keep on knocking) and it shall be opened to you (all the while our focus should be on Yehovah).

v 10…For everyone who asks (and keeps on asking) receives (as long as we have the right motives-Jam 4.3); and he who seeks (and keeps on seeking), finds (what he is seeking); and to him who knocks (and keeps on knocking), it shall be opened (though there may be some delay-unless we have the wrong motives).

v 11…Now suppose (if) one of you fathers is asked by his son for bread, will he give him a stone (showing he had a hard heart)? And if he asks for a fish, will he give him a snake (serpent that resembles a fish)?

v 12…Or if he asked for an egg, will he give him a scorpion?

v 13…If you then, being evil (by nature), know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit (power for understanding, hope, insight, knowledge, comfort, guidance, wisdom, discernment to help in prayer-Rom 8.26-27) to those who ask him?”

v 14…And he was casting out a demon, and it was dumb (could not speak), and it came about that when the demon had gone out, the dumb man spoke; and the multitudes marveled (wondered if he was the Messiah).

v 15…But some of them said, “He casts out demons by Beelzebul (“Baal Zebub” or Lord of the fly- a Philistine deity-2 Kings 1.2; inferring Ha Satan), ruler of the demons.

v 16…And others, to test him, were demanding of him a sign from heaven (proof that he was the Messiah).

v 17…But he knew their thoughts, and said to them, “Any kingdom divided against itself is laid waste (desolated); and a house divided against itself falls (not cemented together).

v 18…And if Satan (adversary) also is divided against himself, how then shall his kingdom stand (exist)? For you say that I cast out demons by Beelzebul.

v 19…And if I by Beelzebul cast out demons, by whom do your sons cast them out (where do they get their help; if these sons cast out demons, which they would say was not done with the help of Satan, why would they say the expulsion of demons by Yeshua was done with Satan’s help)? Consequently they (demons) they shall be your judges.

v 20…But if I cast out demons by the finger of God-power-Exo 8.19; Ezek 1.3), then the kingdom of God (his rule and movement in power and action) has come upon you (confronted them-We see God’s kingdom when we see him in action; Yehovah is now ruling when Yeshua casts out demons, and Satan is defeated).

v 21…When a strong man fully armed guards his own homestead, his possessions are undisturbed (alluding to Ha Satan).

v 22…But when someone stronger than he (Yeshua) attacks him and overpowers him, he takes away from him all his armor on which he relied, and distributes his plunder (Eph 4.8).

v 23…He who is not with me is against me (no middle ground); and he who does not gather with me (the sheep, the wheat, etc) scatters.

v 24…When the unclean spirit goes out of a man (or a nation, in appearance, a moral convert by outward reformation, it passes through waterless places (the wilderness was seen as the abode of demons; this alludes to waterless, spiritual desolation of a carnal man in unbelief) seeking rest and not finding any (uneasy), it says, ‘I will return to my house from which I came (there was no real reformation.’

v 25…And when it comes, it finds it swept and put in order (whitewashed, a case of moral reformation without real regeneration-John 3.3).

v 26…Then it goes and takes along seven (completion) other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there; and the last state of that man (or nation) becomes worse than the first (this also alludes to what happened in Israel in the first century and Israel today; this is what is happening in the United States currently; the USA had an outward appearance and profession at the beginning of its history, but not a real regeneration. As a result, our laws and people have turned away from God and his Torah and we have allowed these ancient spirits to take over).”

v 27…And it came about while he said these things, one of the women in the crowd raised her voice, and said to him, “Blessed is the womb that bore you, and the breasts at which you nursed.”

v 28…But he said, “On the contrary, blessed (empowered to succeed) are those who hear the word of God (in the Torah-it was the only word of God he could have been referring to at the time), and observe it (Matt 7.24, 13.16, 19.17, 28.20; Luke 6.46-47, 10.25-28; Jam 1.25).”

v 29…And as the crowds were increasing (pressing toward him), he began to say, “This generation (that exists now) is a wicked generation; it seeks for a sign (Luke 11.16), and no sign shall be given to it but the sign of Jonah (three days buried).

v 30…For just as Jonah became a sign to the Ninevites, (three days buried in the fish, then cast ashore to confirm his message), so shall the son of Man (Bar Enosh and an eschatological title from Dan 7.13) be to this generation (Yeshua was the sign to his generation just as Jonah was to his-decisions will need to be made-Luke 12.49-53).

v 31…The queen of the south (1 Kings 10.1-13-Sheba meaning “oath” or “seven”, south of Judea in Arabia; south is the direction of faith and she is a picture of the Torah observant non-Jew in the Kahal) shall rise up with the men of this generation at the judgment (Yom Ha Din) and condemn them, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom (she was a non-Jew who came a long way and didn’t know God, but these Jews did) of Solomon (peace, a type of Messiah), and behold (see for yourself), something greater than Solomon is here (Messiah himself).

v 32…The men of Ninevah (non-Jews) shall stand up with this generation at the judgment and condemn it, because they repented at the preaching of Jonah (but this generation rejected the preaching of Yeshua); and behold (see), something greater than Jonah is here (Messiah is confronting you).

v 33…No one, after lighting a lamp (having some light), puts it away in a cellar or under a peck measure, but on the lampstand in order that those who enter may see the light (who Yeshua was and what he came to do was not a secret, so there is no excuse for them; they preferred the darkness of ignorance because they did not want to change-John 3.19).

v 34…The lamp of your body is your eye (the only source needed for light); when your eye is clear (called the “ein tov or good eye; single, uncrossed, good vision) your whole body also is full of light, but when it is bad (called the “ein ra” or evil eye) your whole body also is full of darkness (blind).

v 35…Then watch out that the light in you may not be darkness.

v 36…If therefore your whole body is full of light, with no dark part in it, it shall be wholly illumined, as when the lamp illumines you with its rays (have a full understanding).”

v 37…Now when he had spoken, a Pharisee (from Beit Shammai who opposed Yeshua) asked him to have lunch with him; and he went in and reclined at table (accepted his hospitality).

v 38…And when the Pharisee saw it, he was surprised that he had not first ceremonially washed before the meal (according to the rabbinic traditions of Beit Shammai).

v 39…But the Lord said to him, “Now you Pharisees (from Beit Shammai) clean the outside of the cup and of the platter (the imagery of a ceremonial purification externally on dishes, something the Torah never commanded), but inside of you (heart, soul, mind, spirit, thoughts, intentions, desires) are full of robbery and wickedness (the food they get was obtained by fraud, extortion, robbery, oppression of widows, etc).

v 40…You foolish ones, did not he (Yehovah) who made the outside make the inside also (both the outer and inner man needs cleansing; to have an outward, ceremonial washing without a new nature is hypocrisy).

v 41…But rather give alms of such things that you have (by oppression and defrauding widows, etc), and then all things are clean to you (you consider yourselves clean inside because of your ceremonial deeds).

v 42…But woe to you (lamentations await you- a very common phrase in Jewish literature, especially against Beit Shammai) Pharisees (of Shammai)! For you pay tithe on mint and rue and every kind of garden herb, and yet disregard justice and the love of God; but these are the things you should have done without neglecting the others (justice and love).

v 43…Woe to you (lamentations await you) Pharisees (of Shammai)! For you love the front seats in the synagogues, and the respectful greetings in the market places (before the public where everyone can see them).

v 44…Woe to you (lamentations await you)!. For you are like concealed tombs (unmarked), and the people who walk above are unaware of them (and are defiled).”

v 45…And one of the lawyers said to him in reply, “Teacher, when you say this, you insult us too (Yeshua was perceived by some to be insulting and cruel)!

v 46…But he said, “Woe to you (lamentations await you) lawyers as well! For you weigh men down with burdens hard to bear (Beit Shammai was more strict than Beit Hillel with all their man-made traditions like the 18 Edicts and oral laws), while you yourselves will not even touch (to relieve anyone or show compassion) the burdens (of your oral laws) with your fingers.

v 47…Woe to you (lamentations await you)! For you build the tombs of the prophets and it was your fathers who killed them (members of Beit Shammai are with Yeshua here, and fifty years earlier members of Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel met at the house of Hananiah Ben Hezekiah to discuss the 18 Edicts, which would separate Jew and Non-Jew. Beit Hillel was against this. So, members of Beit Hillel were killed, probably by the Zealots who were aligned with Shammai, and the edicts were passed. Jewish literature called those killed “prophets” in the Talmud, Sukkah 28a and Bava Batra 134a. Beit Shammai in Yeshua’s day descended from these fathers-for more information on this and the issues between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, see the book called “Jesus the Pharisee” by Harvey Falk, WIPF and Stock Pub.).

v 48…Consequently, you are witnesses and approve the deeds of your fathers; because it was they who killed them, and you build their tombs (this statement is also found in the Talmud Sukkah 28a and Bava Batra 134a and Sanhedrin 11a, “We would never have joined in shedding the blood of the prophets had we lived in our father’s day”).

v 49…For this reason also the wisdom of God said (because of this attitude), ‘I will send to them prophets and apostles, and some of them they will kill and some they will persecute (drive out),

v 50…in order that the blood of all the prophets shed since the foundation of the world may be charged against this generation (referring to the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple),

v 51…from the blood of Abel (first one murdered in relation to the altar in the Tanak-Gen 4.3-8 to the blood of Zechariah, who perished between the altar and the house (the last one killed in relation to the altar in the Tanak-2 Chr 24.20-21); yes, I tell you, it shall be charged against this generation (in 70 AD).

v 52…Woe to you (lamentations await you) lawyers! For you have taken away the key of knowledge (to understand the Torah, perverting and distorting it); you did not enter in yourselves (the kingdom of God), and those who were entering in you hindered (stood in their way-Mark 7.13-they even prevented non-Jews from entering unless they converted to Judaism through ritual circumcision, something the Torah never commanded).”

v 53…And when he left there, the scribes and the Pharisees (who were aligned with Beit Shammai) began to be very hostile and to question him closely on many subjects (to irritate him into saying something they could use against him; they were just like their fathers as Yeshua said),

v 54…plotting against him to catch him in something he might say (no word from Yeshua could pierce their seared conscience-Matt 26.1-4).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 10

Luke 10.1-42 tells us about Yeshua sending out as shaliachim the seventy; the parable of the Good Samaritan and his visit to the house of Mary and Martha.

v 1…Now after this (Luke 9.51-62 in particular) the Lord appointed seventy others (of a different kind than the twelve), and sent them (as shaliachim) two and two (as he did the twelve) ahead of him to every city and place where he himself was going to come (a picture of his second coming; he wanted the inhabitants to know he was coming).

v 2…And he was saying to them, “The harvest is great, but the laborers are few (there was a need for more); therefore (as a result) beseech (ask) the Lord of the harvest to send out laborers into his harvest (only God can send them, so don’t go unless he sends you).

v 3…Go your ways (into the towns and the cities and villages where he told them); behold (see), I send you out as lambs (harmless and innocent) among wolves (cruel and cunning men).

v 4…Carry no purse (to put money in; gold and silver), no bag (to food in), or shoes (than what was on their feet), and greet no one on the way (so that you won’t be hindered; no long discussions with others about their welfare and waste time on idle “chit chat”; keep your mind on the business at hand).

v 5…And whatever house you enter, first say, ‘Peace (shalom) to this house’ (be civil and polite, wishing them prosperity in every area they are deficient).

v 6…And if a man of peace (with God) is there your peace shall rest upon him; but if not, it will return to you (your wish of peace is rejected, it will return with no good effect on them; move on knowing you have delivered your soul of responsibility-Ezek 33.7-11).

v 7…And stay in that house (as a guest), eating and drinking what they give you (what they share), for the laborer is worthy of his wages (it is your pay), do not keep moving from house to house (be content with your host and his hospitality).

v 8…And whatever city you enter, and they receive you, eat what is set before you (whether it is a small portion, or you think the food is too good for you and you don’t want to be a burden, but eat it as your own);

v 9…and heal those in it who are sick (rewarding your host and affirming your message), and say to them, ‘The kingdom of God has come near to you (confronted you- the kingdom has been demonstrated to you with power and signs; God in action-Luke 11.20).’

v 10…But whatever city you enter, and they don’t receive you, go out into the streets and say (as you depart, deliver a message),

v 11…’Even the dust of your city which clings to our feet, we wipe off against you (a sign that their labor there is over, exonerating them from any further responsibility for what happens-Ezek 33.7-11; Acts 13.51), yet be sure of this, that the kingdom of God (his rule and movement in power and action) has come near (confronted your life).’

v 12…I say to you, it will be more tolerable in that day (when Messiah comes; and the Romans come to destroy the land) for Sodom than for that city (they did not have the kingdom preached to them like these cities who had Yeshua among them; this may indicate degrees of punishment for those who reject the light God has shown).

v 13…Woe to you (lamentations await you) Chorazin (near Capernaum where Yeshua spent a lot of time)! Woe to you (lamentations await you), Bethsaida (also near Capernaum)! For if the miracles had been performed in Tyre and Sidon which occurred in you, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes (an outward sign of repentance).

v 14…But it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the judgment, than for you (especially when Rome comes).

v 15…And you, Capernaum, will not be exalted to heaven, will you (where Yeshua resided-Matt 4.13)? You will be brought down to Hades (Sheol-calamity)!

v 16…The one who listens to you listens to me and the one who rejects you rejects me (Matt 25.40); and he who rejects me rejects the one who sent me (there is no disconnect between Yeshua and the Father-John 12.44; Prov 30.4; and once the Ruach Ha Kodesh came there is no disconnect between the Father, Yeshua and the Ruach-John 16.5-15).”

v 17…And the seventy returned with joy, saying, “Lord, the demons are subject to us in your name (because they represented Yeshua and were sent; the greatest enemy they had submitted to them and were cast out).”

v 18…And he said to them, “I was watching Satan (the overseer of the demonic realm) fall from heaven (because the kingdom of God was taking over) like lightning (swiftly and suddenly like lightning falls from heaven).

v 19…Behold (take note), I have given you authority (power and ability) to tread upon serpents and scorpions (idioms for the demonic realm and false teachers and doctrines; handle the enemy-Exo 4.1-5; Psa 58.4; and literally as in Acts 28.3); and over all the power of the enemy, and nothing shall injure you (the enemy will not do you great harm, and their false teachings will not hurt them).

v 20…Nevertheless, do not rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you (in their self-importance in spiritual gifts), but rejoice that your names are recorded in heaven (individually; are among the tzaddikim or righteous).”

v 21…At that very time he rejoiced (jumped for joy) greatly in spirit (in his heart at their success), and said, “I praise thee, of Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou didst hide these things from the wise and intelligent (earthly wise) and did reveal them to babes (those with child-like faith). Yes, Father, for thus it was well-pleasing in thy sight (before him).

v 22…All things have been handed over to me by my Father (in plan and execution of the redemption-Acts 3.21; 1 Cor 15.24-28), and no one knows who the Son is except the Father (his glory and perfections), and who the Father is except the Son (his perfections, purposes and will), and anyone to whom the Son wills to reveal him (this claim would be blasphemous if Yeshua was anything less than the sovereign Yehovah himself).”

v 23…And turning to his talmidim, he said privately, “Blessed (empowered to succeed) are the eyes which see the things you see (who the Messiah is, his kingdom and the rule of God in action in the world),

v 24…for I say to you, that many prophet and kings wished to see the things which you see, and did not see them, and to hear the things which you hear, and did not hear them.”

v 25…And behold (see), a certain lawyer (probably from Beit Shammai) stood up and put him to the test (examined him), saying, “Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life (Yeshua will show that his error is in his premise; it is not by works that you inherit eternal life, but by faith)?”

v 26…And he said to him, “What is written (not the oral law but already recorded) in the Law (Torah? How does it read to you (interpret it)?”

v 27…And he answered and said, “You shall love (“ahav” and an element of emunah, faith) the Lord (Yehovah) your God with all your heart, and with all your soul (a parallelism), and with all your strength (physically), and with all your mind (intellectual power); and your neighbor as yourself.”

v 28…And he said to him, “You have answered correctly (because that is in agreement with the Torah); do this and you will live (righteous deeds as defined by the Torah from the heart will follow one who has biblical faith); if one follows the commandments you will recognize the Messiah when he comes; you will know what altars are for, what true worship is, you will see the need for a redeemer; an evil tree cannot bear good fruit; Torah observance comes because you have been saved, it does not cause your salvation; your faith will produce good works, meaning the commandments-Jam 2.14-18).”

v 29…But wishing to justify himself (to be righteous in his own way-Rom 10.1-4), he said to Yeshua, “And who is my neighbor (he takes notice of his responsibility to God in v 27; by “neighbor” he was thinking “Israelite and those with the same “religion” as he; a “neighbor” in the Torah; this lawyer was probably from Beit Shammai who wanted little or no association with non-Jews, tax collectors, sinners as seen in their 18 Edicts).

v 30…Yeshua replied and said, “A certain man (we will look at this parable in the remez and sowd level; a type of mankind on a journey of life-the man is to be understood as Jewish) was going down from Jerusalem (the city of God) to Jericho (at a lower level and about 18 miles away-a city cursed in Josh 6.26-his back was to Jerusalem and a type of one who is “going away from God) and he fell among robbers (Ha Satan and demons) and they stripped him (robbed his innocence, starting with Adam) and beat him and went off, leaving him half dead (alive physically, dead spiritually).

v 31…And by chance a certain priest (who had just performed works in the Temple, but that won’t save him) was going down on that road (Jericho was a place where many priests lived), and when he saw him, he passed by on the other side (of the road-he thought he was dead, and a priest was not to defile himself for ordinary dead; however, the Talmud teaches that a priest, even the high priest, coming upon a corpse, and no one else is around can defile himself ritually to help; but in this case there was no compassion).

v 32…And likewise a Levite (probably coming from working in the Temple and going home) also. When he came to the place and saw him, he passed by on the other side (with no show of compassion or mercy).

v 33…But a certain Samaritan (who had a dislike for Jews and Yeshua was called a “Samaritan” in John 8.48) who was on a journey (Yeshua was in a journey to earth) came upon him; and when he saw him he felt compassion (Yeshua saw mankind on the wayside of life, half dead),

v 34…and came and bandaged up his wounds (caused by sin, part of the work of the Messiah-Psa 147.3), pouring oil (a type of the Ruach Ha Kodesh) and wine (a type of correct doctrines and teachings; these were medicines-Jam 5.14; Acts 28.9-the word for “cured” in this verse in Greek is where we get the word “therapeutic” from; these weren’t miraculous healings only but they used medicine, and Luke was a physician and was with them in Acts; Mark 6.13 uses the same word used in Jam 5.14, “aleipho”, which means to rub or smear medicine, not “chrio” which is using oil in a ritual sense), and he put him on his own beast (denying himself) and brought him to the inn (a type of a local assembly where he could get well by learning the Torah and correct doctrine-Acts 15.21) and took care of him.

v 35…And on the next day he took out two denarii (two days wages, a picture of 2000 years-Hos 6.1-3) and gave them to the innkeeper and said to take care of him; and whatever more you spend, when I return (at his coming) I will repay you.

v 36…Which of these do you think proved to be a neighbor to the man who fell into the robbers (leading him to answer his own question in v 29).”

v 37…And he said, “The one who showed mercy toward him.” And Yeshua said to him, “Go and do the same (in your attitudes, life, and teachings, especially if he was from Bait Shammai and looked down on non-Jews and sinners. All mankind came from one man, Adam. Any in need of mercy and kindness is our neighbor. Yeshua, like Paul in 2 Cor 3.6, is illustrating the difference between Beit Hillel, who were not against non-Jews, and Beit Shammai on the issue of “neighbor.” Beit Hillel interpreted the Scriptures according to the “spirit” or the same essence as the Torah, but Beit Shammai were more strict. Strict observance of the Torah according to Beit Shammai can kill compassion, mercy and kindness. But the “spirit” of the Torah is the essence of the instruction and gives life-2 Cor 3.6).

v 38…Now as they were traveling along (on their way), he entered a certain village (Bethany, two miles east of Jerusalem); and a woman named Martha (lady) welcomed him (showed hospitality) into her home.

v 39…And she had a sister called Mary (Miriam, meaning rebellion and bitter), who moreover was listening to the Lord’s word, sitting at his feet (an idiom for a talmid or student).

v 40…But Martha was distracted (from listening to the word) with all her preparations (for a meal); and she came up (to Yeshua), and said, “Lord, do you not care that my sister has left me to do all the serving alone (she should have gone to her sister first)? Then tell her to help me.”

v 41…But the Lord answered and said to her, “Martha, Martha (repeated to show earnestness and emphasis), you are worried and bothered about so many things (over anxious, more careful than she needed to be; he didn’t need great preparations or a lavish meal and she was creating unnecessary trouble for herself; keep things simple);

v 42…but only few things are necessary, really only one, for Mary has chosen the good part (the one lasting, necessary and important thing; she is doing the right thing and has the right priorities) which shall not be taken away from her.”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasah Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 9

Luke 9.1-62 tells us about the twelve talmidim who are now sent out as “shaliachim” to preach the kingdom of God and to heal; the feeding of the five thousand; the Transfiguration; the healing of a boy possessed by a demon; and a lesson on greatness in the kingdom of God.

v 1…And he called the twelve together, and gave them power and authority over all the demons, and to heal diseases.

v 2…And he sent them out (as shaliachim or “agents”) to proclaim the kingdom of God (God’s rule and movement in our life; we see God’s kingdom when we see him in action-Luke 11.20. “Kingdom” also refers to those who are a part of his movement-Luke 10.8-9).

v 3…And he said to them, “Take nothing for your journey, neither a staff, nor a bag, nor bread, nor money; and do not have two tunics apiece (no change of clothes- they were to completely depend on God).

v 4…And whatever house you enter, stay there, and take your leave from there (don’t move around).

v 5…And as for those who do not receive you, when you depart from that city, shake off the dust from your feet as a testimony against them (a sign that their labors there are over; and exonerating them from any further responsibility for what happens-Ezek 33.7-11; Acts 13.52).

v 6…And departing, they began going about among the villages, preaching the gospel, and healing everywhere.

v 7…Now Herod the Tetrarch heard of all that was happening; and he was greatly perplexed, because it was said by some that John had risen from the dead,

v 8…and by some that Elijah had appeared, and by others, that one of the prophets of old had risen again.

v 9…And Herod said, “I myself had John beheaded; but who is this man about whom I hear such things?” And he kept trying to see him (see Yeshua face to face, have a meeting to satisfy his curiosity about whether it was John or not).

v 10…And when the shaliachim returned, they gave an account to him of all that they had done. And taking them with him, he withdrew privately to a city called Bethsaida (house of fishing).

v 11…But the multitudes were aware of this and followed him; and welcoming them he began speaking to them about the kingdom of God (it’s setting up, its doctrines and governance, its concepts, etc).

v 12…And the day began to decline and the twelve came and said to him, “Send the multitude away, that they may go into the surrounding villages and countryside and find lodging and get something to eat; for here we are in a desolate place (this will be around Passover-John 6.1-14).”

v 13…But he said to them, “You give them something to eat (he did not want to send them away but be supplied by the food they had; in a sense this was alms giving)!” And they said, “We have no more than five loaves and two fishes, unless perhaps we go and buy food for all these people (they had no other plan).”

v 14…For there were about five thousand men (besides women and children). And he said to his talmidim (now they are not shaliachim because their “sending” was over), “Have them recline to eat in groups of fifty each.”

v 15…And they did so, and had them recline (they obeyed and were blessed).

v 16…And he took the five loaves and two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed them (or commanded a blessing on them to multiply, and broke them, and kept giving them to the talmidim to set before the multitude (here we have a spiritual concept; Yeshua rightly divides the word, gives the message to his teachers to feed the people they have been entrusted with).

v 17…And they all ate and were satisfied; and that which was left over to them of the broken pieces was picked up, twelve baskets full (one each for the talmidim and the whole house of Israel. Five alludes to the Torah and Yeshua’s teachings will satisfy his people).

v 18…And it came about (after feeding them) while he was praying alone, the talmidim were with him, and he questioned them, saying, “Who do the multitudes say that I am?”

v 19…And they answered and said, “John the Baptist; but others Elijah; and others that one of the prophets of old has risen again.”

v 20…And he said to them (directly), “But who do you say that I am?” And Peter answered and said, “The Messiah of God.”

v 21…But he warned them and instructed them not to tell this to anyone (that he was the Messiah; they will want him to set up the kingdom of David and oppose Rome),

v 22…saying, “The son of Man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13, an eschatological title) must suffer many things (to fulfill prophecy and to ratify the New Covenant, or renewed covenant, with his own blood), and be rejected by the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up on the third day.”

v 23…And he was saying to them all, “If anyone desires to come after me let them deny himself, and take up his cross daily (pay the price personally), and follow me (walk as if crucified; condemned people are only concerned with what is important).

v 24…For whoever wishes to save his life (Greek “psuchen” and the root is “psuche” where we get “psychological” from. This means our mind, heart, desires, thoughts and intentions. It is not “bios” meaning life or lifespan) shall lose it. But whoever loses his life (psuchen) for my sake, he is the one who will save it (our heart, mind, thoughts and intentions will be renewed as part of the Brit Chadasha-Jer 31.33; Ezek 36.26).

v 25…For what is a man profited if he gains the whole world (its honors, riches, fame, etc) and destroys himself and suffers loss)?

v 26…For whoever is ashamed of me and my words (from the Torah-Paul, a Torah observant Jew all his life wasn’t-Rom 1.16), of him will the son of Man be ashamed when he comes in his glory (to judge the nations, executing a sentence on them, to reign in his kingdom, etc), and the glory of his Father (John 17.5) and of the holy angels (they had a kedusha and will come with him at his coming).

v 27…But I tell you the truth (a truth), there are some of those standing here who shall not taste death until they see the kingdom of God (his movement in power and action; a fore-glimpse of what is coming; the demonstration of God’s rule with signs and wonders-there is a good explanation for the Jewish concept of the kingdom of God in the book called, “Understanding the Difficult Words of Jesus” by David Bivin and Roy Blizzard, Destiny Image Publications, p. 62-65).

v 28…And some eight days after these sayings (“eight” alludes to a new beginning, the Olam Haba, and Moses on Mount Sinai in Exo 33.17 to 34.35), it came about (happened) that he took along Peter and John and James (his usual inner circle), and went up to the mountain (a range nearby-possibly Mount Hermon which was close to Caesarea Philipi, and where Abraham and the “covenant between the halves” may have occurred-Gen 15.1-18; Matt 16.13).

v 29…And while he was praying, the appearance of his face became different, and his clothing became white and gleaming (this is a vision-Matt 16.9).

v 30…And behold, two men were talking with him; and they were Moses (symbolizing the Torah/Law) and Elijah (symbolizing the Prophets-two witnesses of Rom 3.21),

v 31…who appearing in glory (in the vision), were speaking of his departure (death, exodus, exit out of this life) which he is about to accomplish at Jerusalem.

v 32…Now Peter and his companions had been overcome with sleep (as they were in Gethsemane later-Mark 33.37), but when they were fully awake (not struggling to stay awake); they saw his glory and the two men standing with him.

v 33…And it came about, as these were parting from him (Moses and Elijah), Peter said to Yeshua, “Master, it is good for us to be here; let us make three tabernacles (sukkot), one for you, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah” not realizing what he was saying (Yeshua was not equal to Moses and Elijah).

v 34…And while he was saying this, a cloud (like in the wilderness with Moses-Exo 33.22) formed and began to overshadow them (Yeshua, Moses, Elijah and the talmidim); and they were afraid as they entered the cloud (the festival of Sukkot teaches about the kingdom with concepts relating to the glory, the cloud, Moses, Elijah and sukkot).

v 35…And a voice (bat kol) came out of the cloud (the cloud symbolizes the presence of the Shekinah of Yehovah), saying, “This is my son (the heir), my Chosen One, listen to him (Deut 18.18-19-he is the prophet like unto Moses)!”

v 36…And when the voice had spoken, Yeshua was found alone. And they kept silent, and reported to one in those days any of the things which they had seen (Yeshua told them to tell the vision to no one until after he was raised from the dead-Matt 17.9).

v 37…And it came about on the next day, that when they had come down from the mountain (mountain range of Mount Hermon most likely), a great multitude met him.

v 38…And behold (take note), a man from the multitude shouted out, saying, “Teacher (an eschatological title), I beg you to look at my son, my only (Greek “monogenes meaning “only born”, not “prototokos” meaning the first of many as in Luke 2.7),

v 39…and behold, a spirit (pneuma) takes him (controls him), and he suddenly screams, and it throws him into a convulsion with foaming at the mouth, and as it mauls him, it scarcely leaves him (doesn’t want to leave him alone).

v 40…And I begged your talmidim to cast it out, and they could not.”

v 41…And Yeshua answered and said, “O unbelieving and perverted generation (at the time, very much like Israel in the wilderness-Deut 32.5; Psa 78.8); how long shall I be with you, and put up with you (he was disappointed at their level of faith and that none of them could help; it reflected on him)? Bring your son here.”

v 42…And while he was still approaching, the demon threw him into a violent convulsion (it knew what was coming). But Yeshua rebuked the unclean spirit, and healed the boy, and gave him back to his father (and out of the control of the demon-Mark 9.26).

v 43…And they were all amazed (shocked) at the greatness of God (and his power).

v 44…”Let these words sink into your ears (remember them); for the son of Man (Bar Enosh)is going to be delivered into the hands of men (to be betrayed and killed).”

v 45…But they did not understand this statement (the meaning of it; how could a person defeat demons and yet is powerless over people), and it was concealed from them so that they might not perceive it (according to Yehovah’s purposes; it was going to be necessary that Yeshua die and be resurrected); and they were afraid to ask him about this statement (afraid he may reproach them for being dull, or rebuke them like he did with Peter; perhaps they were looking for a conquering Davidic Messiah and this statement did not fall into that).

v 46…And an argument arose among them as to which one of them might be the greatest (because they were looking for a kingdom to be set up and who would be his “Prime Minister” or “right hand man”).

v 47…But Yeshua, knowing what they were thinking in their heart, took a child and stood by him by his side,

v 48…and said to them, “Whoever receives (embraces) this child (a type of a true believer) in my name (represents Yeshua, he belongs to me and sent by me, delivers my message) receives (embraces-John 5.46-47) me; and whoever receives (embraces) me receives (embraces) him (Yehovah) who sent me; for he who is least (in his own opinion of himself) among you, this is the one who is great (exists as a great one).”

v 49…And John answered and said (responding to the term “in my name”), “Master, we saw someone casting out demons in your name (representing Yeshua, by his authority); and we tried to hinder him (obstruct him from doing the work they could not always do) because he does not follow along with us (in our group).”

v 50…But Yeshua said to him, “Do not hinder him; for he who is not against you is for you (they were doing it for the same reasons; the kingdom was being offered and they had the same purpose; Moses had the same situation in Num 11.24-30)”

v 51…And it came about, when the days were approaching for his ascension (leaving Galilee and going up to Jerusalem), that he resolutely set his face (in courage, determination, boldness) to go up to Jerusalem;

v 52…and he sent messengers on ahead of him. And they went and entered a village of the Samaritans to make for him.

v 53…And they did not receive him (show hospitality) because he was journeying with his face towards Jerusalem (we know from John 4.19 that there was a controversy between Jews and Samaritans about the correct place to worship; he had told the Samaritans earlier he was the Messiah in John 4.26-30 because he was only there temporarily, he was not going to worship with them at Mount Gerizim, but to go to Jerusalem, and this may have provoked them to anger).

v 54…And when his talmidim James and John saw this (they were sent ahead as the messengers evidently in v 52), they said, “Lord, do you want us to command fire to come down from heaven and consume them (even as Elijah did, being insulted at their conduct toward Yeshua and his talmidim)?”

v 55…But he turned and rebuked them and said, “You know not what manner of spirit you are of (this is not the true spirit of zeal, but anger).

v 56…For the son of Man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13 and an eschatological term for the Messiah) has not come to destroy men’s lives (souls), but to save them (by ratifying the Brit Chadasha with his blood).” And they went to another village.

v 57…And as they were going along the road (from the Samaritan city to another), someone said to him, “I will follow you wherever you go.”

v 58…And Yeshua said to him, “The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests, but the son of Man has nowhere to lay his head (Yeshua did not have a headquarters and where they stayed was always uncertain; this man was ready to go).”

v 59…And he said to another, “Follow me.” But he said, “Permit me first to go and bury my father (possibly meaning wait till he dies).”

v 60…But he said to him, “Allow the dead to bury their own dead (this man was slow to go; in Hebrew, the word for “dead” is “metta” and it is close to the word “matta” or town. This may mean, “Let the town bury the dead.” There were people who did that in a city and that makes more sense), but as for you, go and proclaim everywhere the kingdom of God (which is being offered now and means God’s rule in action and power is confronting you; don’t wait till your father dies, the people of the town will bury him).

v 61…And another said, “I will follow you, Lord. But first permit me to say good-bye to those at home (like Elisha did in 1 Kings 19.20-21-but we must turn our eyes on our old lives to follow Yeshua.”

v 62…But Yeshua said to him, “No one, after putting his hand to the plow and looking back is fit for the kingdom of God (you would end up with “crooked rows” and bad doctrine to please others; Abraham never looked back, but Lot’s wife did. The kingdom is God’s rule and movement in action in our lives confronting you, and families will try to appeal to us to not go where God is leading us; whose rule does this man really want ruling over him)”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 8

Luke 8.1-56 tells us about the women who helped Yeshua’s ministry; the parable of the sower; the purpose of his parables and his explanation; the responsibility of his listeners; a stormy sea of Galilee calmed; the healing of a demoniac and Yeshua’s authority over them; the response of those who saw this deliverance; the healing of a woman with an issue of blood and the raising of a little girl from the dead.

v 1…And it came about afterward (the dinner at the Pharisee’s house), that he began going about from one city and village to another, proclaiming and preaching the kingdom of God (his movement and rule); and the twelve were with him,

v 2…and some women who had been healed of evil spirits and sicknesses: Mary who was called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out,

v 3…and Joanna the wife of Chuza, Herod’s servant, and Susanna and many others who were contributing to their support out of their own private means (this alludes to the serving women at the door of the tent of meeting who donated their mirrors in Exo 38.8. Jephthah’s daughter became one of these women at the Mishkan in Judges 11.31-40; and others served there and were abused by Eli’s sons in 1 Sam 2.22. Anna never left the Temple in Luke 2.36-37. So there seems to have been a group of women who served and donated their possessions and time at the Mishkan and the Temple in their service to Yehovah).

v 4…And when a great multitude were coming together, and those from the various cities were journeying to him, he spoke by way of a parable (called a “Midrashic Aggadot”):

v 5…”The sower (Yeshua-v 1) went out to sow his seed (Yeshua is offering the kingdom of God in v 1, and the kingdom of Ha Satan tries to stop it and establish his own, and this opposition is seen in this parable), and as he sowed, some fell beside the road; and it was trampled under foot, and the birds of the air devoured it (birds can be symbolic of evil-v 12).

v 6…And other seed fell on rocky soil, and as soon as it grew up, it withered away, because it has no moisture (rain is symbolic of proper teaching and truth-Deut 32.2).

v 7…And other seed fell among the thorns; and the thorns (symbolic of evil doctrines, etc) grew up with it, and choked it out (Lev 19.19-two kinds of seed here, God’s and Satan’s-they do not mix).

v 8…And other seed fell into good ground (which was prepared beforehand and that is why it was good) and it grew up, and produced a crop a hundred times as great.” As he said these things, he would call out, “He who has an ear (to perceive the truth), let him hear (be instructed).”

v 9…And his talmidim questioned him as to what this parable (midrashic aggadah) might be (or mean).

v 10…And he said, “To you it is granted (by the Father) to know the mysteries (Hebrew “sowd” or deeper meaning) of the kingdom of God (his rule and movement), but to the rest in parables; in order that seeing they may not see (Satan does not know who the elect is so he blinds unbelievers. God chooses by his sovereign right his elect and opens their eyes, and some remain in darkness-2 Cor 4.4; Rom 11.7), and hearing they may not understand.

v 11…Now the parable (midrashic aggadah) is this: the seed is the word of God (Torah).

v 12…And those beside the road are those who have heard; then the devil (birds) comes and takes away the word from their heart (intentions, desires), so that they may not believe and be saved.

v 13…And those on the rocky soil are those who, when they hear, receive the word with joy; and have no firm root; they believe for awhile, and in time of temptation fall away (the pressure squeezes it out).

v 14…and the seed fells among the thorns, these are the ones who have heard and as they go on their way they are choked with worries and riches and pleasures of this life and bring no fruit to maturity.

v 15…And the seed in the good ground )prepared beforehand by Yehovah), these are the ones who have heard the word in an honest and good heart, and hold fast and bear fruit with steadfastness (perseverance).

v 16…Now no one after lighting a lamp (candle) covers it over with a container or puts it under a bed (because they want to share the light they have), but he puts it on a lampstand, in order that those who come in may see the light (whatever was revealed to us should be shared and made known).

v 18…Therefore take care how you listen (listen carefully to the truth and doctrines of the Torah you hear), for whatever has (the truth and doctrines of Yehovah), to him shall more be given (by using his gifts); and whoever does not have (the truth and doctrines of Yehovah), even what he thinks he has shall be taken away from him.”

v 19…And his mother came to him and brothers, and they were unable to get to him because of the crowd (his brothers and sisters are referenced in Matt 13.55-56).

v 20…And it was reported to him, “Your mother and your brothers are standing outside, wishing to see you (Mark 3.21 says they came to take custody of him because they thought he had “lost his senses”).”

v 21…But he answered and said to them, “My mother and my brothers are those who hear the word of God (the Torah in the first century was called the word) and do it (the profession of the lip must be followed by action and obedience-Jam 1.22; Matt 19.17; John 14.15).

v 22…Now it came about on one of those days (a certain day-Mark 4.35 says “the same day” that he spoke the parables), that he and his talmidim got into a boat, and he said to them, “Let’s go over to the other side of the lake (to the east side; the sea is a picture of the nations-Isa 57.20).” And they launched out.

v 23…But as they were sailing along he fell asleep (weary and in need of rest); and a fierce gale of wind descended upon the lake, and they began to be swamped and to be in danger (a picture of how Ha Satan whips up the nations against the believers).

v 24…And they came to him and woke him up, saying, “Master, master, we are perishing (they were afraid)!” And being aroused, he rebuked the wind and the surging waves, and they stopped, and it became calm (all things are under his control, even when it appears he is “asleep.” He will stop the storm of the nations against God’s people).

v 25…And he said to them, “Where is your faith (they did not use the knowledge, the commands or the love they had. They knew of their mission because he commanded them to go over to the other side of the lake, and fear took over in place of love. why would he tell them to go if he wasn’t going to make sure they got there)?” And they were fearful and amazed (shocked), and saying to one another, “Who is this, that he commands even the winds and the water, and they obey him (their issue at this point is they were still seeing him as a mere man, not the creator of that sea and wind. They obey him because he created the. For that same reason we should obey him)?”

v 26…And they sailed to the country of the Gerasenes (related to the Hebrew word (Ger” meaning stranger drawing near) which is opposite Galilee (where they set out from).

v 27…And when he had come out onto the land, he was met by a certain man from the city (province) who was possessed with demons (Hebrew “shedim”-Matt 8.28 says “two”-this man may have been the dominant one), and who had not put on any clothing for a long time, and he was not living in a house but in tombs (among the dead).

v 28…And seeing Yeshua, he cried out and fell before him (to worship), and said in a loud voice, “What do I have to do with you, Yeshua, son of the Most High God (the heir)? I beg you, do not torment me (before the time appointed-demons know what awaits them).

v 29…For he had been commanding the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For it had seized him many times (possessed him), and he was bound with chains and shackles and kept under guard, and he would burst his fetters and be driven by the demon into the desert (the wilderness is seen as the abode of demons and Ha Satan, the ultimate place of death).

v 30…And Yeshua asked him, “What is your name (Yeshua already knew, but he said this so those around would know what kind of condition this man was in).” And he said, “Legion (this alludes to the roman occupation; a Roman legion had six thousand soldiers plus support)”; for many demons had entered him.

v 31…And they were entreating him not to command them to depart into the abyss (they knew he had the power over them-Rev 20.1-3).

v 32…Now there was a herd of swine (pigs eat anything and were a type of the enemies of God-Isa 66.17; 2 Pet 2.22) feeding there on the mountain (these pigs were being raised to sell to the Romans and the non-Jews, Hellenized or apostate Jews for food) and the demons entreated him to permit them to enter the swine. And he gave them permission.

v 33…And the demons came out from the man and entered the swine and the herd rushed down the steep bank into the lake and were drowned (not only do these swine symbolize the destruction of Rome in the future, but they are symbolic of the enemies of God who will have their place with Ha Satan and the demons in the Lake of Fire and the second death-Rev 20.14-15).

v 34…And when those who tended them (the herdsmen, either Jewish or non-Jewish, and probably not the owners) saw what had happened (they lost their income because they lost their herd), they ran away and reported it in the city and out in the country.

v 35…And they went out to see what had happened; and they came to Yeshua and found the man from whom the demons had gone out sitting down (resting, not wildly running around; in control) at the feet of Yeshua, clothed (a picture of being clothed with the righteousness of God) and in his right mind (a renewed mind); and they became frightened (in awe).

v 36…And those who had seen it reported to them how the man who was demon possessed had been made well (how could this man who caused so much trouble be suddenly healed when nobody else could do anything).

v 37…And all the people of the country of the Gerasenes and the surrounding district asked him to depart from them (before any of them suffer greater losses; they rejected him and would rather have their swine).

v 38…But the man from whom the demons had gone out was begging him that he might accompany him (out of gratitude and joy); but he sent him away, saying,

v 39…”Return to your house and describe what great things God has done for you today (he had been gone for awhile and show them what only God could do).” And he departed proclaiming (publishing) throughout the whole city (of Gadara and the Decapolis or “Ten cities”) what great things Yeshua had done for him.

v 40…And as Yeshua returned (to the west side to Capernaum), the multitude welcomed him (gladly), for they had all been waiting for him (near the shore, needing his help, etc).

v 41…And behold, there came a man named Jairus (Hebrew “Yair” meaning Yehovah enlightens), and he was an official ( a “zekan” or elder) of the synagogue; and he fell at Yeshua’s feet, and began to entreat (ask) him to come to his home (see Mark 5.21-43);

v 42…for he had an only (Greek “monogenes” meaning “only”-Luke 2.7. Yeshua is the “first born son” or the Greek “prototokos” meaning first of many. He had other brothers-Matt 13.55) daughter about twelve years old, and she was dying. But as he went, the multitudes were pressing against him (hoping to see a miracle and curiosity).

v 43…And a woman who had a hemorrhage (an issue of blood and subject to Lev 15.25-31) for twelve years (the same as the age of the little girl) and spent her whole living on physicians and could not be healed by anyone,

v 44…came up behind him (so people would not recognize what she was going to do) and touched the fringe (the tzitzit on the corners of his garment-Num 37-40) on his cloak (talit), and immediately her hemorrhage stopped (there is a prophecy in Mal 4.2 that says the “sun of righteousness” or Messiah would come with healing in his wings. The word for “wings” is “kanaf” in Hebrew where the tzitzit were hung on a garment).

v 45…And Yeshua said, “Who is the one who touched me (he knew who it was but he said this for the benefit of the people around)?” And while they were all denying it, Peter said, “Master, the multitudes are crowding and pressing on you, and you say, ‘Who was touching me (Yeshua never declared his own miracles, he wanted the one on whom the healing occurred to speak up and tell about it).’ “

v 46…But Yeshua said, “Someone did touch me (he knew who it was and it was done with design and faith), for I was aware that power (Greek “dunamin” and related to where we get the word “dynamite’) had gone out of me (like a fountain gushing forth-Jer 17.12-14; Luke 6.19; Mark 5.30-he is trying to get the woman to relate to everyone what happened).

v 47…And when the woman saw that she had not escaped notice, she came trembling and fell down before him (in humility), and declared in the presence of all the people the reason why she touched him, and how she had been immediately healed (when she touched the tzitzit in faith believing Mal 4.2).

v 48…And he said to her, “Daughter (to comfort her and calm her fears), your faith has made you well (Hebrew for faith is “emunah” meaning “confidence in action”).”

v 49…While he was still speaking someone came from the synagogue official, saying, “Your daughter has died; do not trouble the teacher any more (“teacher” is an eschatological title forth the Messiah; Joel 2.23 says the Messiah is the teacher of righteousness in Hebrew).

v 50…But when Yeshua heard this, he answered him, “Do not be afraid any longer; only believe, and she shall be made well.”

v 51…And when he had come to the house, he did not allow anyone to enter with him, except Peter, John, and James (his inner circle-they were at the transfiguration and closest to him in Gethsemane), and the girl’s father and mother (as witnesses).

v 52…Now they (the mourners-Matt 9.23; Mark 5.38) were all weeping and lamenting for her; but he said, “Stop weeping, for she has not died (permanently), but is asleep (or as one who sleeps; she will awaken shortly; sleep is a type of “death” and when we wake up and arise it is a picture of the resurrection).”

v 53…And they began laughing at him, knowing she had died (they quickly switched from weeping to mocking, but they did not realize it is just as easy for Yeshua to raise someone from the dead as it is to wake someone up out of their sleep).

v 54…He, however, took her by her hand and called, saying, “Child arise.”

v 55…And her spirit returned and she rose up immediately; and he gave orders for something to be given her to eat (as a testimony that she has been restored to a functional life and can eat).

v 56…And her parents were amazed; but he instructed them to tell no one what had happened (the same talit and fringes that were used in the healing of the woman with the issue of blood were used to wrap around this girl-see Mark 5.41 notes. Why? The tzitzit symbolize the commandments and the Torah in Num 15.37-40, and God’s word is greater that any defilement and death. This admonition here applied while he was in the area to avoid further attention. The jealousy of the religious authorities was great, and he wanted to avoid any attempts to make him King Messiah just yet, which would have angered the Romans and hindered what he had to do. He had come to ratify the “new or renewed covenant” in his blood and he had more work to do. The full revelation of who he was would come later after he had fulfilled the Scriptures).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 7

Luke 7.1-50 tells us about the healing of a Roman centurion’s servant; the raising of a widow’s son at Nain; answering an eschatological question by John about the concept of the Two Messiahs while John in prison; Yeshua’s endorsement of John as the forerunner of the Messiah; a dinner at the house of a Pharisee from Beit Shammai.

v 1…When he had completed all his discourse in the hearing of the people, he went to Capernaum (“village of the comforter” and a term for the Messiah).

v 2…And a certain centurion’s servant, who was highly regarded by him (being honest, faithful and a good servant), was sick and about to die (no human help or cure).

v 3…And when he heard about Yeshua, he sent some Jewish elders (from the local synagogue) asking him to come and save the life of his servant.

v 4…And when they had come to Yeshua, they earnestly (urgently) entreated (asked) him, saying, “He is worthy for you to grant this to him (according to the 18 Edicts of Beit Shammai);

v 5…for he loves our nation, and it as he who built us our synagogue.”

v 6…Now Yeshua went with them; and when he was already not far from the house, the centurion sent friends, saying to him, “Lord, do not trouble yourself further, for I am not fit for you to come under my roof (this was one of the 18 Edicts of Shammai from 20 BC. These edicts restricted associations between Jews and non-Jews, accepted by most Jews at the time. This was the basis for the Pharisaic opposition to Yeshua who did not comply with these edicts, sending his talmidim to the non-Jews. Cornelius in Acts 10 was a God-fearer and Peter was sent to him, and Peter mentions how it was not lawful according to these edicts to enter the home of Cornelius either-Acts 10.28. But a vision showed him that Yehovah was not against him doing so);

v 7…for this reason I did not even consider myself worthy (according to these edicts) to come to you, but just say the word and my servant will be healed.

v 8…For indeed, I am a man under authority, with soldiers under me; and I say to this one, ‘Go’ and he goes; and to another, ‘Come” and he comes; and to y servant, ‘Do this!’ and he does it.”

v 9…And when Yeshua heard this, he marveled at him, and turned and said to the multitude that was following him, “I say to you, not even in Israel have I found such faith (emunah or action).”

v 10…And when those who had been sent returned to the house, they found the servant in good health (as soon as the centurion voiced his faith-Matt 8.13).

v 11…And it came about that soon afterward, that he went to a city called Nain (beautiful, west of the sea of Galilee, south of Nazareth); and his talmidim were going along with him, accompanied b a large multitude.

v 12…Now as he approached the gate of the city, behold, a dead man was being carried out (for burial- they did not bury in cities), the only (Greek “monogenes” meaning “only” not “prototokos” meaning first of many) son (heir) of his mother. And she was a widow and a sizeable crowd from the city was with her (she had no earthly protection now, and many showed their respects).

v 13…And when the Lord saw her, he felt compassion for her, and said to her, “Do not weep (stop weeping-Luke 8.52).”

v 14…And he came up and touched the coffin; and the bearers came to a halt (stood still). And he said, “Young man, I say to you, arise!”

v 15…And the dead man (he was not “asleep”) sat up (now he had life), and he began to speak ( he had his mental faculties). And he gave him back to his mother (for whose sake he was raised).

v 16…And fear gripped them all (shock and awe), and began glorifying God, saying, “A great prophet has arisen among us (only Elijah and Elisha had ever raised the dead)!” and, “God has visited (cared for) his people (Gen 50.24-25 says “to take care of you or visit”-In Hebrew “Pikod Yifkod” used twice alluding to the two comings of the Messiah-Luke 1.68, 19.41-44)!”

v 17…And this report concerning him went out all over Judea, and in all the surrounding district (region).

v 18…And the talimidim of John reported to him about these things (what Yeshua was doing).

v 19…And summoning two of his talmidim, John sent to the Lord, saying, “Are you the one who is coming (the Messiah-Deut 18.15-18; Isa 53.1), or do we look for someone else (this is an eschatological question about the concept of the Two Messiahs.” By the time of John, there was an expectation of the Messiah. Jewish scholars had noticed that there were passages that seemed to contradict. Sometimes the Messiah is seen as a conquering king, but other passages speak about a suffering servant. From this came a teaching by the first century of a dual concept of the Messiah. The suffering servant Messiah was called the “Messiah Ben Joseph.” His life ends in death, unlike the conquering king Messiah called “Messiah Ben David.” Now, the anticipation of these two messiahs is the background for John’s question here. John knew Yeshua was the Messiah because Yehovah told him how to identify him. His question here is whether Yeshua was going to fulfill all the prophecies about the Messiah, or was there going to be another person, like the scholars were saying. Yehsua’s answer gives a passage referring to the Messiah Ben Joseph and some about the Messiah Ben David. So in short, Yeshua told John that he was going to fulfill all the Messianic prophecies, and they would apply only to one person in two comings, authenticating his identity. For more information on this concept see the book, “Rosh Ha Shanah and the Messianic Kingdom to Come” by Joseph Good, Hatikvah Ministries, p. 105)?”

v 20…And when the men had come to him, they said, “John the Baptist (Yocahnon ha Matvil) has sent us to you, saying, ‘Are you the one who is coming, or do we look for someone else (in addition to you)?’ “

v 21…At that very time he cured many people of diseases and afflictions and evil spirits; and he granted sight to many who were blind.

v 22…And he answered and said to them, “Go and report to John what you have seen and heard: the blind receive sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, and the dead are raised up (Yeshua raised three people from the dead in total), the poor have the gospel (basar) preached to them.

v 23…And blessed (empowered to succeed) is he who keeps from stumbling over me (as if Yeshua was an obstacle, and fall away, or be offended).

v 24…And when the messengers of John had left, he began to speak to the multitudes about John, “What did you go out into the wilderness to look at? A reed shaken by the wind (a wavering man, moved by circumstances)?

v 25…But what did you go out to see? A man dressed in soft clothing A light hearted flatterer, a “yes” man)? Behold, those who are splendidly clothed and live in luxury are found in royal palaces.

v 26…But what did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes (the voice of Isa 40.3 and the forerunner of the Messiah), and I say to you, and one who is more than a prophet (God’s appraisal of him is the only opinion that mattered).

v 27…This is the one about whom it is written (already recorded), ‘Behold, I send my messenger before your face (Mal 3.1), who will prepare your way before you.’

v 28…I say to you, among those born of women (a person with limitations and weaknesses), there is no one greater than John, yet he who is least in the kingdom of God is greater than he (the main issue here is the offer of the kingdom of God. Yeshua is leading people into it by saying by way of contrast that the least in the kingdom of God, the Olam Haba or world to come, is greater than the greatest prophet in the Olam Ha Zeh, this present world. In other words, one in the Olam Haba is greater than one in the Olam Ha Zeh. He is contrasting the two “olams” and to enter the Olam Haba you must have a change of status).”

v 29…And when all the people and tax-gatherers heard, they acknowledged God’s justice (declared him to be just), having been immersed with the baptism of Jon (repentance because the kingdom of God was there confronting them).

v 30…But the Pharisees (of Beit Shammai) and the lawyers rejected God’s purposes (his counsels and benefits-Acts 20.27) for themselves, not having been immersed by John (so no change in status).

v 31…”To what then shall I compare the men of this generation, what are they like?

v 32…They are like children (stubborn ones) who sit in the marketplace (where the Pharisees met) and call to one another; and say, ‘We played the flute to you (the flutist were the religious leaders), and you did not dance (Yeshua and his talmidim did not conform to their edicts and man-made decrees), we sang a dirge and you did not weep (John’s followers also did not conform to their ideas of repentance).

v 33…For John the Baptist (Yocahnon ha Matvil) has come eating no bread and drinking no wine (a more serious ministry); and you say, ‘He has a demon (because he lived in the wilderness which was seen as the habitation of demons and Ha Satan)!’

v 34…The son of Man has come eating and drinking (not like John, but as the bridegroom bringing joy and happiness), and you say, ‘Behold, a gluttonous man, and a drunkard, s friend of tax-gatherers and sinners!’

v 35…Yet wisdom is vindicated by all her children (wisdom can have a positive or negative connotation in Hebrew thought. In this verse, Yeshua is saying that a person can tell whether his wisdom is authentic, or it reveals shrewdness or stupidity. It all comes down to whether their arguments are in agreement or inconsistent. If it is inconsistent, it points to their stupidity).”

v 36…Now, one of the Pharisees was requesting him to dine with him, and he entered the Pharisee’s house and reclined (accepted his hospitality).

v 37…And behold, there was a woman in the city who was a sinner (chata who was known for her bad conduct); and when she learned that he was reclining in the Pharisee’s house (to eat a meal), she brought an alabaster vial of perfume,

v 38…and standing behind him at his feet weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears, and kept wiping them with the hair of her head, and kissing his feet, and anointing them with perfume.

v 39…Now when the Pharisee who had invited him saw this, he said to himself (not openly because he had good manners), “If this man were a prophet he would know who and what sort of person this woman is who is touching him, that she is a sinner (chata-and Yeshua would have rejected her).”

v 40…And Yeshua answered (his secret thoughts) and said to him, “Simon (to hear), I have something to say to you.” And he replied, “Say it, teacher (but he didn’t mean it to apply to him in the Talmud, Mishnah and other Jewish literature it tells us that Beit Shammai held themselves “aloof” from the people, especially sinners. Beit Hillel, another school of Pharisees that Paul belonged to, was open to them. Most likely, Simon was from Beit Shammai).

v 41…”A certain moneylender (God) had two debtors, one owed five hundred denarii, and the other fifty (“five” alludes to the Torah-all men are debtors to God, the only difference is Simon didn’t know it but the woman did).

v 42…When they were unable to repay (we cannot do anything to repay our debt to God), he graciously forgave them both. Which of them will love him more?”

v 43…Simon answered and said, “I suppose the one whom he forgave more (not realizing he was condemning himself).” And he said to him, “You have judged correctly (even in a fallen state he knew).”

v 44…And turning towards the woman, he said to Simon, “Do you see this woman? I entered your house; you gave me no water for my feet (ignored common hospitality and an insult, even violating common courtesy), but she has wet my feet with her tears, and wiped them with her hair.

v 45…You gave me no kiss (a custom in greeting); but she since the time I came in, has not ceased to kiss my feet.

v 46…You did not anoint my head with oil (he did not treat Yeshua as an honored guest), but she anointed my feet with perfume.

v 47…For this reason I say to you, her sins (the debt), which are many, have been forgiven, for she loved much (v 42); but he who is forgiven little, loves little.”

v 48…And he said to her, “Your sins have been forgiven (not under arrest or indictment anymore; this brings us to the concept of the Dual Nature of the Torah. In short, the Torah has two roles. First, it is our instructor, an educational role. The commandments and the historical stories teach us. It calls for obedience. Second, the Torah acts as our custodian in its judicial role only until we come to conversion through faith in Yeshua. By identifying us as sinners and demanding punishment for them, the Torah holds us in custody. Knowledge of the law’s high standards increases our moral awareness and responsibility, eliminating ignorance as an excuse. Now, sin becomes exceedingly sinful and calls for our death. But when we come to faith in Yeshua, the law’s role as custodian-Gal 3.23-25- is abolished. No longer can the law demand our death, for God has declared us “Not guilty!” No longer can the law declare us transgressors, for the record of our sins has been blotted out and the curse of the law has been removed-Gal 3.13; Col 2.14. We are no longer under the curse of the law).

v 49…And those who were reclining with him began to say to themselves, “Who is this who even forgives sins (they considered this blasphemy; he not only violates their traditions, but assumes a role only Yehovah can do. They weren’t wondering what kind of person he was, they were offended at him and filled with anger)?”

v 50…And he said to the woman, “Your faith (Hebrew “emunah” meaning action and confidence; biblical faith consists of Ahav, or love; mitzvot, or commandments also called “good works” and da’at or knowledge of God in Torah facts. all three must be in place to have biblical faith. Her faith saved her, and her actions were the evidence of her faith) has saved you; go in peace.”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 6

Luke 6.1-49 tells us about a controversy between the Pharisees from Beit Shammai and Yeshua concerning the Sabbath, the selection of the twelve talmidim and a description of a sermon similar to Matt 5-7, but at a different time.

v 1…Now it came about that on a certain Sabbath (Greek it is “second chief Sabbath” and this would be the first Sabbath after the first day of Unleavened Bread or Nisan 15. So, it is the “second sabbath” and the festival of First Fruits when the barley can be eaten, or it was the second Sabbath of the seven leading up to Shavuot. What Yeshua does on the Sabbath is a prophecy about the Messianic Kingdom), he was passing through grainfields; and his talmidim were picking and eating the heads (of wheat), rubbing them in their hands (according to these Pharisees, this was a sub-category of harvesting).

v 2…But some of the Pharisees (from Beit Shammai) said, “why do you do what is not lawful on the Sabbath (according to the tradition of the elders of Shammai. Obviously it was not wrong or Yeshua would not have defended them)?

v 3…And Yeshua answering them said, “Have you not read what David did when he was hungry, he and those who were with him (1 Sam 21.1-6),

v 4…how he entered the house of God (Mishkan), and took and ate the consecrated bread (the Lechem ha Pannim or “bread of the faces”) which is not lawful for any to eat except the priests alone, and gave it to his companions?”

v 5…And he was saying to them, “The son of man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13 and an eschatological title for the Messiah) is Lord (Yehovah) of the Sabbath (the high priest Ahimelech gave David permission in 1 Sam 22.10; Yeshua created the Sabbath and is our high priest, and he can allow his talmidim to do what he wants or tells them to do; Yeshua sets the halakah, or how to walk in the commandments, and people come first over the sabbath).

v 6…And it came about on another Sabbath, that he entered the synagogue and was teaching; and there was a man there whose right hand was withered.

v 7…And the scribes and the Pharisees were watching him closely (his every move), if he healed on the Sabbath, in order that they might find a reason to accuse him (for violating the sabbath).

v 8…But he knew what they were thinking (their motives), and he said to the man with the withered hand, “Arise and come forward!” And he arose and came forward.

v 9…And Yeshua said to them, “I ask you (to be honest interpreters of the Torah), is it lawful on the sabbath to do good, or to do evil, to save a life, or to destroy it (remember he is talking to Pharisees from Beit Shammai who were very strict; Judaism as a whole always taught it was lawful based on Lev 18.15).

v 10…And after looking around at them all (scribes and Pharisees from Beit Shammai), he said to him, “Stretch out your hand!” And he did so, and his hand was restored.

v 11…But they themselves were filled with rage (because they couldn’t answer his question and he healed on the Sabbath), and discussed what they might do to Yeshua (to get rid of him out of their jealousy).

v 12…And it was at this time (as he taught in Galilee) that he went off to a mountain (above the sea of Galilee) to pray, and he spent the whole night in prayer to God (for guidance).

v 13…And when day came, he called his talmidim to him (the whole group); and chose twelve (like the twelve fathers of the nation, the twelve stones in the Jordan and the twelve stones in the ephod; at one point he sent out seventy-Luke 10.1) of them, whom he also named as apostles (shaliachim or sent ones; in the Jewish concept of a shaliach, a sent one is regarded as the person who sent them. However, the law of agency only applies to lawful, legal acts. If the person does not tell the truth or commits a crime, the sender is not held responsible. Spiritually, you have not been sent by God if you teach against the Torah, believe it has been done away with, or misrepresent the Lord according to replacement theology, etc).;

v 14…Simon (Shimon meaning to hear), and Andrew (Andrai or “manly”) his brother; James (Jacob or “heel”); Philip (Philipos or horse lover) and Bartholomew (Bar Talkmai or “son of Talmai);

v 15…Matthew (Mattai meaning given of Yehovah and probably a Levite) and Thomas (from the Hebrew “Ta’om” meaning twin); James (Jacob or heel) the son of Alphaeus, and Simon (Shimon or to hear) who was called the Zealot (a party of Jews who were very zealous for the Torah and wanted to incite people against Rome; they were aligned with Beit Shammai);

v 16… Judah (Yehudah or praise) the son of James (Jacob), and Judah (Yehudah meaning praise) Iscariot (nobody really knows for sure what this means; some say it means “ish Kerioth” or man from Kerioth-Josh 15.25; and the only one from Judea; and others say it means “man of the Sicarii” or assassins who advocated the overthrow of Rome using murder; others say it means “man from the cities), who became a traitor.

v 17…And he descended with them and stood on a level plain (the lower part of the mountain); and there was a great multitude of his talmidim (not just the twelve), and a great throng of people from all Judea and Jerusalem and the coastal region of Tyre and Sidon,

v 18…who had come to hear him and to be healed of their diseases; and those who were troubled with unclean spirits (shedim, demons) were being cured.

v 19…And all the multitude were trying to touch him, for power was coming from him and healing them all (like a fountain gushing forth-Jer 17.12-14).

v 20…And turning his gaze (eyes) on his talimidim, he began to say (we believe this was a different occasion than what we read in Matt 5-7; these verses are at a different time; they are very brief; this is as plain as he came down and Matt 5.1 says he went up a mountain; Luke says he taught his talimdim, but Matthew says he taught the multitude and his talmidim. However, there are others who believe this account is the same event as what is described in Matthew, with which we would not contend) and he began to say, “Blessed (empowered to succeed) are you who are poor (physically or spiritually) for yours (we do not possess the kingdom, it should read “of theses” or of such as these) is the kingdom of God (his movement is made up of these).

v 21…Blessed (empowered to succeed) are you who hunger (for righteousness as defined by the Torah) now, for you will be satisfied (filled). Blessed (empowered to succeed) are you who weep now (under affliction and pressures, for their sin and of others), for you shall laugh (have joy again).

v 22…Blessed (empowered to succeed) are you when men hate you (because of Yeshua) and ostracize (separate) you; and heap insults upon you, and spurn (cast out) your name as evil, for the sake of the son of man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13-a messianic title).

v 23…Be glad in that day (as if it is a great honor), and leap for joy, for behold (see, take note) your reward is great in heaven; for in the same way their fathers used to treat the prophets.

v 24…But woe (lamentations await you) who are rich (who put their trust in riches), for you are receiving your comfort in full (Luke has listed four blessings, now he will list four woes).

v 25…Woe to you (lamentations await you) who are well-fed now (covetous and in need of nothing), for you shall be hungry (come into need both physically and spiritually). Woe (lamentations await you) who laugh now, for you shall mourn and weep (with remorse and regret).

v 26…Woe to you (lamentations await you) when all men speak well of you (the world loves their own John 15.17-21), for in the same way their fathers used to treat the prophets.

v 27…But I say to you who hear (and obey), love your enemies (your personal enemy-don’t try to get even-this has nothing to do with a murderer, rapist or a violent person we are confronted with-see the book “Understanding the Difficult Words of Jesus” by David Bivin and Roy Blizzard, Destiny Image Pub, p.68-72), do good to those who hate you,

v 28…bless those who curse you (empower them to succeed), pray for those who mistreat you.

v 29…Whoever hits you on the cheek, offer him the other also (an idiom meaning don’t compete with evil-Matt 6.39); and whoever takes away your coat (talit), do not withhold your shirt (tunic) from him either (this doesn’t mean you do not stop a thief from stealing from you because God wants us to be good stewards of what he has given us).

v 30…Give everyone who asks (in the sense of borrow) of you, and whoever takes away (borrows) what is yours, do not demand it back (give with discernment, be good stewards of what he has given you-see also the book “Understanding the Difficult Words of Jesus” p. 72-75 for a deeper look).

v 31…Just as you want men to treat you, treat men in the same way.

v 32…And if (Greek “assuming”) you love those who love you, what credit is that to you (no evidence of grace there)? For even sinners (chata’im) love those who love them.

v 33…And if (assuming) you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you (no evidence of grace)? For even sinners (chata’im) do the same thing.

v 34…And if you lend (let them borrow) to those from whom you expect to receive, what credit is that to you (no evidence of grace there)? For even sinners lend to sinners, in order to receive back the same amount (chata’im).

v 35…But love your enemies (alienated neighbor, etc) and do good (don’t compete with evil, don’t get even) and lend (let them borrow), expecting nothing (no interest) in return, and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he himself is kind to ungrateful and evil men.

v 36…Be merciful, just as your Father is merciful.

v 37…And do not pass judgment (beyond what the Torah teaches; we don’t know all the reasons or motives) and you will not be judged (about matters where the Torah is silent); and do not condemn, and you will not be condemned; pardon (release them) and you will be pardoned (released).

v 38…Give, and it (whatever you have given) will be given to you; good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over, they will pour out into your lap. For whatever measure you deal out, will be dealt to you in return.”

v 39…And he also spoke a parable (midrashic agaddah) to them: “A blind man cannot guide a blind man, can he? Will they not both fall into a pit?

v 40…A pupil (talmid/student) is not above his teacher; but everyone after he has been fully trained, will be like his teacher (complete, mature).

v 41…And why do you look at the speck (a small sin by God’s standard) in your brother’s eye, but do not notice the log (a larger sin by God’s standard) that is in your own eye?

v 42…Or how can you say to your brother, ‘Brother, let me take out the speck (small sin) that is in your eye,’ when you yourself do not see the log (greater sin) that is in your own eye? You hypocrite, first take the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to take out the speck that is in your brother’s eye.

v 43…For there is no good tree (a type of a believer) which produces bad fruit (doctrines, etc-Matt 7.15-23), nor on the other hand, a bad tree which produces good fruit (doctrines-Matt 7.15-23).

v 44…For each tree is known by its own fruit. For men do not gather figs from thorns, nor do they pick grapes from a briar bush.

v 45…The good man out of the treasure of his heart brings forth what is good; and the evil man out of the evil treasure brings forth what is evil; for his mouth speaks (doctrine) from that which fills his heart (whether good or bad doctrine).

v 46…And why do you call me, ‘Lord, Lord (profess to follow me), and do not do what I say (in the Torah by action-John 14.15; Deut 4.30, Num 15.14-16; Jam 2.18).

v 47…Everyone who comes to me, and hears my words (the Torah is what he taught) and acts (does them-Jam 1.22; Matt 7.24-27) upon them, I will show you whom he is like:

v 48…he is like a man building a house who dug deep and laid a foundation (be built his life) upon the rock (the Torah from Sinai-Exo 17.6); and when a flood arose (danger, problems), the river burst against that house and could not shake it because it had been built upon a rock (your profession is revealed by the level of obedience to the Torah).

v 49…But the one who has heard (the Torah commands) and had not acted (obeyed the Torah by action-Jam 2.26) is like a man who built a house upon the ground without any foundation; and the river burst against it and immediately it collapsed, and the ruin of that house was great.”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament