Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Acts-Chapter 4

Acts 4.1-37 tells us about the arrest of Peter and John by the captain of the Temple guard; his discourse before the Sanhedrin; the reaction of the leaders to the boldness of Peter and John and their command for Peter and John to stop preaching, and their reaction; their release with threats of future chastisement from the leaders; this story is shared with the eschatological congregation and their prayer for confidence to keep speaking and for more signs and wonders to take place; Yehovah answers their prayer with an earthquake, and they were filled with the Ruach again; biblical giving is seen again due to their unity in their Torah-based faith in Yeshua.

v 1…And as they were speaking to the people, the priests and the captain of the Temple guard (Temple police, made up of Levites), and the Sadducees (who denied the existence of angels and the resurrection), came upon them (to confront them),

v 2…being greatly disturbed (angry and troubled) because they were teaching the people and proclaiming in Yeshua the resurrection of the dead (this was an open repudiation of Sadducean doctrine).

v 3…And they laid hands on them and put them in jail (a guard house in the Temple complex) until the next day (it was too late for a judicial hearing and it was unlawful to hold a night time trial-Mishnah Sanhedrin 4.1-of course they disregarded all that when it came to the trial of Yeshua).

v 4…But many of those who heard the message believed; and the number of the men came to be about five thousand (believers now numbered about eight thousand).

v 5…and it came about on the next day, that their rulers and elders and scribes (the religious hierarchy) were gathered together in Jerusalem;

v 6…and Annas (Hebrew Chanan) the high priest (he had been high priest and retained the title in a patriarchal sense-he may have been the Sagan or deputy), and Caiaphas (the acting high priest) and John (Yochanon, son of Annas who will replace Caiaphas) and Alexander (his identity is unknown but must have been an influential person) and all who were of high priestly descent (all of these people probably took part in Yeshua’s condemnation).

v 7…And when they had placed them in the center (the Sanhedrin sat in a semi-circle in the Lishkat Ha Gazit or the Chamber of Hewn Stone), they began to inquire (cross-examine), “By what power or in what name have you done this (what medicine, or by what demonic power, magic art, etc)?”

v 8…Then Peter, filled with the Ruach Ha Kodesh (making them not so timid now), said to them, “Rulers and elders of the people (terms for the Sanhedrin),

v 9…if we are on trial for a benefit done to a sick man, and how this man has been made well,

v 10…let it be known to all of you, and to all the people of Israel, that in the name of (authority and approval of) Yeshua the Messiah the Nazarene, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead-by this this man stands here before you in good health.

v 11…He (Yeshua) is the stone which was rejected by you, the builders, which became the very corner (stone-Psa 118.22).

v 12…And there is salvation in no one else (Yeshua means “Yehovah saves”); for there is no other name given among men (as a gift from the Father to the world) by which we must be saved (spiritual, eternal salvation determined by God to be saved by him-Eph 1.4-14).”

v 13…Now as they observed the confidence of Peter and John (they were empowered by the Ruach Ha Kodesh), and understood that they were uneducated and untrained men (in the Jewish schools of rabbinic law) they mere marveling (at their change of behavior since Yeshua’s trial and crucifixion), and began to recognize them as having been with Yeshua (they remembered they had been taught by Yeshua; this is what “Messiah in you” means-Yeshua does not literally “live” in a person but he “lives on” in the people he served; we say this all the time when a person dies; their life is a reflection of the life of Yeshua and the rulers saw this in Peter and John-2 Cor 13.5).

v 14…And seeing the man who had been healed standing with them they had nothing to say in reply (they couldn’t refute the healing, even they knew who he was).

v 15…But when they had ordered them to go outside of the council, they began to confer with one another (about what to do),

v 16…saying, “What shall we do with these men? For the fact that a noteworthy miracle has taken place through them is apparent to all who live in Jerusalem (he had been at the Beautiful Gate so long everyone knew him), and could not deny it (a better question would have been, “What must we do to be saved?”-Acts 2.37).

v 17…But in order that it may not spread further among the people (the masses they were trying to control with their false doctrines), let us warn them to speak no more to any man in this name (they could not hold them any longer because clearly the man was healed, but they did not want the people to think that Yeshua was the Messiah, and the power behind this miracle, because they rejected him and killed him).”

v 18…And when they summoned them, they commanded them not to speak or teach at all in the name (the approval of and authority) of Yeshua (this is the perverse spirit Yeshua warned about in Matt 23.13).

v 19…But Peter and John answered and said to them, “Whether it is right in the sight of God to give heed to you rather than to God, you be the judge;

v 20…for we can not stop speaking what we have seen and heard (Acts 5.29).”

v 21…And when they had threatened them further, they let them go (finding no basis on which they might punish them) on account of the people (who knew better-there was no legal basis to hold them) because they were all glorifying God for what had happened (if it had not been for the witness of the people, they might not have waited for legal authority);

v 22…for he was more than forty years old on whom this miracle of healing was performed (he laid paralyzed for many years, even as Yeshua entered the Temple-Acts 3.2).

v 23…And when they had been released, they went to their own (companions) and reported all that the chief priests and the elders had said to them.

v 24…And when they had heard (the report), they lifted their voices to God with one accord and said, “O Lord, it is thou who didst make the heaven and the earth and the sea, and all that is in them (everything is under his control-Rom 8.28),

v 25…who by the ruach Ha Kodesh, through the mouth of your servant David did say, ‘Why did the Gentiles rage, and the peoples devise futile things?

v 26…the kings of the earth took their stand; and the rulers were gathered together against the Lord (Yehovah) and against his Messiah (Psa 2.1-2).’

v 27…For truly in this city there were gathered together against thy Holy (he had a kedusha) servant Yeshua, whom thou didst anoint, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, along with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel (it wasn’t just the “Jews” who killed Messiah, but Jews and non-Jews were in collusion together by God’s design-v 28),

v 28…to do whatever thy hand and thy purpose predestined to occur.

v 29…And now, Lord (Yehovah), take note of their threats, and grant that thy bond-servants may speak thy word with all confidence (not their words),

v 30…while thou dost extend thy hand to heal, and signs and wonders take place through the name of thy holy servant Yeshua.”

v 31…And when they had prayed, the place where they had gathered together was shaken (a sign of acceptance), and they were all filled with the Ruach Ha Kodesh, and began to speak the word of God (the Tanak) with boldness.

v 32…And the congregation who believed were of one heart and soul (a parallelism for their intentions and thoughts were united); and not one of them claimed that anything belonging to him was his own; but all things were common property (they were not obligated to do this, it was free and voluntary on their part; persecution was coming and their property could be seized; Jerusalem was going to be destroyed according to Yeshua but they didn’t know when, so they decided to sell their possessions and put the money into a common account for mutual support).

v 33…And with great power the shaliachim were giving witness to the resurrection of the Lord Yeshua, and abundant grace was upon them all.

v 34…For there was not a needy person among them, for all who were owners of land or houses would sell them and bring the proceeds of the sales (see v 32),

v 35…and lay them at the shaliachim’s feet (put the money under their authority for disposal) and they would be distributed to each, as any had need (the shaiachim acted as the Gabbai Tzedekah, one who manages funds given in charity).

v 36…And Joseph (he will add), a Levite (did not have an inheritance in the land but could own property as an individual like Jeremiah did in Jer 32.9) of Cyprian birth, who was called Barnabas by the shaliachim, which translated means, Son of Encouragement (exhortation/prophecy),

v 37…and who owned a tract of land (possibly in Cyprus, or elsewhere), and sold it and brought the money and laid it at the shaliachim’s feet (under their authority to distribute).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Acts-Chapter 3

Acts 3.1-26 tells us about the healing of a paralytic at the Beautiful Gate; Peter’s discourse to the crowd about the event and his call for them to repent, with a warning.

v 1…Now Peter and John were going up to the Temple at the ninth hour (3 pm), the hour of prayer (the afternoon Tamid service, a daily continuing service when a lamb was slain and the prayer called the Amidah, or the Standing Prayer, was recited; there was a morning Tamid lamb also-Num 28.1-8; Dan 6.10; Jonah 2.4; Luke 1.10; Acts 2.15, 10.30 for example; for more depth on this service, see the tractate in the Mishnah called “Tamid”).

v 2…And a certain man who had been lame from his mother’s womb was being carried along, whom they used to set down every day at the gate of the Temple which is called Beautiful (the Beautiful Gate is also called the Huldah Gate and it was on the south side of the Temple complex. The word “Huldah” means “weasel or mole” and it was called that because people came up out of the ground through a tunnel into the outer courts of the Temple. This gate has been found and it had beautiful stone work. Those in need would position themselves there so that they would receive alms from the worshipers).

v 3…And when he saw Peter and John about to go into the Temple, he began asking for alms (if Yeshua had done away with the Torah, this was a strange place for Peter and John to be. The fact is, Yeshua never taught that the Torah was done away with. That is Replacement Theology and contrary to the Scriptures).

v 4…And Peter, along with John, fixed his gaze upon him (to determine he had a genuine need) and said, “Look at us (like the bronze serpent in the wilderness Num 21; he was 40 years old and had been there as Yeshua himself passed by for many years-Acts 4.22)!”

v 5…And he began to give them his attention, expecting to receive something (alms) from them.

v 6…But Peter said, “I do not possess silver and gold, but what I do have I give to you. In the name of (authority and approval of) Yeshua (no other human name) the Messiah the Nazarene (meaning “branch” and a messianic title-Zech 6.11-13)-walk!”

v 7…And seizing him by the right hand; he raised him up; and immediately his feet and his ankles were strengthened.

v 8…And with a leap he stood upright (he stood at the time that the “standing prayer” called the Amidah was recited) to walk, and he entered the Temple (they came up the tunnel into the outer court of the Temple; they have found the very steps that they walked on and the steps were at different levels to slow down your walk; you had time to think about who you were coming before to pray) with them, walking and leaping and praising God (this was no easy task to dance and leap on these steps, but he had a complete healing).

v 9…And all the people saw him walking and praising God;

v 10…and they were taking note of him as being the one who used to sit at the Beautiful Gate of the Temple to beg alms, and they were filled with wonder and amazement at what had happened to him (Israel couldn’t walk and needed help just like this man; this miracle drew attention to Yeshua and his words, calling Israel into a different walk with Yehovah).

v 11…And while he was clinging to Peter and John (out of affection for them), all the people ran together to them at the so-called portico of Solomon, full of amazement (this was a covered area at the south end of the Temple complex; very near where they came up out of the Huldah, or Beautiful, Gate), full of amazement (at what they had heard).

v 12…But when Peter saw, he replied to the people, “Men of Israel, why do you marvel at this, or why do you gaze at us, as if by our own power or piety we had made him walk (from v 12 through v 26 the offer of the kingdom of God is extended; the kingdom of Yehovah is a variation of the kingdom of Heaven or God and it is his movement in action to bring about the restored kingdom of Israel-1 Chr 28.5; 2 Chr 13.8; Acts 1.6; the offer will expire in Acts 28.17-28 and will come in its due time-Isa 60.22).

v 13…The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the God of our fathers has glorified his servant Yeshua whom you delivered up (to the justice of evil man-1 Pet 2.2) and disowned in the presence of Pilate, when he decided to release him.

v 14…But you disowned (denied) the holy (he had a kedusha as the Messiah) and righteous one, and asked for a murderer to be granted to you (some believe Barabbas was the son of Abbas, who was the son of Judas the Galilean, a Zealot or a Sicarii-Acts 5.37),

v 15…but put to death the prince (“Nasi” or author or architect) of life, whom God raised from the dead (Yehovah overturned their unjust verdict by raising him-Prov 16.33), to which we are witnesses.

v 16…And on the basis of faith (emunah, or confidence in action) in his name, this one whom you see and know, was made firm by his name (his healing originated with Yeshua); and the faith which came through him (Yeshua) gave to him this complete soundness before you all.

v 17…And now, brethren, I know that you acted in ignorance, just as your rulers (Sanhedrin) did also (Yeshua said the same thing in Luke 23.34, “Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing”).

v 18…But the things which God announced beforehand by the mouth of all the prophets, that his Messiah should suffer, he has fulfilled (given meaning to-Luke 24.25-27).

v 19…Repent (turn) therefore and return (from your sins, and from rejecting Yeshua as the Messiah and the kingdom), that your sins may be wiped away, in order that the times of refreshing (the time of regeneration when the Olam Ha Zeh, or “this world”, passes away into the Olam Haba spiritually as we become born again-Heb 9.10; Eph 2.1-7) may come from the presence of the Lord;

v 20…and that he may send Yeshua the Messiah appointed for you (to be your redeemer),

v 21…whom heaven must receive until the period of restoration (when Yeshua returns- the time of “restitution” at the end of the Olam Ha Zeh to the Atid Lavo/messianic kingdom) of all things about which God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets (they had a kedusha) from ancient time.

v 22…Moses said, ‘The Lord God shall raise up for you a prophet like me from your brethren; to him you shall give heed in everything he says to you (Deut 18.18-19).

v 23…And it shall be that every soul that does not heed that prophet shall be utterly destroyed from among his people (fulfilled in 70 AD).’

v 24…And likewise, all the prophets who have spoken, from Samuel and his successors onward, also announced these days.

v 25…It is you who are the sons of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying to Abraham, ‘And in your seed all the families of the earth shall be blessed (Gen 12.1-3, 15.18, 17.1-8).’

v 26…For you first (to the Jew first-John 4.22; Rom 1.16), God raised up his servant, and sent him to bless you by turning every one (of you) from your wicked ways.”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Acts-Chapter 2

Acts 2.1-47 tells us about the empowerment of the Eschatological Kahal by the Ruach Ha Kodesh as promised by the Father in Acts 1.4, Luke 24.49, to be fulfilled on Shavuot in Acts 1.5, 2.4. The offer of the Kingdom of God is being extended. Contrary to Replacement Theology doctrines. Acts 2 is not the beginning of the “church” because Christianity did not exist at this time, and not for another 300 years. The festival of Shavuot was called “Yom Kahal” in the Torah in Deut 9.10, 10.4 and 18.16. Kahal is the Hebrew term for “assembly” and so we see the “assembly” goes back to Mount Sinai when God gave the Ten Commandments. It is called “Natan Ha Torah” or the giving of the Torah and the day he betrothed himself to Israel in Jer 2.2. It was prophesied that Yehovah would fill the people with the Ruach Ha Kodesh (Holy Spirit) in Num 11.16-35. Yeshua is calling out his “kahal” who will be Torah observant, and that is why they are called the “Eschatological Kahal” because he is redeeming man and nature, and the kahal plays a part in that, but they need to be empowered by the Ruach (Spirit). Shavuot was seen as the “atzeret” or the conclusion of the spring festivals and they have been counting the Omer up to Shavuot, the day God gave the commandments on Mount Sinai. The Torah reading for this day is Exo 19.1 to 20.23, and the haftorah from the prophets is Ezek 1.1-28, 3.12. The prophecy in Ezekiel 43.1-5 corresponds exactly with Acts 2.2. This eschatological kahal is made up of Jews who had a Torah-based faith in Yeshua and they will be seen as a sect within Judaism in Acts 24.14 and in the Roman Empire. The one hundred and twenty were gathered together in the Temple on this day because that is where they were supposed to be according to the Torah in Lev 23.15-22, Exo 23.14-16 and Deut 16.10-12.

v 1…And when the day of Shavuot (Pentecost) had come (the fiftieth day of counting the Omer in Lev 23.16) they were all together in one place (In the Temple, probably Solomon’s Portico).

v 2…And suddenly (in an instant) there came from heaven (John 14.26) a noise like a violent rushing wind (this was the Ruach, not a natural occurrence) and it filled the whole house (The Temple is called the “house” in 1 Kings 6.7, 8.11 9.12; 2 Chr 5.14 and many other places) where they were sitting (the one hundred and twenty were where they should have been on Shavuot, in the Temple; they were in the court of the Gentiles, in Solomon’s Portico because you could sit there).

v 3…And there appeared to them tongues as of fire distributing themselves, and they rested on each one of them.

v 4…And they were all filled with the Ruach Ha Kodesh and began to speak with other tongues as the Ruach (Spirit) was giving them utterance (the power and the ability to do so).

v 5…Now there were Jews living in Jerusalem, devout men from every nation under heaven (who returned from the exile from Babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome and many other countries).

v 6…And when the sound (Hebrew “kolot” meaning “voices”-Exo 19.16; Kol in Deut 4.12 and Heb 12.18-19) occurred, the multitude (that was around the 120) came together and were bewildered, because they were each one hearing them speak in his own language (Tongues were heard at Mount Sinai also according to some Jewish literature; for example, in the Hertz Authorized Daily Prayer Book, p. 791, it says, “The revelation at Sinai, it was taught, was given in desert territory which belongs to no one nation exclusively; it was heard not by Israel alone, but by the inhabitants of all the earth. The divine voice divided itself into 70 tongues then spoken on earth, so that all the children of men might understand its world-embracing and man-redeeming message.” This concept can also be seen in the book, “Rosh Ha Shannah and the Messianic Kingdom to Come” by Joseph Good, p. 13-14, where it says: “When God gave the Torah on Sinai, he displayed untold marvels to Israel with his voice. What happened? God spoke and the voice reverberated throughout the world….It says, ‘And all the people witnessed the thunderings (Exo 20.15).’ Note that it does not say ‘the thunder’ but the ‘thunderings’; wherefore, R.Johanan said that God’s voice, as it was uttered, split up into seventy voices, in seventy languages, so that all the nations should understand. When the nation heard the voice in their own vernacular, their soul departed (they were in fear), save Israel, who heard and were not hurt-Exodus Rabbah 5.9.” And in another midrash it says: “On the occasion of matan Torah (the giving of the Torah), the Bnai Israel (the children of Israel) not only heard Hashem’s (the Lord’s) voice but actually saw the sound waves as they emerged from Hashem’s (the Lord’s) mouth. They visualized them as a fiery substance. Each commandment that left Hashem’s (the Lord’s) mouth traveled around the entire camp and then came back to every Jew individually, asking him, “Do you accept upon yourself the commandment with all halachot (Jewish law) pertaining to it?” Every Jew answered, “Yes,” after each commandment. Finally, the fiery substance which they saw, engraved itself on the luchot (tablets)-The Midrash Says, Rabbi Moshe Weisman, Benei Yakov Publications (1980) p. 182.” Now the midrashim aren’t to be taken literally in every aspect, but you can see the concept of fiery tongues being given on Shavuot when the commandments were given and that was an expectation of the people.

v 7…And they (the multitude) were amazed and marveled, saying, “Why, are not all these who are speaking Galileans (Acts 1.11)?

v 8…And how is it that we each hear in our own language to which we were born (the “sign” in 1 Cor 14.22)?

v 9…Parthians and Medes and Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia (some of the so-called “lost tribes”), Judea and Cappadocia, Portus and Asia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the districts of Libya around Cyrene, and visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes (converted non-Jews from being a Godfearer),

v 11…Cretans and Arabs-we hear them in our tongues speaking of the mighty deeds of God (these people from all these lands were there to keep the Torah concerning Shavuot-Exo 23.14-17; this is a picture of the nations they would preach in).”

v 12…And they continued in amazement and great perplexity, saying to one another, “What does this mean (the tongues prompted the question- what tongues will do with an unbeliever-1 Cor 14.20-25)?”

v 13…But others were mocking (just like their fathers in Isa 28.10-11), saying, “They are full of sweet wine (Yehovah had spoken plainly through the prophets and Yeshua, so that even a child could understand. Yet, they were obstinate and stupid. These “locals” did not understand the languages being spoken, so they derided them. Yehovah had spoken before about a coming judgment when he threatened them with the Babylonians. Now judgment is coming with the Romans. These foreign tongues are a sign to the unbeliever about coming judgment. The Ruach was being poured out as proof that Yeshua was the Messiah and God resurrected him. If they reject this, then foreigners with a different language and tongue will be running in the very streets of Jerusalem and the Temple carrying out God’s judgment).”

v 14…But Peter, taking his stand with the eleven, raised his voice and declared to them (the tongues prompted questions, giving Peter the chance to preach to them in a language they all knew-1 COr 14.22-24): “Men of Judea, and all who live in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and give heed to my words.

v 15…For these men are not drunk as you suppose, for it is the third hour of the day (the time for the morning Tamid prayer service in the Temple for Shavuot);

v 16…but this is what was spoken of through the prophet Joel (as proof, or the sign, that Yeshua is the Messiah),

v 17…’And it shall be in the last days (“acharit yamim” and an eschatological term for when the Messiah comes -the people understood that Joel 2.28 related to the messianic age called the “Yomot Mashiach” and the “Atid Lavo) God says, ‘I will pour forth of my Spirit upon all mankind (believers; remember Israel was being offered the kingdom, and this is what they could expect); and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy (teach doctrinal truth or tell the future), and your young men shall see visions (like Peter in Acts 10, Paul in Acts 9, etc), and your old men shall dream dreams (Paul in Acts 16.9, 27.23).

v 18…Even upon my bond-slaves, and on my handmaids, I will pour out in those days of my Spirit (in the last days-Isa 59.20), and they shall prophesy (telling or explaining the Scriptures and communicating doctrinal truth or tell the future).

v 19…And I will show wonders in the sky above (like the sword over the city of Jerusalem before its destruction, etc), and signs on the earth beneath (like the Temple doors opening on their own, and a voice saying, ‘Let us depart’, etc), blood and fire and vapor of smoke (cities and villages burning).

v 20…The sun shall be turned into darkness (eclipses, blotted out by the smoke and destruction), and the moon into blood (dust in the atmosphere can do this and other natural phenomenon), before the great and glorious day of the Lord shall come (when God comes and reveals his power to overthrow his enemies to defend his kingdom, like he did in 70 AD)

v 21…and it shall be, that every one who calls on the name of Yehovah shall be saved (delivered from destruction, some fleeing to the Jordanian-Moabite wilderness-Matt 24.16).’

v 22…Men of Israel (responsible Israelites), listen to these words (Peter is not trying to repulse his listeners, but win them to the Messiah): Yeshua the Nazarene (who is the Messiah-Matt 2.23; Isa 11.1), a man tested examined, approved) to you by God with miracles and wonders and signs which God performed through him in your midst (presence), as you yourselves know (it was evident),

v 23…this one, delivered up by the predetermined plan (counsel) and knowledge of God (his omniscience), you nailed to a cross by the hands of godless men and put to death (some were at the previous Passover and saw this) and put to death (foreknowledge means foreordained, determined as it should be in the divine counsel of eternity; a fixed plan).

v 24…And God raised him again, putting an end to the agony of death (suffered unjustly-1 Pet 2.19), since it was impossible for him to be held by its power ) as a bird or animal is released from a trap).

v 25…For David says of him (Messiah), ‘I was always beholding the Lord in my presence (his whole life); for he is at my right hand that I may not be shaken (from my duty).

v 26…Therefore my heart was glad and my tongue exulted (in doing Yehovah’s will); moreover my flesh will abide in hope (expecting God’s word to be accomplished through him, a sure thing);

v 27…because thou wilt not abandon (leave or permit, to give up on) my soul to Sheol (meaning Yeshua’s soul went to the Father, not to “hell” temporarily), nor allow thy holy one to undergo decay (of his body in the grave).

v 28…Thou hast made known to me the ways of life (his resurrection); thou wilt make me full of gladness with thy presence (the face of his presence-Psa 16.8-11).”

v 29…Men, brothers, I may confidently say to you regarding the patriarch David that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day (so Peter was not talking about David quoting Psa 16).

v 30…And so, because he (David) was a prophet (he foretold things to come and taught the Scriptures) and knew that God has sworn with an oath to him that the fruit of his loins according to the flesh he would raise up Messiah to sit on his throne,

v 31…he looked ahead and spoke of the resurrection of Messiah, that he was neither abandoned to Sheol (v 27), nor did his flesh suffer decay (his body).

v 32…This Yeshua God raised up again, to which we are all witnesses.

v 33…Therefore having been exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Ruach Ha Kodesh, he has poured forth this (the Spirit in power-Acts 1.4-5; Luke 24.49) which you both see and hear.

v 34…For it was not David who ascended into heaven, but he himself says, ‘The Lord said to my Lord, “Sit at my right hand,

v 35…until I make thine enemies a footstool for thy feet (rest your feet in complete subjection over them, controlled and conquered).’

v 36…Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain God has made him both Lord and Messiah, this Yeshua whom you crucified.”

v 37…Now when they heard this, they were pierced to the heart (it stung sharply, bringing remorse and fear to them), and said to Peter and the rest of the shaliachim, “Men and brethren, what shall we do (to make this right before Yehovah, to escape judgment for this)?”

v 38…And Peter said to them, Repent, and let each of you be immersed in the name (authority and approval) of Yeshua Ha Mashiach for the forgiveness of your sins (receive the redemption and the benefits provided), and you shall receive the gift of the Ruach Ha Kodesh (the regeneration of the new birth-John 3.5-8, and its benefits).

v 39…For the promise is for you and your children (immature offspring), and for all who are afar off (not having been born yet; future generations), as many as the Lord our God shall call (according to his election of purpose and grace) to himself.”

v 40…And with many other words he solemnly testified and kept on exhorting them, saying, “Be saved from this perverse generation (that was doomed; meaning the chief priests, scribes, Beit Shammai, in order to not be a partaker of their sins when judgment comes)!”

v 41…So then, those who had received his word were immersed (into the purposes of God that Yeshua brought-Luke 7.30); and there were added that day about three thousand souls (used the Temple immersion baths in the outer court).

v 42…And they were continually devoting themselves to the shaliachim’s teaching and to fellowship and to the breaking of bread (to meet their daily needs) and to prayer (at the Temple services, private prayer, etc-a structure of the faith was already there in the Tanak- the “foundation of the apostles and prophets” referred to in Eph 2.20 refer to those in the Tanak).

v 43…And everyone kept feeling a sense of awe; and many wonders and signs were taking place through the apostles (they are not “talmidim” anymore, they are “shaliachim” or sent ones/agents now).

v 44…And all those who had believed were together, and had all things in common.

v 45…And they sold their property and possessions, and were sharing them with all, as anyone might have need (this was a common practice in the first century and Judaism; if you had two houses, you could sell one and give the proceeds to the Gabbai Tzedekah, or treasurer, and he gives it to the “shammashim” or “servants” of the assembly, and they would distribute it to those in need. The giver had requirements in 2 Cor 9.7, and so did the recipients in 1 Tim 5.3-16; this was all part of biblical giving).

v 46…And day by day continuing with one mind in the Temple (for the services, sacrifices and prayer), and breaking bread from house to house (communal meals, meals consecrated to God, or Lord’s Suppers in a house or a synagogue) they were taking their meals together with gladness and sincerity of heart,

v 47…praising God and having favor with the people (they were Traditional Jews, as opposed to Hellenistic Jews-see Acts 6.1, who believed in Yeshua; they were experiencing what was expected to happen-believing in Yeshua was not an issue at this time-Acts 21.20

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Acts-Introduction and Chapter 1

The book of Acts was written by Luke the physician, who also wrote the Gospel of Luke. He was a friend and traveling companion of Paul in Col 4.14 and 2 Tim 4.11. He was writing to Theophilus and this book was circulated to other believers in the Eschatological Kahal. This book tells us about what Yeshua and the Ruach Ha Kodesh continued to do and preach through the Shaliachim (meaning “sent ones” or “agents”) about how the Torah and the Renewed Covenant is applied to the believer after Yeshua ascended to heaven. The book itself was written about 63 AD and it was a bridge between the Gospels and the Epistles. The twelve were called “talmidim” or “students” until Yeshua was taken into heaven. At that point, he ends them out as “shaliachim” for the kingdom of God, or his movement and rule in action. So, with that in mind, we are going to set the stage for what is happening and get a basic understanding of events. These concepts will apply to all the books we will read from this point on. First of all, let’s get a basic definition for the “Basar” or “gospel” and what it really is.

The Basar means “good news, flesh or bread.” When one is hungry, to hear that food was on the way was good news. For example, in its simplest form, basar means good news. In the eschatological sense, the basar has certain concepts associated with it. The basar means the golden age of Israel, David’s throne is re-established, the Messiah has come and God reigns through him over the world, peace has come to man and nature in a restoration, the resurrection of the just has occurred, righteousness is in the earth, the Day of the Lord has come, the Torah goes forth to all the nations, idolatry is non-existent, the exiles have come back to the land, true worship of God has been restored, the non-Jews believe and so on. The Messiah is the agent of God empowered to bring all of this about. His task is to redeem man and nature in a restoration. We enter into that redemption by emunah (faith, confidence in action). The “gospel” message is that Yeshua has come to initiate this redemption, but the Messiah is not the basar, but he is the agent of the basar. So, with that said, let’s look at what happened starting after Yeshua.

During the aftermath of Yeshua’s resurrection the book of Acts relates that tens of thousands of Jews became believers in Yeshua. It is further recorded that these Jewish believers were devoutly observant of the Torah, which would include the Temple and the sacrifices called korbanot, keeping the Sabbath and the festivals, eating permitted animals in Lev 11 and so on. It is further stated that Paul (Shaul) who is accused wrongly of creating a different faith separate from the Torah, himself observed the Sabbath, went to the Temple, and performed animal sacrifices, and kept kosher. The major issue that divided these believers from the rest of the Jewish world was not whether Yeshua was or was not the Messiah, but it concerned the 18 Edicts of Beit Shammai that said a non-Jew, called a God-fearer, must be circumcised and become Jewish in order to have a place in the kingdom of God. A God-fearer was a non-Jew who believed in the God of Israel and kept the Torah commands that applied to him. So, let’s look at the two “houses” or “schools” of the Pharisees we will be dealing with in this book, as well as the Gospels and Epistles and gain some understanding.

The two main schools we will be dealing with are called the School, or Beit (house) of Shammai and the School (Beit/house) of Hillel. Beit Shammai was vice president of the Sanhedrin called the “Av Beit Din” or “father of the house of judgment” until Hillel died in 10 AD, who was the “Nasi” or president of the Sanhedrin. After that, Shammai was Nasi. They were more powerful in their influence from about 20 BC to about 70 AD. They issued what is called the Eighteen Edicts that governed the intercourse between Jews and non-Jews and was more “radical.” Jewish Zealots agreed with Shammai because they hated Rome. The status of non-Jews will be a major point of contention with Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel. Beit Shammai will be opposed to proselytes and rebuffed them unless they became Jewish through ritual circumcision. If not, they had no place in the Kingdom of Heaven or the World to Come. Hillel did not agree with this stand. Hillel accepted non-Jews and believed they could be righteous non-Jews and merit salvation. The Jewish Zealots did not like this stand because they allowed non-Jewish fellowship. Yeshua agreed with Beit Shammai at least once that we know of. Shammai died the same year Yeshua did, 30 AD. Hillel disagreed with the Eighteen Edicts and Beit Shammai, especially about conversion. Hillel taught that a non-Jew could be saved if they followed the Ten Commandments and the Noahide Laws, and were much more conservative than Beit Shammai. Yeshua agreed with Beit Hillel many times, and Paul was a Pharisee from Hillel. Hillel himself died about 10 AD.

Up to about 70 AD Halakah, or how to walk in the Torah, was according to Beit Shammai. A non-Jew can be saved, but they had to be ritually circumcised to become Jewish, a full conversion. After 70 AD and the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple, the halakah was according to Beit Hillel after Judaism was reformed at Yavneh. They did not require a non-Jew to be circumcised to be saved, and Hillel’s view of converts was adopted. In Acts 10 God will show the believers in Yeshua that Shammai was wrong, and this issue will come up again in Acts 15 and later in Galatians. Now, one concept should be kept in mind about dissension. Some of the “joys” of an argument is arriving at the truth. Though these two houses disagreed we will see them fellowshipping with one another, which is not a western concept. After Paul became a believer, he did not totally agree with either side, but was only interested in the “Halakah of God” and we will see his teachings on this starting with the book of Acts. His letters to the assemblies, called “Epistles”, were halachic commentaries on the Torah as it applied to believing Jews and non-Jews. Paul will settle the issue of whether a non-Jew should be ritually circumcised to be saved in 1 Cor 7.17-19 and in the book of Galatians.

Now we are going to discuss the relationship between the Jewish believers and the God-fearers a little further. The history begins in Acts 10 when Cornelius, a God-fearer and a Roman Centurion, became a believer in Yeshua. It was obvious at this point that non-Jews could enter into the kingdom of heaven by faith. It was further established that it was not necessary for God-fearers that believed in Yeshua to become Jewish through ritual circumcision to maintain their status within the kingdom. This issue was hotly debated in the messianic congregations as opposed to those Jews who did not accept Yeshua. The problem was further complicated as the faith spread rapidly throughout the Roman Empire, often into areas where the Jewish population was sparse. More and more non-Jews were becoming believers and eventually they far outnumbered their Jewish brethren in the faith. These non-Jews were coming from a background of pure paganism. Because of the Roman wars with the Jews, anti-Jewish sentiment was rampant. More and more pagan influences were showing up within the faith. Historically, during the fourth century AD the Romans, under Constantine, converted enmasse to what became known as Christianity and it became the state religion of the empire. The only problem is that the practices of this “faith” was far removed from Torah observance and God’s halakah and became based on pagan ideals and Greek philosophy. The Jewish understandings were being cast aside, and pagan beliefs and practices took over. Many times the beliefs of Christianity were precisely forbidden by the Torah. These forbidden beliefs and practices continue to this day and are accepted and favored in Christian practice. In addition, those so bold as to observe anything that could be interpreted as Jewish practices and ceremonies were persecuted.

After Acts 2, all the members of the eschatological kahal were either Jewish or God-fearers. The believers in Yeshua met in synagogues, ate kosher, observed the Sabbath and festivals, spoke Hebrew and lived according to the Torah as it applied to both groups. Both groups knew the idioms, phrases and concepts of the Jewish people at the time. The writers of the “new testament” were Jews, and all believers and were part of the eschatological kahal and were a sect within Judaism. It is from this context that we will interpret the book of Acts.

Acts 1.1-26 tells us about the last works of Yeshua before his ascension into heaven, his ascension and the choosing of Matthias to replace Judas.

v 1…The first account I compiled (the gospel of Luke) O Theophilus (friend of God), about all that Yeshua began to do and teach (Yeshua was a doer of the word, meaning Torah observant, and a teacher-Jam 1.22-25, 2.12),

v 2…until the day when he was taken up, after he had by the Holy Spirit (Ruach Ha Kodesh) given orders to the shaliachim whom he had chosen (Matt 28.11-20; Mark 16.15-18).

v 3…To these he also presented himself alive, after his suffering, by many convincing proofs (technical proofs certified, that would be accepted by doctors of the Torah, medical doctors and those who examine evidence), appearing to them over forty days and speaking of the things concerning the kingdom of God (God’s rule in action and power- these forty days involved the counting of the omer, from first fruits leading up to Shavuot-Lev 23.15-16).

v 4…And gathering them together, he commanded them not to leave Jerusalem (because Shavuot was coming and they had to be there anyway), but wait for what the Father had promised (Luke 24.49, “Which you heard from me;

v 5…For John indeed immersed in water, but you shall be immersed with the Holy Spirit not many days from now (ten days later on Shavuot to fulfill the spring festivals in his first coming. He was crucified on Passover, buried on Unleavened Bread, rose from the dead on First Fruits, and now will send the Holy Spirit on Shavuot. Yeshua will also fulfill the fall festivals concerning his second coming as well. The Natzal, or the catching away of the believers and resurrection of the righteous dead, will occur on Rosh Ha Shannah, Tishri 1, year 6001 from Creation. His second coming to the earth will happen on Yom Kippur, Tishri 10 at the end of the seven year birth-pains, and Sukkot five days later will initiate the Messianic Kingdom on earth).”

v 6…And so when they had come together, they were asking him, saying, “Lord, is it at this time you are restoring the kingdom to Israel (the return of the kingdom of God and his movement in action is the restored kingdom of Israel-1 Chr 28.5; 2 Chr 13.8)?”

v 7…He said to them, “It is not for you to know times and epochs (seasons) which the Father has fixed (set chronologically in his secret counsels before the world was( by his own authority (power-Isa 60.22),

v 8…but you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit (Ruach Ha Kodesh) has come upon you (the people were expecting the Ruach when Messiah came-Joel 2.28; Isa 32.15; Isa 59.20-21), and you shall be my witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth (the non-Jews have a part in the kingdom of God-John 7.35, 10.16; Isa 56-6-8; Eph 2.11-22. The first born (Bekor) Israel was to go out and pass on Yeshua’s values to the nations, the “other children.” The non-Jews had no concept of Yehovah and his Torah, but these concepts were for all nations-Num 15.14; Jer 12.16; Isa 56-6-9; Paul taught the Torah to non-Jews-1 Cor 11.1-2; 2 Thes 2.15; Phil 3.17).”

v 9…And after he had said these things, he was lifted up (the same idea as the Shekinah departing in Ezek 10.1-22, 11.23 at the same place) while they were looking on, and a cloud received him out of their sight.

v 10…And as they were gazing intently into the sky while he was departing, behold (take note), two men (two witnesses) in white clothing stood beside them (in the midst of their group);

v 11…and they also said, “Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky (gazing in awe)? This Yeshua (not some other), who has been taken up from you into heaven (the third heaven), will come in just the same way as you have watched him go into heaven (he ascended at the same place the Shekinah departed in Ezek 11.23).”

v 12…Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem, a Sabbath day’s journey away (about 4800 feet).

v 13…And when they entered, they went up to the upper room (perhaps the same room they had the last supper-Luke 22.12) where they were staying; that is, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon the Zealot (a member of the Zealot party, who were closely aligned with Beit Shammai) and Judas the brother of James (son of Alphaeus).

v 14…These all with one mind (in the harmony of spirit) were continually devoting themselves to prayer, along with the women, and Mary the mother of Yeshua, and with his brothers (they were believers now).

v 15…And at this time Peter stood up in the midst of the brethren (a gathering of about one hundred and twenty persons was there together (there were one hundred and twenty priests blowing trumpets in 2 Chr 5.12; one hundred and twenty years in Gen 6.3; one hundred and twenty letters in the Ten Commandments) and said,

v 16…”Brethren, the Scripture had to be fulfilled (given meaning), which the Holy Spirit (Ruach Ha Kodesh) foretold by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who became a guide for those who arrested Yeshua.

v 17…For he was counted among us, and received his portion in this ministry (he had a part in the preaching, immersing, the healings and was the treasurer).”

v 18…Now this man acquired a field with the price of his wickedness (Zecj 11.11-14 alludes to this); and falling headlong, he burst open in the middle and all his bowels gushed out.

v 19…And it became known to all who were living in Jerusalem (of the fate of Judas); so that in their own language that field was called Hakeldama, that is, field of blood (it was called this because in the Hinnom Valley, south of the city, there was a place called Tophet or “place of cursing”; blood from the Temple flowed through a conduit called the “amah” to the Kidron Valley, then south to the southern bank where the Valley of Hinnom met the Kidron Valley-Mishnah Yoma 5.6; Middot 3.2).

v 20…”For it is written (already recorded) in the book of Psalms (Tehillim), ‘Let his homestead be made desolate, and let no man dwell in it’; and, “His office let another man take’ (Psa 69.25 with Psa 109.8).

v 21…”It is therefore necessary that of the men who have accompanied us all the time that the Lord Yeshua went in and out among us-

v 22…beginning with the immersion of John, until the day that he was taken up from us-one of these should become a witness with us of his resurrection.”

v 23…And they put forward two men, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was also called Justus, and Matthias (gift of Yehovah.

v 24…And they prayed, and said, “Thou Lord (Yehovah) who knowest the hearts of all men, show which one of these two thou hast chosen

v 25…to occupy this ministry and apostleship (to be a shaliach) from which Judas turned aside to go to his own place (an idiom for destruction, or his destruction-Gen 31.55; Num 24.25).”

v 26…And they drew lots for them, and the lot fell to Matthias (according to God’s plan), and he was numbered with the eleven shaliachim (this is in harmony with the Torah-the two goats on Yom Kippur in Lev 16.8; Prov 18.18; Num 26.55; with Achan in Josh 7.14; the daily Tamid service participants were chosen by lot (Luke 1.9; there were several ways to do this).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in John-Chapters 1-21 can be found earlier on this site

Posted in Uncategorized

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 24

Luke 24.1-53 tells us about the discovery of Yeshua’s resurrection and the announcement by two angels about it; how the women returned to tell the talmidim about what happened and were not believed, Peter and John race to the tomb to see it for themselves, Yeshua’s appearance to two talmidim on the road to Emmaus and their conversation about how the Messiah had to suffer, starting with Moses and the Prophets; Yeshua reveals himself to them; their report to the eleven; Yeshua’s appearance to all of them, his final instructions and ascension to heaven.

v 1…But on the first day of the week (Sunday, Nisan 18) at early dawn (Yeshua had arisen earlier, around sunset of Nisan 17) they (the women from Galilee-23.55) came to the tomb, bringing the spices they had prepared (on Friday, Nisan 16-they rested on the weekly Sabbath, Nisan 17), and others were with them.

v 2…And they found the stone rolled away from the tomb (he was already gone),

v 3…but when they entered, they did not find the body of the Lord Yeshua (they saw how and where his body was laid in 23.55).

v 4…And it happened that while they were perplexed about this, behold, two men (angels; two witnesses of the resurrection) suddenly stood near them in dazzling apparel;

v 5…and as the women were terrified and bowed their faces to the ground, the two men said to them, “Why do you seek the living among the dead (this is the basic definition of clean and unclean, what is “in place” and “out of place”, proper and improper)?

v 6…He (Yeshua) is not here, but has risen. Remember how he spoke to you while he was in Galilee (before you came for Passover-Matt 17.22-23; Mark 8.31, 9.30-31),

v 7…saying that the son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.”

v 8…And they remembered his words (how he specifically said this),

v 9…and returned from the tomb and reported all these things to the eleven and all the rest (the trial of Yeshua was the justice of men, and God overturned their earthly verdict by vindicating Yeshua and raising him from the dead).

v 10…Now they (the women) were Mary Magdalene, and Joanna and Mary the mother of James; also the other women with them were telling these things to the shaliachim.

v 11…And these words appeared to them as nonsense, and they would not believe them.

v 12…But Peter arose (with John) and ran to the tomb (John outran him-John 20.3-4); stooping and looking in, he saw the linen wrappings only (John 19.40), and went away to his home (temporary home in Jerusalem-John 20.9-10) marveling at that which had happened (he did not understand it).

v 13…And behold, two of them (of his talmidim, not the shaliachim) were going that very day to a village named Emmaus (hot springs), which was about seven miles from Jerusalem.

v 14…And they were conversing with each other about all the things which had taken place (the whole Passover scenario, and were among the group the women told about the resurrection, which they didn’t believe-v 22.-24).

v 15…And it came about that while they were conversing and discussing, Yeshua himself approached, and began traveling with them (as a fellow pilgrim).

v 16…But their eyes were prevented (by God) from recognizing him.

v 17…And he said to them, “What are these words that you are exchanging with one another as you were walking?” And they stood still looking sad (what sad story are you talking about that makes you seem so sad).

v 18,…And one of them, named Cleopas (a talmid but not the Cleopas of John 19.25, but possibly Luke’s source for this story), answered and said to him, “Are you the only one visiting Jerusalem (or have just arrived) and unaware of the things which have happened here in these days?”

v 19…And he said, “What things?” And they said to him, “The things about Yeshua the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deeds and word in the sight of God and the people,

v 20…and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to the sentence of death and crucified him (he didn’t hesitate to charge them with his death, so did Peter in Acts 4.10.

v 21…But we were hoping (trusting) that it was he who was going to redeem Israel (as the Messiah). Indeed, besides all this, it is the third day (literal Greek, “Today is after the three days since these things were done).

v 22…But also some women (certain women-Luke 24.9-10) among us amazed us. When they were at the tomb early in the morning,

v 23…and did not find his body (in the tomb where they saw it last), they came, saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said he was seen alive.

v 24…And some of those (talmidim) who were with us (Peter and John in particular-John 20.2-3) went to the tomb and found it exactly as the women also had said; but him they did not see.”

v 25…And he said to them, “O foolish men and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken (now he is going to help their unbelief, but how much evidence did they need)!

v 26…Was it not necessary for the Messiah to suffer these things and to enter into his glory (which he had before the world was-John 14.1-3; John 17.1-5; Acts 1.9-11)?”

v 27…And beginning with Moses (Torah) and with all the prophets (with Matt 13.52 as a basis) he explained to them the things concerning himself in all the Scriptures (the Tanak-Rom 15.4; Acts 13.23, 17.1-3, 24.24, 28.23-27, 26.22 tell us Paul did the same thing, according to Isa 8.20 and John 5.39-47).

v 28…And they approached the village where they were going, and he acted as though he would go farther (he is “passing by” in his glory like with Moses in Exo 33.18-20, and with the talmidim on the lake in Mark 6.48).

v 29…And they urged him, saying, “Stay with us (Yeshua was not going to force himself on them, they had to ask. He is not playing games because no guile was in him-1 Pet 2.22) for it is getting toward evening, and the day is now nearly over.” And he went in to stay with them.

v 30…And it came about that when he had reclined at the table with them, he took the bread (Greek “artos”-the generic term for bread in general. This bread was unleavened) and blessed (Yehovah), breaking, he gave it to them.

v 31…And their eyes were opened and they recognized him; and he vanished from their sight (hidden from them).

v 32…And they said to one another, “Was not our hearts burning within us while he was speaking to us on the road, while he was explaining to us the Scriptures (their sadness was turning to joy as he explained to them clearly that the Scriptures were being played out right before their eyes and were true, and he was the Messiah)?”

v 33…And they arose that very hour and returned (seven miles) to Jerusalem, and found gathered together the eleven and those who were with them,

v 34…saying, “The Lord has really risen, and has appeared to Simon (sometime after Peter was at the tomb, and before these two returned to Jerusalem from Emmaus; Paul records this meeting but nothing is recorded about what happened in the meeting but Yeshua certainly comforted him in his distress, knowing he denied knowing him and now knowing Yeshua had resurrected; all of this was put to rest).”

v 35…And they began to relate their experiences on the road and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread.

v 36…And while they were telling these things, he himself stood in their midst (like the manna appeared in the wilderness) and said to them, “Peace to you (Shalom Aleichem).”

v 37…But they were startled (terrified) and frightened and thought they were seeing a spirit (a phantom or apparition; perhaps Yeshua’s physical appearance in his glorified body had changed).

v 38…And he said to them, “Why are you troubled, and why do doubts arise in your hearts (you should be full of joy and gladness right now)?

v 39…See my hands and my feet (the wounds that were made there; John adds “and side” in John 20.20), that it is myself; touch me and see, for a spirit (phantom) does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have (they could see and feel his flesh and bones and this does not mean that he did not have blood, they could not see and feel blood; the resurrection body is not lacking in anything that the mortal body has, but something has been added to the perishable-1 Cor 15.53-54; Yeshua in his resurrected body is in the Olam Haba, or world to come; he is appearing to people still in the Olam Ha Zeh with limited, perishable bodies; the Scriptures do not state all the capabilities of the new body or whether it has blood or not specifically, however, we know if the Lord wills it, the physical body is not bound by the laws of physics because Peter walked on water, and Philip was transported in Acts 8.35, and the shaliachim were transported out of prison with the doors shut, with guards at the door. They were found in the Temple teaching-Acts 5.17-25).”

v 40…And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.

v 41…And while they still could not believe (their own eyes) for joy and were marveling, he said to them, “Have you anything here to eat (to give them more proof he was not an apparition)?”

v 42…And they gave him a piece of broiled fish and some honeycomb;

v 43…and he took it and ate in their sight (to show them he could).

v 44…And he said to them, “These are my words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things which are written about me in the Law (Torah) of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled (given meaning).”

v 45…Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures (even with the best teacher and training men have ever had, they still needed the illumination of God and his grace to drive away the darkness (2 Cor 4.3-6),

v 46…and he said to them, “Thus it is written (already on record), that the Messiah should suffer and rise again from the dead the third day;

v 47…and that repentance for the forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in his name (by those representing me) to all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem (Acts 2.1-4-wherever his elect ones are).

v 48…You are my witnesses of these things.

v 49…And behold, I am sending forth the promise of my Father upon you (the kingdom of God in action and power, through the Ruach Ha Kodesh-Acts 1.4-8), but you are to stay in the city (stay put for now) until you are clothed with power from on high (what Adam had lost is going to be restored-he was clothed in Gen 2.25 and had no sin, and needed no atonement, or a restored covering, until Gen 3.10; Yeshua will restore the Kivod, the radiance of God in Acts 2.3; the Shekinah, the presence of God in John 20.22-23; and the Ruach Ha Kodesh, the power of God in Acts 2.4, before they are sent out into the world).”

v 50…And he led them out as far as Bethany (ten days before Shavuot in Acts 1.3-4), and he lifted up his hands and blessed them.

v 51…And it came about that while he was blessing them, he parted from them and was carried up into heaven.

v 52…And they returned to Jerusalem with great joy,

v 53…and were continually in the Temple praising God (at the times of worship and the prayer services; this was strange behavior and a strange place to be if Yeshua came to do away with all of this. There are only two possibilities: they disobeyed him or he never said that the Torah was done away with).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasah Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 23

Luke 23.1-56 will tell us about Yeshua’s trials before Pilate and Herod; the crowd choosing Barabbas in an allusion to the Yom Kippur ceremony; Simon carries Yeshua’s cross; his words to the women of Jerusalem; his crucifixion and events and words will on the cross; his death at the time the Passover lambs were being slain; the witnesses to his death; Yeshua’s burial in the tomb of Joseph.

v 1…Then the whole body of them arose and brought him to Pilate (those who sided with Caiaphas, except Joseph and Nicodemus who did not consent-Luke 23.51; John 19.39).

v 2…And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this man misleading (troubling-like Elijah did to Ahab-1 Kings 18.17 and like Jeremiah in Jer 38.4) our nation and forbidding to pay taxes to Caesar (but Yeshua upheld Caesar’s right to collect taxes in Luke 20.20-25) and saying that he himself is Messiah, a king”

v 3…And Pilate asked him, saying, “Are you the king of the Jews (John 18.33-37 gives a fuller account; Piate realized that the kingdom Yeshua spoke about was not of this world and was not evidence of treason)?” And he answered him and said, “You have said (meaning “Yes”).”

v 4…And Pilate said to the chief priests and the multitudes, “I find no guilt n this man (the only honest judgment that day was given by the Romans-he was acquitted).”

v 5…But they kept insisting, saying, “He stirs up the people, teaching all over Judea, starting from Galilee, even as far as this place.”

v 6…But when Pilate heard it, he asked whether the man was a Galilean (Zealots had been causing trouble in Galilee and other places as far back as 6 AD-Acts 5.37 with Judas the Galilean, and his father Hezekiah started the Zealot movement, and Judas had a brother named Hananiah who held a meeting in his house in 20 BC with Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, where the Zealots aligned with Beit Shammai killed members of Beit Hillel before a vote on the 18 Edicts, passing these edicts. These edicts restricted interaction between Jews and non-Jews and we see this as an issue in Acts and Galatians).

v 7…And when he learned that he belonged in Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who himself was in Jerusalem at that time (for Passover).

v 8…And Herod was very glad when he saw Yeshua; for he had wanted to see him for a long time (from the time John was beheaded, to see if he was John or not-Matt 14.1-2), because he had been hearing about him and was hoping to see some sign performed by him.

v 9…And he questioned him at some length, but he answered him nothing.

v 10…And the chief priests and the scribes were standing there, accusing him vehemently (they did not want their case against Yeshua to turn against them).

v 11…And Herod with his soldiers (bodyguard), after treating him with contempt and mocking him, dressed him in a gorgeous robe and sent him back to Pilate.

v 12…Now Herod and Pilate became friends with one another that very day; for before they had been at enmity with each other (on account of the trouble with the Galilean Zealots who were killed in Luke 13.1-Pilate, who might have been reconciled to Yehovah through all of this, emerged with nothing but a worthless friendship with Herod).

v 13…And Pilate summoned the chief priests and the rulers of the people,

v 14…and said to them, “You brought this man to me as one who incites the people to rebellion and behold, I have found no guilt in this man regarding the charges that you make against him.

v 15…No, nor has Herod, for he sent him back to us; and behold, nothing deserving of death has been done by him.

v 16…I will therefore punish him (for what?) and release him (after he was scourged-John 19.1).”

v 17…Now he was obligated (by custom) to release to them at the feast one prisoner.

v 18…But they cried out all together, saying, “Away with this man, and release for us Barabbas (meaning “son of the father”-some believe he was the oldest son of a Zealot named Abbas Ben Judas, or Judas the Galilean, the official founder of the Zealot Party-Acts 5.37).”

v 19…He was one who had been thrown into prison for a certain insurrection made in the city, and for murder.

v 20…And Pilate, wanting to release Yeshua, addressed them again,

v 21…but they kept on calling out, saying, “Crucify, crucify him!”

v 22…And he said to them the third time, “Why, what evil has this man done (show me the evidence)? I have found in him no guilt demanding death; I will therefore punish him and release him.”

v 23…But they were insistent, with loud voices asking that he be crucified. And their voices, and of the chief priests, prevailed.

v 24…And Pilate pronounced sentence that their demand be granted (Yeshua and Barabbas standing before Pilate is like the two goats standing before the high priest on Yom Kippur).

v 25…And he released the man they were asking for who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder, but he turned Yeshua over to their will.

v 26…And when they had led him away (from Pilate’s hall to Golgotha), they laid hold of one Simon (to hear) a Cyrenian (father of Alexander and Rufus-Mark 15.21), coming in from the country (the Cyrenians had a synagogue in Jerusalem-Acts 6.9, 11.20- he was there to keep Passover), and placed on him the cross to carry behind Yeshua (due to exhaustion).

v 27…And there were following him a great multitude of people, and of women who were mourning and lamenting for him (from Jerusalem not Galilee).

v 28…But Yeshua turning to them said, “Daughters of Jerusalem (a doomed city), stop weeping for me, but weep for yourselves and for your children.

v 29…For behold (take note), the days are coming (when Jerusalem will be destroyed in 70 AD when they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bore, and the breasts that never nursed (because you won’t see your children die or starve to death during the coming siege of Jerusalem).’

v 30…Then they will begin to say to the mountains, ‘Fall on us,’ and to the hills, ‘Cover us (because to be buried under the ruins of mountains and hills would be better than to live during the coming siege).’

v 31…For if they do these things in the green tree (has life; a righteous one, living in innocence-Psa 1.3; Ezek 20.47), what will happen in the dry (no life; the unrighteous who are guilty; they were a tree to be burned-Psa 1.4-6).”

v 32…And two others also, who were criminals, were being led away to be put to death with him (Isa 53.9, 12).

v 33…And when they came to a place called the Skull (Greek”Kranion” where we get the word “cranium”-also called Golgotha which is related to the word “gilgal” where Israel was circumcised and their reproach was “rolled away” in the first redemption; Yeshua will ratify the new covenant and circumcise the heart of a believer and “roll away” our reproach in the second redemption), there they crucified him and the criminals, one on the right and the other on the left.

v 34…But Yeshua was saying, “Father forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing (Yeshua calls for compassion on the ignorant-Acts 3.17, but it did not excuse their sin; they were blind to the truth of Yehovah; had they known it they would have never crucified him-1 Cor 2.8).” And they cast lots (Psa 22.18), dividing up his garments among themselves (John 19.23-24 gives more detail).

v 35…And the people stood by, looking on (this gruesome scene because of curiosity, anger, mourning, gloating-Psa 22.17; Zech 12.10). And even the rulers were sneering at him, saying, “He saved others (they knew he healed and raised others from the dead); let him save himself if this is the Messiah of God, his chosen one (with all their religious knowledge of the Torah, they should have known).”

v 36…And the soldiers also mocked him, coming up to him, offering him sour wine (and then possibly not allowing him to drink it),

v 37…and saying, “If you are the king of the Jews save yourself!”

v 38…Now there was also an inscription above him (in Greek, Latin and Hebrew), “This is the king of the Jews (John 19.19 says, “Yeshua the Nazarene, the king of the Jews.” In Hebrew, it may have been written as an acrostic saying, “(Y)eshua (H)a Notzri (V) melek (H)a Yehudim” with YHVH as the beginning letters. Pilate was not only mocking the Jewish Messiah, but the Jewish God also).”

v 39…And one of the criminals who were hanged was hurling abuse at him, saying, “Are you not the Messiah? Save yourself and us!”

v 40…But the other answered and rebuking him said, “Do you not even fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation?

v 41…And we indeed justly, for we are receiving what we deserve for our deeds, but this man has done nothing wrong.”

v 42…And he was saying, “Yeshua, remember me when you come in your kingdom (something happened to him on the cross because earlier they both were insulting him-Matt 27.44; Mark 15.32)!”

v 43…And he said to him, “Truly I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise (a term for Gan Eden, the Olam Haba-this statement refutes the belief that “sacraments” were needed for salvation, like baptism, the Lord’s Supper, church ceremonies or good works; it refutes the Catholic dogma of Purgatory; soul sleep, etc).”

v 44…And it was now about the sixth hour (noon), and darkness fell over the whole land until the ninth hour (3 pm when the Passover lambs were slain),

v 45…the sun being obscured; and the veil (paroket) of the Temple was torn in two (notice this is singular; this was the veil to the sanctuary building that all could see called “The Heavens” because there was “an image of the heavens” on it-Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book 5, Chapter 5.4-see our notes in Matt 27.51 and Mark 15.38).

v 46…And Yeshua, crying out with a loud voice, said, “Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit (quotes Psa 31.5-he was not “forsaken”).”

v 47…Now when the centurion saw what happened (the darkness, what Yeshua said, etc), he began praising God, saying, “Certainly this man was innocent (something the religious leaders and their hard hearts would not recognize).”

v 48…And all the multitudes who came together for this spectacle (this scene), when they observed what had happened, began to return, beating their breasts (their heart, the root of all sin-Jer 17.9-10; Matt 15.19).

v 49…And all his acquaintances (those known to him) and the women who accompanied him from Galilee, were standing at a distance, seeing these things.

v 50…And behold (see), a man named Joseph (he will add) who was a member of the council (Sanhedrin), a good and righteous man (a talmid of Yeshua-Matt 27.57, waiting for the kingdom of God-Mark 15.43)

v 51…he had not consented to their plan and action (he either took no part in it, or he did not vote to sanction what they wanted, probably along with Nicodemus-John 19.39), a man from Arimathea (meaning a “high place”, from “Ramah” and a hellenized version of “haramataim” most likely), a city of the Jews, who was waiting for the kingdom of God (now remember Joseph of Egypt? Pharaoh knew Israel was not coming back when Moses went to the Faiyum to take the remains of Joseph back to Canaan, leaving Joseph’s tomb empty. Egypt was a “high place” of idolatry. Satan knows that believers are not coming back because there will be another tomb of Joseph of the “high place” that will be empty);

v 52…This man went to Pilate (after gathering enough courage-Mark 15.43) and asked for the body of Yeshua (to give it a decent Jewish preparation for burial).

v 53…And he took it down and wrapped it in a linen cloth (John 19.40 says “linen wrappings”), and laid him in a tomb cut into the rock, where no one has ever lain (so that he was the only one buried there to confirm the resurrection. Yeshua was born to a Joseph and his mother had a “new womb”, and now he is buried in a “new tomb” of another Joseph).

v 54…And it was the preparation day (Wednesday, Nisan 14, Passover), and the Sabbath was about to begin (Nisan 15, the first day of Unleavened Bread-Lev 23.6-7).

v 55…Now the women who had come with him out of Galilee followed after, and saw the tomb and how his body was laid.

v 56…And they returned and prepared spices and perfumes (for anointing him later). And on the Sabbath (of Nisan 15, a Thursday) they rested according to the commandment (Lev 23.6-they would buy spices on Friday, Nisan 16 to anoint him-Mark 16.1).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 22

Luke 22.1-71 tells us about the season of Pesach (Passover), Hag Ha Matzah (Unleavened Bread) and Yom Ha Bikkurim (First Fruits of the Barley). It will also reveal a plot to kill Yeshua by the chief priests and religious leaders; the Last Supper before Passover where Yeshua has one last instructional meal with his talmidim; Yeshua’s capture and Peter’s denial; Yeshua’s so-called “trial” before a hastily gathered Sanhedrin, made up of those from Beit Shammai who were aligned with Caiaphas.

v 1…Now the feast of Unleavened Bread (John 13.1) which is called the Passover (season, because it lasted for eight days) was approaching.

v 2 And the chief priests and the scribes (from Beit Shammai) were seeking how they might put him to death (like the parable in 20.9-18 said); for they were afraid of the people (called the “Am ha Eretz” or people of the land, common people who would be in the city for Passover from Galilee and Judea, and who followed his ministry and were blessed by it).

v 3…And Satan (meaning the adversary) entered into Judas (the corruptions of his heart) who is called Iscariot (meaning either “man of Kerioth” a town in Judah, or it may be related to the word “Sicarii” meaning assassin, who were aligned with Beit Shammai, who were aligned with the Zealot Party), belonging to the number of the twelve.

v 4…And he went away and discussed with the chief priests and officers (of the Temple guard) how he might betray him to them.

v 5…And they were delighted and agreed to give him money (he was a thief and a lover of money-John 12.6).

v 6…And he consented and began seeking a good opportunity to betray him to them apart from the multitude (who might attempt to rescue him and cause a riot).

v 7…Was coming (according to the Thayer Lexicon, future tense; it started at sunset of Nisan 13th) the day of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover had to be sacrificed (the whole eight days was called “Passover” or “Unleavened Bread” and it refers to the season and were interchangeable terms in the first century-Luke 22.1; John 13.1; for a breakdown of the final week of Yeshua, we refer you to a booklet called, “Chronology of the Crucifixion Week” by Wayne Carver, the Christian Jew Foundation, Charles Halff, Director, p. 36-40. We believe it is accurate and we will present a condensed version of it here: Friday, Nisan 9, six days before Passover-John 12.1, Mark 10.46; Saturday, Nisan 10, a weekly Sabbath, Yeshua enters Jerusalem-John 12.12-19, Mark 11.1-11; Sunday, Nisan 11, the first day of the week and the fig tree is cursed and the Temple cleansed-Mark 11.12-19; Monday, Nisan 12, a teaching on the Mount of Olives-Mark 11.20, 13.1-11; Tuesday, Nisan 13, the Passover room is prepared by deleavening and getting essential materials; Wednesday, Nisan 14 after sunset, the last supper before Unleavened Bread is eaten, Yeshua goes to the garden to be arrested and brought before PIlate later that morning, he is crucified by 9 am and dies at 3 pm, he is buried in the late afternoon because they cannot bury him the next day; Thursday, Nisan 15 is a high Sabbath and a guard is given and Yeshua is in the tomb-Lev 23.5-7; Friday, Nisan 16, Joseph and Nicodemus prepared the body for burial-John 19.38-42, Luke 23.50-56; Saturday, Nisan 17, a weekly Sabbath and the resurrection will occur at the end of the day, around sundown, three full days and nights in the tomb-Matt 28.1-8; John 20.11-18; Sunday, Nisan 18 relates the account of the women who came to the tomb very early that morning as witnesses that Yeshua had already risen-Luke 24.1-3).

v 8…And he sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and prepare Passover (the room for it; they had to deleaven it, get tables, pillows, bowls, pitchers and whatever else they would need-the lamb would not have been slain and roasted till the next day, and Yeshua would be dead) for us, that we may eat it (collectively, but Yeshua would not be there for the actual Passover meal because he would be in the tomb. The meal they will eat shortly is the last supper before unleavened bread, when no leaven can be eaten; this would be on the night of Nisan 13, going to Nisan 14 after sundown).”

v 9…And they said to him, “Where do you want us to prepare it (what room should we get ready)?”

v 10…And he said to them, “Behold (take note), when you have entered the city (the Passover must be eaten within the walls of Jerusalem, even though Yeshua will not eat the lamb the next day. The talmudim will keep the festival as directed by the Torah-Deut 16.2), a man will meet you (face to face) carrying a pitcher of water (probably a servant); follow him into the house he enters.

v 11…And you shall say to the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher (a messianic term) says to you, “Where is the guest room (same word as “inn” in Luke 2.7) in which I may eat the Passover with my talmidim (he is speaking for everyone even though he would not be there?” ‘

v 12…”And he will show you a large, furnished upper room; prepare there.”

v 13…And they departed and found everything just as he told them and they prepared the Passover (on the evening of the 13th of Nisan, as the 14th began; they had to deleaven the room and got everything arranged).

v 14…And when the hour had come (sundown) he reclined (sat down) and the talmidim with him (In the Jewish New Testament Commentary by David Stern, p.77, Stern suggests that this was a preparatory meal called the “Seudat Mitzvah” which was a celebratory banquet accompanying the performance of any mitzvah, like a wedding, the festivals, etc).

v 15…And he said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer (but he knows it will be impossible);

v 16…for I say to you, I shall never again eat it (in this life because he would be gone) until it (not that very meal, but the upcoming Passover) is fulfilled (given meaning) in the kingdom of God (God’s rule and movement in power and action);

v 17…And having taken a cup, when he had given thanks (the Ha Gafin prayer), he said, ‘Take this and share it among yourselves;

v 18…for I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine from now on until the kingdom of God comes (in power, after the resurrection, when he drinks it with them in the kingdom).”

v 19…And having taken bread (the word for bread here in all the accounts is “arton”, a general term for bread-Matt 26.26. Unleavened bread is “azumon” as in Mark 14.12; we can’t be dogmatic about the type of bread used unless it says unleavened or “azumon” as in Luke 22.1), when he had given thanks (the Ha Motzi prayer), he broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body which is given for you, do this in remembrance of me.”

v 20…And in the same way, the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup which is poured out for you is the new (chadash or “renewed”) covenant (Deut 29.1 through 30.6; Jer 31.31-34; Ezek 37.26) in my blood (he is defining what the bread and wine symbolizes-1 Cor 10.16-17; 11.23-34-Yeshua’s blood is going to ratify this covenant).

v 21…But behold (see), the hand of the one betraying me is with me on the table (this made it even worse, he ate at his table, showing friendship, and betrayed him-Psa 41.9).

v 22…For indeed the son of Man is going (to die) as it has been determined (in the secret counsels of God before the world was, predestinated), but woe (lamentation awaits you) to that man through whom he is betrayed (there was no excuse for what he did)!”

v 23…And they began to discuss among themselves which one of them it might be who was going to do this thing.

v 24…And there arose also a dispute among them as to which one of them was regarded to be greatest (to be the administrative head, the leader, when Yeshua is gone).

v 25…And he said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them; and those who have authority over them are called ‘Benefactors (they sought popularity among the conquered peoples by doing good for ulterior motives; certain Egyptian kings had “Euergetes” or “benefactor” as a surname, like Ptolemy III Euergetes and Ptolemy VIII Euergetes; also Cyrus by the Armenians; Antigonus by the Greeks and Phylacus by the Persians).

v 26…But not so with you, but let him who is greatest among you become as the youngest, and the leader as the servant.

v 27…For who is greater, the one who reclines (at the table) or the one who serves? Is it not the one who reclines? But I am among you as one who serves (hoping to persuade them not to be ambitious and feel superior over each other).

v 28…And you are those who have stood by me in my trials (he valued this because so many others left him);

v 29…and just as my Father has granted me a kingdom, I grant you (places of authority),

v 30…that you may eat and drink at my table in the kingdom (eating at a table with someone denotes acceptance and friendship), and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (ruling over Israel in the Messianic Kingdom).

v 31…Simon, Simon (repeated because this is serious), behold, Satan has demanded (singled you out, desired) to sift you like wheat (Peeter was true wheat, but his carnal impulses were chaff; stan can’t touch anyone without permission);

v 32…but I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail (not his saving faith, that’s a gift, but his “faith” shield that quenches the fiery darts and testings from the enemy); and you, once you have turned again (in your desire for being greatest, and his coming test to deny Yeshua), strengthen your brothers (help them in their tests, be mature by your words and actions).”

v 33…And he said to him, “Lord, with you I am ready to go both to prison and to death and the others said the same thing in John 13.37)!”

v 34…And he said, “I tell you, Peter, the cock will not crow today until you have denied me three times that you know me (the “cock” was a term for the Temple Crier who would give a three-fold cry for the priests to go to their posts, the Levites to their stations, and for the Ma’Amad, or the standing men who were there for the morning service called the Tamid, to arise for prayer; for Temple purity, chickens and roosters were prohibited in the city; in the Machzor for Yom Kippur by Artscroll Publications, p.196, it says, “The call of the crier,i.e., the priest who was appointed to wake up the kohanim at daybreak. An alternative meaning for “gever” is rooster. Thus, at the cry of the rooster”-see Matt 26.75 notes for more information).”

v 35…And he said to him, “When I sent you out without purse and bag and sandals (the necessities of life), you did not lack anything, did you?” And they said, “No, nothing.”

v 36…And he said to them, “But now (because you won’t be so well received, and be in danger), let him who has a purse take it along, likewise also a bag (a small bag) and let him who has no sword sell his robe and have one (they were to use normal means to provide for themselves in support and protection, danger would be imminent).

v 37…For I tell you, that this which is written must be fulfilled in me, ‘And he was classed among criminals’, for that which refers to me has its fulfillment (an end purpose).”

v 38…And they said, “Lord, look, here are two swords.” And he said to them, “It is enough (they obviously did not understand his meaning, so he says it is enough for now, or “Never mind”).”

v 39…And he came out (of the room) and proceeded as was his custom to the Mount of Olives; and the talmidim also followed him (to see what was going to happen).

v 40…And when he arrived at the place (Gethsemane) he said to them (Peter, James and John, who went with him a little further-Matt 26.37; Mark 14.33), “Pray that you may not enter temptation (a time of testing to see if your faithfulness will remain loyal to Yehovah).”

v 41…And he withdrew from them about a stone’s throw, and he knelt down and began to pray,

v 42…saying, “Father, if thou art willing, remove this cup (of sorrow) from me, yet not my will, but thine be done (will keep being done, will occur-Heb 10.5-7).”

v 43…Now an angel (messenger) from heaven appeared to him, strengthening him (helping his flesh to be in agreement with his spirit; assuring him that the redemption of man and the creation will be accomplished; he also did not want his enemies to see him like this).

v 44…And being in agony (distress, conflict, feat, etc) he was praying very fervently (earnestly, eagerness, intensely); and his sweat became like drops of blood, falling down upon the ground (Luke, being a physician, is the only gospel writer who reports this; it is a condition called “Hermatidosis” where blood pours into one’s perspiration).

v 45…And when he arose from prayer, he came to his talmidim (Peter, James, and John) and found them sleeping from sorrow (from the emotional strain after his account about the betrayal, his death, suffering; it was wearing them down, too; they gratified the fleshly desire to escape instead of watching and praying; they saw from his gestures and body language that he was in distress and this affected them also, and sleep helped them escape);

v 46…and he said to them, Why are you sleeping? Rise and pray that you may not enter into temptation (testing, the one coming right now; the Hebrew concept of a test is to be brought into difficult circumstances that will try one’s faithfulness to remain loyal to Yehovah; for a detailed look into this concept, see the book called “A Prayer to our Father-The Hebrew Origins of the Lord’s Prayer” by Nehemiah Gordon and Keith Johnson, Hilkiah Press, p. 153-162).”

v 47…While he was still speaking, behold (see), a multitude came (officers of the chief priests, Temple guards, and elders), and the one called Judas (Yehudah), one of the twelve, was preceding them; and he approached Yeshua to kiss him (that being the signal he had given them to identify Yeshua-Matt 26.48).

v 48…But Yeshua said to him, “Judas, are you betraying the son of Man (an eschatological title for the Messiah based on Dan 7.13; he assumed his human state and nature for the benefit of man)?”

v 49…And when those who were around him saw what was going to happen, they said, “Lord, shall we strike with the sword (their two swords)?”

v 50…And a certain one (Peter, not one to wait for an answer-John 18.10) of them struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his ear (no doubt aiming for his head).

v 51…But Yeshua answered and said, “Stop (don’t intervene)! No more of this.” And he touched his ear and healed him (to show his willingness to be arrested, and that he could have used his power to deliver himself).

v 52…And Yeshua said to the chief priests and officers of the Temple and elders who had come against him, “Have you come out with swords and clubs as against a robber?

v 53…While I was with you daily in the Temple, you did not lay hands on me; but this is your delegated hour and the power of darkness are yours (they could only take him by God’s design, and coming in darkness is suitable for this deed).”

v 54…And having arrested him, they led him away, and brought him to the house of the high priest (Annas, it was close to the Temple and they could hear the Temple crier from there-John 18.12-24); but Peter was following at a distance.

v 55…And after they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter was sitting among them (as if he was one of them).

v 56…And a certain servant girl, seeing him as he sat in the firelight, and looking intently at him, said, “This man was with him, too.”

v 57…But he denied it, saying, “Woman, I do not know him.”

v 58…And a little later, another saw him and said, “You are one of them, too!” But Peter said, “Man, I am not!”

v 59…And after an hour had passed, another man began to insist, saying, “Certainly this man also was with him, for he is a Galilean too (his dialect gave him away-Matt 26.73).”

v 60…But Peter said, “Man, I do not know what you are talking about.” And immediately, while he was still speaking, a cock crowed (the Temple crier-see Luke 22.34 and Matt 26.75 notes).

v 61…And the Lord turned and looked at Peter (putting him in remembrance of what he said earlier). And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had told him, “Before a cock crows today, you will deny me three times.”

v 62…And he went outside and wept bitterly (aloud).

v 63…And the men who were holding Yeshua in custody were mocking him, and beating him (the word here means to pluck the skin, pinched or tore with their hands-Isa 50.6, 52.14),

v 64…and they blindfolded him (but they were the ones who could not see) and were asking him, saying, “Prophesy (tell us a truth; this is the same word used in 1 Cor 13.8, 14.1, 5, 24, 31, 39 meaning to communicate a truth for the benefit of others), who is the one who hit you?”

v 65…And they were saying many other things against him (his person, his office, and his mission).

v 66…And when it was day (of Nisan 14-Passover), the council of elders (Sanhedrin who agreed with Caiaphas) of the people assembled, both chief priests and scribes (sympathetic with Caiaphas for the most part). And they led him away to their council chamber (possibly in the Royal Stoa; they had moved out of the Chamber of Hewn Stones earlier in protest against Pilate-this shows us Yehovah is in control of all of these trials because they could not pronounce a death penalty on Yeshua, they had to give him to the Romans, and they crucified people, which was how Yeshua was to die according to the Tanak; Yeshua was not the one on trial here anyway, it was Israel, Rome, Pilate, Caiaphas, Annas, etc),

v 67…”If you are the Messiah, tell us.” But he said to them, “If I tell you, you will not believe (they were obstinate-they had already decided his fate);

v 68…and if I ask a question (on this subject, proving me to be the Messiah), you will not answer (in truth, not wanting to have a legitimate conversation about the subject fairly).

v 69…But from now on the son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God (Caiaphas could only go into the Holy of Holies one time a year in the earthly Temple, but Yeshua says he will be sitting with God himself in the heavenly Temple to judge Caiaphas. So it is Yeshua judging Caiaphas).”

v 70…And they all said, “Are you the son of God then?” And he said to them, “Yes, I am.”

v 71…And they said, “What further need do we have of testimony? For we have heard ourselves from his own mouth (his blasphemous statement; this gave them sufficient evidence to give him into the hands of Rome because they could not pronounce a death sentence upon him unless they were in the Lishkat Ha Gazit, or Chamber of Hewn Stones, in the Temple. In protest to some atrocities by Pilate, they had moved out of there into the southeastern end of the Royal Stoa).

Posted in Uncategorized

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke -Chapter 21

Luke 21.1-37 gives us a lesson using a widow’s two coins; the beauty of the Temple and its coming destruction; the midrashic aggadah about the budding of the fig tree. The date would be about Nisan 12, 30 AD.

v 1…And he looked up and saw the rich (they wanted attention, too) putting their gifts into the treasury (there were thirteen trumpet shaped receptacles with openings in the court of the women. Each was designated for certain projects or donations).

v 2…And he saw a certain poor widow putting in two small copper coins (it’s not the amount that counts in this story).

v 3…And he said, “Truly I say to you, this poor widow put in more than all (of them);

v 4…for they all out of their surplus put into the offering of God (no pain for them at all); but she out of her poverty (a sacrifice for her) put in all that she had to live on (it is the relation to what we keep; a gift’s value is determined by the giver; this is what Yeshua was trying to teach the ruler in Luke 18.18-23 also).”

v 5… And while some were talking about the Temple, that it was adorned with beautiful stones (some 60 feet long and 15 feet high) and votive gifts (like the Golden Vine with its clusters which hung over the entrance of the sanctuary, each leaf given as a gift-Mishnah Middot 3.8; Yeshua may have had this in mind when he said, “I am the vine” in John 15.1), he said,

v 6…”As for these things which you are looking at the days will come (in 40 years) in which there will not be left one stone upon another which will not be torn down (by the Romans in 70 AD; Yeshua is talking about the buildings, not the retaining wall-this was done to a “leprous” house in Lev 14.40; this was part of the plan-Mic 4.10; Deut 28.49-57).”

v 7…And they questioned him, saying, “When therefore will these things be (the destruction of the Temple in v 6)? And what will be the sign (signal) when these things are about to take place (the Jewish historian Josephus was an eyewitness to the destruction of the Temple and listed at least seven signs in Wars of the Jews, Book 6, Chapter 5.3-4; everything described in the following verses can be seen if you read Wars of the Jews by Josephus, especially as things led up to the destruction of the Temple and Jerusalem)?”

v 8…And he said, “Take heed (beware) that you be not misled (to be deluded or deceived; we have an active part in making sure so one deceives us by studying and knowing the Scriptures in its proper context, and not involving ourselves in Replacement Theology of any kind); for many will come in my name (saying they represent Yeshua, not in opposition to him like in many denominations today; the question to ask is, “Am I following a Torah-based faith in Yeshua found in the Scriptures, or a messiah that tells them that they are not “under the law” or that it has been “done away with?” It is those from the last group that Yeshua speaks about as those who will mislead-Matt 7.21-23), saying, ‘I am he (Yeshua, or possibly a person who will claim to be the Messiah but is a counterfeit) am the Messiah and will mislead many)’, and, ‘The time is at hand (for the redemption and deliverance from Rome-Acts 5.34-38)’; do not go after them (the first sign).

v 9…And when you hear of wars (against Rome) and disturbances (internal factions), do not be terrified; for these things must take place first, but the end does not follow immediately (as if the destruction of the Temple and Jerusalem and the nation would happen all at once).”

v 10…Then he continued by saying to them, “Nation (Greek “ethnos” or race) will rise against nation (race will clash with race (the Jews rose up against the Samaritans), and kingdom against kingdom (Rome fought each other for power and other kingdoms),

v 11…and there will be great earthquakes (there was one in Crete and Asia during the time of Nero, also in Phrygia, Laodicea, Hierapolis and Colossae; Rome had a small one), and in various places plagues and famines (Acts 11.28 speaks of a famine all over during the reign of Claudius about 41 AD); and there will be terror (fearful sights; after 30 AD the Yom KIppur lot never turned up in the right of the high priest again; the crimson, or shanni, cloth didn’t turn white again; the western lamp of the Menorah would not stay lit and the doors of the sanctuary building opened by themselves, meaning the enemy would enter easily-See the book, “History of the Jewish People-Second Temple Era” by Mesorah Publications, p. 153) and great signs (signals) from heaven (Josephus describes chariots and troops seen in the clouds by many; a star resembling a sword stood over the city; a comet continued a whole year; on Nisan 8, at the ninth hour, a great light shone around the altar and sanctuary).

v 12…But before all these things (come to pass) they (high priest, chief priests, Temple guard, Sadducees for example) will lay hands on you (Acts 4.1-3 for instance) and will persecute you, delivering to the synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for my name’s sake (on his behalf).

v 13…It will lead to an opportunity for your testimony (like Peter and other talmudim, or Paul in Acts 24.24-26, 26.19-28).

v 14…So make up your minds not to prepare beforehand to defend yourselves (a premeditated defense);

v 15…for I will give you utterance and wisdom which none of your opponents will be able to resist of refute.

v 16…But you will be betrayed even by parents and brothers and relatives and friends, and they will put some of you to death (like Stephen and James),

v 17…and you will be hated by all on account of my name (what he has said and done; for his sake).

v 18…Yet not a hair of your head will perish (you will be resurrected with a new body and reign in the Olam Haba).

v 19…By your perseverance (endurance and patience in what you experience) you will win your souls (be delivered from the present distress, possess peace and joy even during the above afflictions and not be deceived by false prophets).

v 20…And when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies (the Roman army with Vespasian and Titus did this on Nisan 12, right before Passover, trapping multitudes inside the city), then recognize that her desolation is at hand.

v 21…Then let those who are in Judea (where Jerusalem was; they saw the Romans coming) flee to the mountains (ranges, away from the city), and let those who are in the midst of the city depart (before the city is closed up), and let not those who are in the country enter the city (for protection-many fled to Pella and other places when Vespasian approached because they were watching; believers will flee there from the False Messiah in the birth-pains);

v 22…because these are days of vengeance (for rejecting Yeshua as the Messiah and the kingdom), in order that all things which are written (in the Scriptures) may be fulfilled (given meaning).

v 23…Woe (lamentations await you) to those who are with child and to those who nurse babes in those days (because of the extra burden and not being able to move fast to escape; some will decide to stay and endure the siege); for there will be great distress upon the land, and wrath to his people (the generation in 70 AD),

v 24…and they will fall by the edge of the sword (Josephus says over a million were slain), and will be led captive unto all nations (97,000 were sold to Egypt, and then dispersed from there); and Jerusalem will be trampled underfoot (treated lightly, dominated) by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles (their domination of the city) be fulfilled (eschatologically, then Israel will be regathered and Yeshua returns to set up Israel and the kingdom of God, the Temple and the Torah-Rom 11.25-26; Ezek 37.11-28).

v 25…And there will be signs (signals) in the sun and moon and stars (may be literal, but Ecc 12.2 uses these in a figurative sense, too; true knowledge of God in Torah facts will be dark, believers will be persecuted and individual people and teachers will fall), and upon the land dismay among the nations (the surrounding nations) in perplexity at the roaring of the sea and the waves (turbulence among the wicked-Isa 57.20),

v 26…men fainting from fear and the expectation of the things which are coming upon the land (of Judea), for the powers of the heavens will be shaken (government stability will be removed by Yehovah).

v 27…And then will they see the son of Man (Bar Enosh and an eschatological title from Dan 7.13) coming in (or with) a cloud with power and great glory (in the kingdom to bring judgment upon Judea, the city, and the Temple-Luke 12.49-53).

v 28…But when these things begin to take place, straighten up and lift up your heads (don’t get down); because your redemption is drawing near (Jewish persecution of the believers in Yeshua, as evidenced all through the book of Acts, will cease).”

v 29…And he told them a parable (a midrashic aggadah), “Behold (take note) the fig tree (Israel) and all the trees (nations);

v 30…as soon as they put forth (leaves), you see it (for yourselves, you don’t need a hint because it is so obvious) that summer is near (here).

v 31…Even so you, too (likewise), when you see these things happening (like the leaves coming forth), recognize the kingdom of God (his movement and rule in action and power) is near (here to overthrow his enemies).

v 32…Truly I say to you, this generation (in the first century) will not pass away until all things (just described) take place.

v 33…Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away.

v 34…Be on guard (for yourselves) that your hearts may not be weighed down by dissipation and drunkenness (eating and drinking to dull the senses) and the worries of life, and that day (when Rome comes to destroy Jerusalem) come upon you suddenly like a trap (and you are caught);

v 35…for it will come upon all those who dwell on the face of the land (Galilee, Judea, Israel as a whole).

v 36…But keep on the alert at all times (and seasons), praying in order that you may have strength to escape all these things that are about to take place (concerning the fall of Galilee, Judea, Jerusalem, the Temple, etc), and stand (with confidence to prevail) before the son of Man (when this judgment comes).”

v 37…Now during the day he was teaching in the Temple (as the Passover lamb he was being inspected for blemishes), but at evening he would go out and spend the night on the mount that is called Olivet (watching like Jonah-Jonah 4.3).

v 38…And all the people would get up early in the morning and come to him in the Temple to listen to him (directly; zeal motivated them to come repeatedly because “Never did a man speak the way this man speaks”-John 7.46).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 20

Luke 20.1-47 tells us how Yeshua deals with a challenge to his authority; he gives a midrashic aggadah about the wicked vinedressers; answers a question about paying taxes to Caesar; another question by a Sadducee about the resurrection and a warning about the scribes.

v 1…And it came about on one of the days (Nisan 12) while he was teaching the people in the Temple and preaching the gospel (“basar” and was preached before his death; it was preached to Abraham and t Israel in the wilderness; for more information on the concept of the Basar or “gospel” see our teaching called “The Basar” on this site), that the chief priests and the scribes with the elders confronted him (came upon him).

v 2…And they spoke, saying to him, “Tell us by what authority you are doing these things (cleansing the Temple of the sellers-19.45-46), or who is the one who gave you this authority?”

v 3…And he answered and said to them, “I shall ask you a question, and you tell me (Yeshua is displaying his authority by saying in essence, “You render an account to me”);

v 4…was the immersion of John from heaven or from men (did God send him or was he acting on his own)?”

v 5…And they answered among themselves (debated) saying, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ then he will say, ‘Why did you not believe him (and repent-Luke 7.30)?’

v 6…But if we say, ‘From men,’ all the people (many believed) will stone us to death, for they are convinced that John was a prophet (and he pointed to Yeshua).”

v 7…And they answered that they did not know where it came from (they won’t tell).

v 8…And Yeshua said to them, “Neither will I tell you by what authority I am doing these things (so Yeshua won’t tell either).”

v 9…And he began to tell the people this parable (midrashic aggadah-keep in mind the story of Joseph): “A man (Yehovah) planted (in the land) a vineyard (Israel-Isa 5.1-2) and rented it out to vinegrowers (priests, Levites, kings, leaders, etc) and went on a journey for a long time (Israel’s history from Sinai).

v 10…And at the harvest time he sent a servant (a prophet) to the vine growers in order that they might give him some of the produce of the vineyard (Torah-based works of righteousness, etc). But the vine growers beat him and sent him away empty-handed.

v 11…And he proceeded to send another servant (prophet); and they beat him also and treated him shamefully, and sent him away empty-handed.

v 12…And he proceeded to send a third; and this one also they wounded and cast out.

v 13…And the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What shall I do (still showing mercy)? I will send my beloved son (Yeshua); perhaps they will respect him.’

v 14…But when the vine-growers (priests, kings, rulers, leaders, etc) saw him, they reasoned with one another, saying, ‘This is the heir (to the estate-implying the leaders knew who Yeshua was-John 11.49-52); let us kill him that the inheritance may be ours (the nation, city, the Temple and the benefits of being the heir).’

v 15…And they cast him out of the vineyard and killed him. What therefore, will the owner of the vineyard do to them?

v 16…He will come and destroy these vine-growers and he will give the vineyard to others (to the Romans and the non-Jews in general).” And when they heard it, they said, “May it never be (that the Messiah would be killed; that did not fit their eschatological view of overthrowing Rome, etc; they didn’t see it)!”

v 17…But he looked at them and said, “What then is this that is written (already on record), ‘The stone (the son; the Messiah) which the builders rejected (the vine-growers killed him), this became (he was promoted after) the chief cornerstone (to build his “Temple” of believers; the eschatological Kahal; if this parable was not true, what is their interpretation of it, what is the meaning then)?

v 18…Everyone who falls (stumbles) on that stone will be broken to pieces (that generation stumbled over Yeshua and were crushed in 70 AD); but on whomever it falls, it will scatter him like dust (they were scattered to the four winds, the nations; driven out of their inheritance).

v 19…And the scribes and the chief priests tried to lay hands on him that very hour, and they feared the people; for they understood that he spoke this parable against them (and failed to accept it as true, and they were going to fulfill it).

v 20…And they watched him (to take advantage of him) and sent spies who pretended to be righteous, in order that they might catch him in some statement (like religious people today), so as to deliver him up to the rule and authority of the governor (who was in town because of the festival to keep peace).

v 21…And they questioned him, saying, “Teacher (faked friendship as an angel of light), we know that you speak and teach correctly, and you are not partial to any, but teach the way of God (Torah) in truth (deceitful flattery-they didn’t believe him or they would have followed him).

v 22…Is it lawful (permissible) for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not (these people were aligned with Beit Shammai who did not want to support Rome; the poll tax was an issue with the Sicarii and the Zealots who were aligned with Beit Shammai, and it causes them to rebel against Rome, like Theudus, and Judah the Galilean. Judah was the son of the founder of the Zealot movement in Galilee. His brother Hananiah tried to get Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel together to discuss the 18 Edicts of Shammai, but some Zealots killed some from Beit Hillel in 20 BC, making it easier for Shammai’s 18 Edicts to pass. These edicts were designed to limit any intercourse between Jew and non-Jew and dominated Jewish life until right before the destruction of the Temple. Some of these edicts can be seen throughout the gospels and epistles and were behind what Paul was teaching in the book of Galatians; after the destruction of the Temple they were annulled)?’

v 23…But he detected their trickery and said to them,

v 24…”Show me a denarius. Whose head and inscription does it have?” And they said, “Caesar’s.”

v 25…And he said to them, “Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s (it has his image), and to God the things that are God’s (man is in God’s image, so give what belongs to him-Torah observance and love, mercy, kindness, justice, and not man-made traditions)!”

v 26…And they were unable to catch him in a saying in the presence of the people (they were humiliated again); and marveling at his answer, they became silent (in awe).

v 27…Now there came to him some of the Sadducees (this name comes from “Zadok” who was the first high priest during the time of Solomon; the leaders were priests; they were non-eschatological, denied the resurrection, angels, there was no afterlife and that man has free will-Acts 23.6-8) who say there was no resurrection,

v 28…And they questioned him, saying, “Teacher, Moses wrote us (Deut 25.5) that if a man’s brother dies, having a wife, and he is childless, his brother should take the wife and raise up offspring to his brother.

v 29…Now there were seven brothers, and the first took a wife, and was childless;

v 30…and the second

v 31…and the third took her; and in the same way the seven also died, leaving no children.

v 32…Finally the woman dies also.

v 33…In the resurrection therefore, which one’s wife will the woman be? For the seven had her as a wife.”

v 34…And Yeshua said to them, “The sons of this age (the Olam Ha Zeh) marry and are given in marriage,

v 35…but those who are considered worthy to attain that age (the Olam Haba by faith in Yeshua) and the resurrection of the dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage;

v 36…for neither can they die anymore, for they are like the angels (the Sadducees didn’t believe in angels either, so Yeshua brings angels into his answer, too), and are sons of God (heirs of God and in resurrection bodies like God-1 John 3.2).

v 37…But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed, at the bush, where he calls the Lord (Yehovah) the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.

v 38…Now he is not the God of the dead (corpses of these men), but the living (they exist now); for all live to him (they were in error, drawing false doctrines out of their false premises they invented-Mark 12.27).”

v 39…And some of the scribes answered and said, “Teacher, you have spoken well (in silencing the Sadducees by putting this matter into a clear light).”

v 40…For they did not have courage to question him any longer about anything (they failed and were humiliated).

v 41…And he said to them, “How is it that they say the Messiah is David’s son (but he wasn’t done with them yet)?

v 42…For David himself says in the book of Psalms (Tehillim), “The Lord (Yehovah) said to my Lord (Messiah), ‘Sit at my right hand

v 43…until I make thine enemies a footstool for thy feet.’

v 44…David therefore calls him ‘Lord’ and how is he his son (in what sense can he be both Lord and son? The only possible answer is that Messiah is a descendant of David in the flesh, but in the spirit he is Yehovah himself-1 Tim 3.16)?”

v 45…And while all the people were listening, he said to the talmidim,

v 46…”Beware of the scribes (stay aloof from), who walk around in long robes (to get attention) and love respectful greetings in the market places and chief seats in the synagogues, and places of honor at banquets (Beit Shammai would do this; they would form a group called a “chavurah” and meet to eat meals consecrated to God, also called a Lord’s Supper; Beit Hillel would not do this and would take the back seats),

v 47…who devour widows houses (took advantage of them for gain) and for appearance sake offer long prayers; theses will have greater condemnation (these scribes were Pharisees from Beit Shammai and these charges by Yeshua were also seen in other Jewish literature about Beit Shammai-Josephus; Talmud, etc. For additional information on Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, see the book called “Jesus the Pharisee” by Harvey Falk).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 19

Luke 19.1=48 gives us the account of Yeshua going to the house of Zacchaeus; the parable of the minas; Yeshua’s entry into Jerusalem on Nisan 10, four days before Passover; and his teachings in the Temple.

v 1…And he entered and was passing through Jericho (it was a Jewish custom to meet a festive party as they passed through a town on their way to a festival, so this explains the multitude in 18.36-37).

v 2…And behold (see), there was a man called by the name of Zacchaeus (Hebrew Zakkai meaning “just one”) and he was a chief tax-gatherer (a supervisor over the other tax gatherers in the area) and he was rich (some of it was ill-gottens gains).

v 3…And he was trying to see who Yeshua was, and he was unable because of the crowd, for he was small in stature.

v 4…And he ran ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree in order to see him, for he was about to pass through that way (Yeshua was using the regular route of travel for people going up to Jerusalem-in a few days Yeshua would go up a tree for Zacchaeus).

v 5…And when Yeshua came to the place, he looked up (he knew he would be there by his sovereignty, like Adam and Nathaniel-Gen 3.8; John 1.48; Zacchaeus was ordained by Yehovah to be there) and said to him, “Zacchaeus (he knew his name because Yehovah had given him to Yeshua), hurry and come down, for today I must stay at your house (to meet his need-Yeshua “knocked” and he was let in-Rev 3.20).”

v 6…And he hurried and came down and received him gladly (John 1.12; Rev 22.17).

v 7…And when they (the multitude) saw it, they all began to mumble (murmur like the scribes and Pharisees in Luke 15.2), saying, “He has gone to be the guest of a man who is a sinner (table fellowship was seen as acceptance).”

v 8…And Zacchaeus (Zakkai) stopped and said to the Lord, “Behold (take note), Lord, half of my possessions I will give to the poor (to show his repentance for his sins due to conviction), and if I have defrauded anyone of anything, I will give back four times as much (the Torah required double-Exo 22.1-4; Lev 6.1-5. Num 5.6-7 says add twenty percent; we see that Zacchaeus was not like the self-righteous young ruler in Luke 18.22-23).”

v 9…And Yeshua said to him, “Today salvation (Yeshua in Hebrew) has come to this house, because he, too, is a son of Abraham (an heir of faith who trusted in me spiritually, not just physically).

v 10…For the son of Man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13, an eschatological title) has come to seek and to save that which was lost.”

v 11…And while they were listening to these things, he went on to tell a parable (midrashic agaddah), because he was near Jerusalem, and they supposed that the kingdom of God was going to appear immediately (that is why they did not understand Luke 18.31-34; their expectations were far from what was going to happen, so Yeshua tells them the following parable).

v 12…And he said therefore, “A certain nobleman (Messiah) went to a distant country (Israel) to receive a kingdom (of God) for himself and then return (back home/heaven).

v 13…And he called ten (the number of judgment and government) of his servants and gave them ten minas (a system of weight equalling about 50 shekels, a type of spiritual gifts) and said to them, ‘Do business (for the kingdom) until I come back.’

v 14…But his citizens hated him (Israel-John 1.11), and sent a delegation after him (Yeshua), saying, ‘We do not want this man to reign over us (as Messiah-they said “this man” because they did not even want to say his name out of contempt)!

v 15…And it came about that when he returned (eschatologically a Yom Ha Din or day of judgment, alluding to Yom Kippur at the end of the birth-pains) after receiving the kingdom (seven years earlier on Yom Ha Din Rosh Ha Shannah, year 6001 from creation-Dan 7.9-14), he ordered that these servants to whom he had given the money (spiritual gifts) be called to him in order that he might know what business they had done (give an account of their trustworthiness).

v 16…And the first appeared, saying, ‘Master, your mina has made ten minas more (he made good use of his gifts and not claiming any merit).’

v 17…And he said to him, ‘Well done, good servant, because you have been faithful (action) in a very little thing, be in authority over ten cities (in the kingdom).’

v 18…And the second came, saying, ‘Your mina, master, has made five minas (he, too, is not claiming any merit, those gifts were given to him).’

v 19…And he said to him also, ‘And you are to be over five cities (in the kingdom).’

v 20…And another came, saying, ‘Master, behold your mina, which I kept (put away) in a handkerchief;

v 21…For I was afraid of you (not of the right kind, not out of love but contempt; he didn’t know him), because you are an exacting (austere, bitter) man; you take up what you did not lay down, and reap where you did not sow?’

v 22…He said to him, ‘By your own words I will judge you (it’s Yom Ha Din Yom Kippur remember, a day of judgment), you worthless servant. Did you know that I am an exacting man, taking up what I did not lay down, and reaping what I did not sow?

v 23…Then why did you not put the money back in the bank, and having come, I would have collected it with interest?’

v 24…And he said to the bystanders (other servants nearby), ‘Take the mina away from him, and give it to the one who has the ten minas (who invested and showed his wisdom).’

v 25…And they said to him, Master, he has ten minas already (but he wants his gifts in the hand of someone who will use them the best).’

v 26…I tell you, that to everyone who has (manages what is entrusted to him by Yehovah) shall more be given, but from the one who does not have (not managing the gifts God has given him), what he does have shall be taken away.

v 27…But these enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them (the scribes and Pharisees of Shammai, the Sadducees, Zealots, Sicarii or any unbeliever) bring them here, and slay them in my presence (Matt 25.41-46; eschatologically, Yeshua returns on Tishri 10, and the unbelievers will be judged as Yeshua sits on the Mount of Olives between Tishri 10 and 15; they will be slain at the “feast of Leviathan” and put into the Tophet south of Jerusalem, also called the valley of Yehoshaphat-Isa 66.24; Matt 24.27-28; Luke 17.37; Rev 19.21-this also alludes to the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD).”

v 28…And after he said these things, he was going on ahead (leading his talmidim) ascending to Jerusalem.

v 29…And it came about that when he approached Bethphage (house of figs) and Bethany (house of dates), near the mount that is called Olivet (olives), he sent two of the talmidim,

v 30…saying, “Go into the village opposite you, in which as you enter you will find a colt tied on which no one has ever sat (Matt 21.2 says its mother was also there), untie it, and bring it here (Yeshua waited where he was).

v 31…And if anyone asks you, ‘Why are you untying it?’ Thus shall you speak, ‘The Lord has need of it (Psa 50.10).’ “

v 32…And those who were sent went away and found it just as he had told them (the word of God can be trusted).

v 33…And as they were untying the colt, its owners said to them, “Why are you untying the colt?”

v 34…And they said, “The Lord (Yehovah) has need of it.”

v 35…And they brought it to Yeshua, and they threw their garments on the colt, and put Yeshua on it (to fulfill Zech 9.9).

v 36…And as he was going, they were spreading their garments in the road (also palms in admiration-Matt 21.8).

v 37…And as he was now approaching, near the descent of the Mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the talmidim began to praise God joyfully with a loud voice for all the miracles which they had seen,

v 38…saying, “Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the Lord (Yehovah, in his authority); peace in heaven and glory in the highest (before the throne in heaven, even in Jerusalem, the city of peace)!”

v 39…And some of the Pharisees (from Beit Shammai who hated Yeshua) in the multitude said to him, “Teacher, rebuke your talmidim (they are getting out of hand, this is embarrassing).”

v 40…And he answered and said, “I tell you, if these (people) become silent, the stones will cry out (tombstones of the dead; they know who Yeshua is, as in Luke 16.28-31; Yehovah placed his name in the stones of the three valleys forming a “Shin”)!”

v 41…And when he approached he saw the city and wept over it (convulsively; David wept on the same spot as he was leaving the city after they rejected him in 2 Sam 15.30),

v 42…saying, “If you had known this day, even you, the things which make for peace (now keep in mind, this is Nisan 10, the day the lambs for Passover are being set apart to be inspected. Yeshua is the Passover lamb for Israel and he will be inspected to make sure he is without blemish-Exo 12.3. It is also 69 weeks exactly from the decree to rebuild the city in Neh 2.1-8 to Nisan 10 and the coming of the Messiah here, based on the prophecy in Dan 9.25. That is 173,880 days. If they would have understood this, they would have known who he was, but it was too late)! But now they have been hidden from your eyes (by God).

v 43…For the days shall come upon you when your enemies will throw up a bank before you, and surrounding you, and hem you in on every side (Luke 21.20-before Passover in Nisan, forty years later the Romans with Vespasian will encircle the city; see “History of the Jewish People-The second Temple Era” by Mesorah Publications, Ltd, p.186-194; quotes Isa 29.1-3; believers will flee to Pella and the Jordanian wilderness before they are trapped in the city, believing Luke 21.20-22),

v 44…and will level you to the ground and your children within you, and they will not leave in you one stone upon another (this is not to be taken literally, this is an idiom for massive and total destruction caused by war), because you did not recognize the time of your visitation (Joseph, a type of Messiah, says in Gen 50.24, “I will visit, visit you” in Hebrew. Why twice? It teaches the first redemption visitation with Moses, and the second redemption visitation with Yeshua-Luke 1.68).”

v 45…And he entered the Temple and began to cast out those who were selling (in the Bazaars of Annas in the Royal Stoa; keep in mind this is Passover and Yeshua is cleaning out the leaven from his father’s house),

v 46…saying to them, “It is written (already on record), ‘And my house shall be a house of prayer.’ but you have made it a robbers den (he quotes Jer 7.11-In Herod’s Temple, Yeshua is standing in the Royal Stoa, right above where Jeremiah was standing when he said Jer 7.11).”

v 47…And he was teaching daily in the Temple (from Nisan 10-13); but the chief priests and the scribe and the leading men among the people were trying to destroy him,

v 48…and they could be anything (a blemish, like they were inspecting the Passover lamb) that they might do, for all the people were hanging upon (being attentive to) his words.

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 18

Luke 18.1-43 tells us about the persistent widow; the Pharisee from Beit Shammai and the tax-gatherer; receiving the kingdom like a child; a ruler asking Yeshua what he must do to inherit eternal life; and the healing of a blind man.

v 1…Now he was telling them a parable (midrashic aggadah) to show that at all times (when you have the opportunity) they ought to pray and not lose heart (quit, give up because we don’t see answers to our prayers yet),

v 2…saying, “There was in a certain city a judge who did not fear God and did not respect man (no regard).

v 3…And there was a widow (helpless in this world, like a believer) in that city, and she kept coming to him, saying, ‘Give me legal protection from my opponent (adversary).’

v 4…And for awhile he was unwilling; but afterward he said to himself, ‘Even though I do not fear God nor respect man,

v 5…yet this widow bothers me (by her repeated appeals for help), I will give her legal protection, lest by continually coming she wears me out (by her persistence).’ “

v 6…And the Lord said, “Hear what the unrighteous judge said;

v 7…now shall not God bring about justice for his elect, who cry to him day and night, and will he delay long over them (be patient over them-yes; he hears our prayers but his plan for others is involved, too; 2 Pet 3.9 says he won’t delay forever)?

v 8…I tell you that he will bring about justice for them speedily. However, when the son of Man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13, a messianic title) comes, will he find faith (emunah based on the body of doctrinal truth found in the Torah-Jer 5.3; 1 Tim 4.1) on the earth?”

v 9…And he also told this parable (midrashic aggadah) to certain ones who trusted in themselves that they were righteous and viewed others with contempt (to expose their pride and arrogance and self-confidence).

v 10…”Two men went up into the Temple to pray, one a Pharisee (probably from Beit Shammai), and the other a tax-gatherer.

v 11…The Pharisee (self-righteous) stood and was praying thus to himself (to commend himself), ‘God, I thank you that I am not like other people: swindlers, unjust, adulterers, or even like this tax-gatherer (Beit Shammai hated Rome and the tax-gatherers were seen as helping them).

v 12…I fast twice a week (the oral law says they did this on Mondays and Thursdays) and I pay tithes of all I get (income).

v 13…But the tax-gatherer, standing afar off (conscious of his own sin, possibly in the court of the non-Jews), was even unwilling to lift his eyes to heaven (his countenance had fallen, could not even look towards the sanctuary building), but was beating his breast (the source of his sin was his heart) saying, ‘God, be merciful to me, the sinner (definite article in Greek here; not just “a” sinner but “the” sinner meaning if there ever was a sinner, it’s me)!’

v 14…I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other; for every one who exalts himself shall be humbled, but he who humbles himself shall be exalted.”

v 15…And they were bringing even their babies (infants) to him, in order that he might touch them (in a blessing-Gen 48.14-15), but when the talmidim saw it, they were rebuking them (for taking up his time with this).

v 16…But Yeshua called for them (children) saying, “Permit (allow) the children (Greek “Paidia” or children, other than the infants of v 15) to come to me, and stop hindering them (obstructing them from coming on their own), for the kingdom of God (his movement and rule in action and power) belongs to such as these (how Matt 5.3-11 should read).

v 17…Truly I say to you, whoever does not receive the kingdom of God like a child (without pride, prejudice, ambition, vanity) shall not enter into it (his movement and rule in power and action in their life; unfit to enjoy it).”

v 18…And a certain ruler (a synagogue ruler) questioned him, saying, “Good teacher, what shall I do to obtain eternal life (first of all, his premise is wrong)?”

v 19…And Yeshua said to him, “Why do you call me good? No one is good except God alone (he must see that all men are not good, including himself, and Yeshua is emphasizing that fact here-Rom 3.10-18).

v 20…You know the commandments, ‘Do not commit adultery, do not murder, do not steal, do not bear false witness, honor your father and mother (notice he doesn’t say, “Accept me into your heart.’ He made it very clear here that obedience to the Torah is essential, not to earn salvation, but as evidence that you have received salvation, and on how to live after you have received the redemption-John 14.15; 1 John 2.1-4; Jam 2.14-26).”

v 21…And he said, “All these things I have kept from my youth (but really didn’t because his “god” is money-v 23).”

v 22…And when Yeshua heard this, he said to him, “One thing you still lack; sell all that you possess, and distribute it to the poor, and you shall have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me (he is basically getting to the heart of the matter he made in Matt 5 through 7, showing him he can’t be saved by his own works, like selling his possessions and giving to the poor because he can’t do it, and he needed a redeemer; Yeshua gave this answer to others also-Luke 14.33).”

v 23…But when he heard these things, he became very sad; for he was extremely rich (truth be known, he was relying on good works not faith, and Yeshua showed him an area where he was weak. He was greedy and had no compassion for the needy, which is the heart of the Torah-Deut 15.7-11. This is to show that if any of us try to keep the Torah for salvation, there will be something in the Torah that will show us we fall far short, bringing us to the realization we cannot be saved by our own efforts, but need a redeemer).

v 24…And Yeshua looked at him and said, “How hard it is for those who are wealthy to enter the kingdom of God (because riches can be a distraction, it’s “hard” but not impossible, but you need God’s perspective of riches and a redeemer)!

v 25…For it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle (a Hebrew idiom meaning “impossible”), than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God (the Aramaic word for “rope” is “kamilon” and is almost identical to the Greek word for “camel” which is “kamelon.” Some scholars believe the word may have been misspelled and Yeshua was making an analogy about threading a thick rope through the eye of a needle-see the article called, “What is the Meaning of a Camel Going Through the Eye of a Needle” by Wendy McMahan on the Internet; on the other hand, this is an idiom and is seen in the Talmud, Bava Mezia 38b, where it talks about two rabbis arguing, and one suggests the other is speaking impossible things by saying he is trying to “make an elephant pass through the eye of a needle.” In another case in the Talmud, Barakot 55b, it shows the impossibility or unlikelihood about what men dream, it is said, “They do not show a man a palm of gold, nor an elephant going through the eye of a needle”).”

v 26…And they who heard it said, “Then who can be saved (for who does not try or desire to have wealth; they heard “impossible”)?”

v 27…But he said, “The things impossible with men are possible with God.”

v 28…And Peter said, “Behold, we have left our own homes and followed you (what reward can we expect)?”

v 29…And he said to them, “Truly I say to you, there is no one who has left house or wife or brothers or parents or children, for the sake of the kingdom of God,

v 30…who shall not receive many times as much at this time (in the Olam Ha Zeh) and in the age to come (the Olam Haba) eternal life (which is what the ruler wanted in v 18).”

v 31…And he took the twelve aside and said to them, “Behold (take note), we are going up to Jerusalem (for Passover), and all things which are written through the prophets about the son of Man will be accomplished (Psa 40.7-8; Luke 24.27; John 5.39-47).

v 32…For he will be delivered up to the Gentiles (for the first time Yeshua is implying he will be crucified, used by Rome for death sentences), and will be mocked and mistreated and spit upon,

v 33…and after they have scourged him, they will kill him; and the third day he will rise again.”

v 34…And they understood none of these things, and this saying was hidden from them (they could not reconcile this with their messianic expectations-19.11), and they did not comprehend the things that were said.

v 35…And it came about that as he was approaching Jericho, a certain blind man was sitting by the road begging (his name was Bartimaeus meaning “son of honor”).

v 36…Now hearing a multitude going by, he asked what it meant (what was going on).

v 37…And they told him that Yeshua of Nazareth was passing by.

v 38…And he called out, saying, Yeshua, son of David (a term for the Messiah- he believed in him), have mercy on me!”

v 39…And those who led the way were sternly telling him to be quiet, but he kept on crying all the more (he was persistent, the theme of v 1-7), “Son of David, have mercy on me!”

v 40…And Yeshua stopped and commanded that he be brought to him; and when he had come near, he questioned him,

v 41…What do you want me to do for you (Yeshua already knew, but he was saying this to elicit a response from the man and for the others to hear)?” And he said, Lord, I want to receive my sight!”

v 42…And Yeshua said to him, “Receive your sight; your faith (confidence in action) has saved you (from your blindness).”

v 43…And immediately he received his sight, and began following him, glorifying God; and when all the people saw it, they gave praise to God (for manifesting his mercy and power to heal this man, and for sending Yeshua, who they believed was the Messiah).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 17

Luke 17.1-37 speaks about stumbling blocks (offenses) and forgiveness; what kind of faith we have; the cleansing of ten lepers; the coming of the kingdom of God and the coming of the Messiah in “his day.”

v 1…And he said to his talmidim (after turning from his discussion with the Pharisees of Beit Shammai), “It is inevitable that stumbling blocks should come (as long as we are carnal, sinful and in this world), but woe to him (lamentations await you) through whom they come (Talmud, Ta’anit 24a says, “It would be better were you to return to dust than to cause mankind to sin on account of you”)!

v 2…It would be better for him if a millstone were hung around his neck and he were thrown into the sea, than that he should cause one of these little ones to stumble.

v 3…Be on your guard! If your brother sins, rebuke him (reprimand, criticize sharply with compassion), and if he repents, forgive him (lay it away; don’t bring it up again).

v 4…And if he sins against you seven times a day, and returns to you seven times, saying, ‘I repent,’ forgive him (on the other hand, we have no moral right to forgive sin done to others).”

v 5…And the shaliachim said to the Lord, “Increase our faith (this is a high standard you have set for us in this kind of matter; we don’t want to take advantage as leaders)!

v 6…And the Lord said, “If you have faith like a mustard seed (small) you would say to this mulberry tree,’Be uprooted and be planted in the sea’, and it would obey you (any obstacle can be removed so that you can do it-v 1-5).

v 7…But which of you, having a servant plowing or tending sheep, will say to him when he is coming from the field, ‘Come immediately and sit down to eat’?

v 8…But will he not say (more likely to say) to him, ‘Prepare something for me to eat, and gird yourself and serve me until I have eaten and drunk; and afterward you will eat and drink (we serve Yehovah, not ourselves in our own interests)’?

v 9…He does not thank the servant because he did the thing which he was commanded does he (he shouldn’t expect thanks, it was his duty)?

v 10…So you too, when you do all the things which are commanded you say, “We are unworthy servants and have only done that which we ought to have done.’ “

v 11…And it came about while he was on the way to Jerusalem that he was passing between Samaria and Galilee.

v 12…And as he entered a certain village, there he met ten (number of judgment) leprous men (called “Meztorim”), who stood at a distance (according to the Torah-Lev 13.45-46; Num 5.2);

v 13…and they raised their voices (being at a distance), “Yeshua, master, have mercy on us (normally they would have begged for provisions, etc).

v 14…And when he saw them, he said to them, “Go and show yourselves to the priests (to be examined according to the Torah).” And it came about that as they were going, they were cleansed.

v 15…Now one of them, when he saw that he had been healed, turned back (to Yeshua), glorifying God (each examined themselves and saw the cure) with a loud voice,

v 16…and he fell on his face at his feet (in respect and awe), giving thanks to him. And he was a Samaritan (Jews believed that the Samaritans were not religious, ignorant and basically heathens, yet this man behaved is a religious attitude of thanks to God for his mercy; the other nine were probably Jewish-v 18).

v 17…And Yeshua answered and said, “Were there not ten cleansed? But the nine-where are they?

v 18…Were none found who turned back to give glory to God, except this foreigner?”

v 19…And he said to him, “Rise, go your way; your faith (action in confidence) has made you well.

v 20…Now having been questioned by the Pharisees (from Beit Shammai) as to when the kingdom of God was coming (Beit Shammai was interested in deliverance from Rome; they did not like non-Jews), he answered them and said, “The kingdom of God (God’s rule and movement in action and power) is not coming with signs to be observed (you can’t see a soul saved-John 3.1-8),

v 21…nor will they say, ‘Look here,’ or ‘There!’ For behold (take note), the kingdom of God is in your midst (even now among you, being offered because the Messiah is here).”

v 22…And he said to his talmidim, “The days shall come when you will long to see one of the days of the Son of Man, and you will not see it (such a time of opportunity and visitation; sometimes we don’t know what we’re missing till it’s gone-Luke 19.41-44; the following verses allude to the coming of Rome in 70 AD to destroy Jerusalem and the Temple).

v 23…And they will say to you, ‘Look there! Look here!’ Do not go away and do not turn after them (false Messiahs and false signs-Matt 24.23-27).

v 24…For just as lightning, when it flashes out of one part of the sky shines to the other part of the sky, so will the Son of Man (Bar Enosh and a messianic title from Dan 7.13) be in his day (when Rome comes by the will of God to destroy Jerusalem, the Temple and disperse the people; also alludes to the Day of the Lord).

v 25…But first (before that happens) he must suffer many thing and be rejected by this generation (Yeshua will ratify the covenant before Rome comes and Yeshua returns).

v 26…And just as it happened in the days of Noah, so will it be also in the days of the Son of Man (the morals, the manner of conduct, etc);

v 27…they were eating, they were drinking, they were marrying, they were being given in marriage (in other words they were engaging in normal, everyday activities and ignoring Noah’s message), until the day that Noah entered the ark, and the flood came and destroyed them all (they were warned about judgment because they were corrupt-Gen 6.5).

v 28…It was the same that happened with Lot; they were eating, they were drinking, they were buying, they were selling, they were planting, they were building (normal activities but failed in the important things-Ezek 16.49);

v 29…but on the day that Lot went out from Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven and destroyed them all.

v 30…It will be just the same on the day that the Son of Man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13) is revealed (when Rome comes by God’s will and fulfills Yeshua’s predictions).

v 31…On that day (when Rome surrounds the city) let not one who is on the housetop and whose goods are in the house go down to take them away; and likewise let not the one who is in the field turn back (no time for it, be ready to go and hurry).

v 32…Remember Lot’s wife (her final end-she hesitated and turned back).

v 33…Whoever seeks to keep (save) his life (by staying in Jerusalem) shall lose it (either by death or slavery- this was seen when many stayed behind the walls of Jerusalem in 70 Ad and were slaughtered or enslaved), and whoever loses his life (exposing it to danger by fleeing to the mountains, or to Pella beyond the Jordan, which many did) shall preserve it alive (many survived if they listened to what Yeshua said here).

v 34…I tell you, on that night (of calamity by Rome) there will be two in one bed (or couch for meals); one will be taken (by the Romans and killed or as a prisoner, and the other will be left (preserved by God’s will and design).

v 35…There will be two women grinding at the same place; one will be taken (killed or as a prisoner by Rome) and the other left (preserved by God’s will and design).”

v 36…And answering they said to him, “Where, Lord?” And he said, “Where the body is (the Jewish people), there also will the eagles (plural for the legions of Rome; their emblem was an eagle) be gathered (they were coming upon them in the land of Israel, the cities and villages, Jerusalem and the Temple; to devour them and their gold, silver, and possessions. This saying was an idiom for an impending disaster).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 16

Luke 16.1-31 contains several midrashic aggadot (parables) aimed primarily at the Pharisees of Beit Shammai who dominated Jewish life in the first century and were lovers of money. It will contain a parable about an unjust steward, using money, faithfulness in little things and serving two masters, the scoffing of the Pharisees from Shammai, God’s Torah is unchanging, divorce or separating from a wife without a biblical cause (see Matt 19.8-9 notes), and the parable about Lazarus and the rich Man (the Pharisees of Beit Shammai). Again, for a deeper understanding about Beit Shammai and how these Pharisees are interacting with Yeshua in the gospels, read the book, “Jesus the Pharisee: by Harvey Falk, WIPF and Stock Publishers.

v 1…Now he was also saying to his talmidim, “There was a certain rich man who had a steward (the Pharisees of Beit Shammai will see themselves in this parable in v 14), and this steward was accused to him as wasting his possessions.

v 2…And he called him (as Yeshua has called them through the Torah, the Prophets, John as to why they corrupted the word of God; their covetousness for money, houses, land, and worldly things) and said to him, ‘What is this I hear about you? Give an account of your stewardship, for you can no longer be steward.’

v 3…And the steward said to himself, ‘What shall I do, since my master is taking the stewardship away from me. I am not strong enough to dig (do manual labor), I am ashamed to beg (like a blind man or cripple).

v 4…I know what I will do (it dawned on him), so that when I am removed from the stewardship, they will receive me into their homes (of the debtors-the Pharisees took more time in preparing for acceptance into an earthly house than most do securing a place in the house of God).’

v 5…And he summoned each one of his master’s debtors, and he began saying to the first, ‘How much do you owe my master?’

v 6…And he said, ‘A hundred measures of oil.’ And he said to him, ‘Take your bill, and sit down quickly and write fifty.’

v 7…And he said to another, ‘And how much do you owe?’ And he said, ‘A hundred measures of wheat.’ And he said to him, ‘Take your bill and write eighty (a twenty percent loss).’

v 8…And his master praised the unrighteous steward because he acted wisely (prudently), for the sons of this age are wiser in relation to their own kind than the sons of light (he commended him not for the injustice of it all, but for his shrewdness in providing for himself in the future).

v 9…And I say to you, make friends for yourselves by means of the unrighteous mammon (giving money to help the poor and needy), that when it fails (at your death), they may receive you into everlasting dwellings (not just earthly ones-the unrighteous steward used his master’s money to buy worldly favors; believers are to use Yehovah’s money to invest in the kingdom to bring sinners to eternal life and be welcomed by them into the kingdom. Yeshua is using this parable to show that even the wicked are shrewd enough to provide for themselves against future calamity).

v 10…He who is faithful in a very little thing is faithful also in much, and he who is unrighteous in a very little thing is unrighteous also in much.

v 11…If therefore you have not been faithful in the use of unrighteous mammon (money), who will entrust the true riches to you (heavenly, spiritual matters)?

v 12…And if you have not been faithful is the use of that which is another’s, who will give you that which is your own (to manage)?

v 13…No servant can serve two masters (with equal allegiance); for either he will hate (take lightly) the one, and love the other, or else he will hold (fast) to one and despise the other (take it lightly). You cannot serve God and Mammon (money (you are not able to do it).”

v 14…Now the Pharisees (from Beit Shammai), who were lovers of money (and will be seen as the Rich Man in the following aggadah), were listening to all these things, and were scoffing at him (turning up their noses because they were greedy and covetous).

v 15…And he said to them, “You are those who justify yourselves (boasted of their righteousness-Luke 10.25-59; they posed as righteous-Matt 5.20) in the sight of men, but God knows your hearts (desires, thoughts, intentions); for that which is highly esteemed among men (outward appearances) is detestable in the sight of God.

v 16…The Law (Torah) and the Prophets (Nevi’im) prophesied concerning John, since then the gospel (basar) of the kingdom of God (this movement and rule in action and power) is preached and everyone is entering his way into it (that he may enter into it; but Beit Shammai tried to hinder it by their doctrines-Matt 23.13; see Matt 11.12 notes and also the book called “Understanding the Difficult Words of Jesus” by David Bivin and Roy Blizzard, p. 84-87).

v 17…But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for one stroke of the letter of the Law (Torah) to fail (the weakness is in man, not the Torah).

v 18…Everyone who divorces (sends out or separates) without a biblical bill of divorce) and marries another commits adultery (divorce with a biblical cause is allowed-Deut 24.1-4; Exo 21.10-11); and he who marries one who is divorced (sent out or separated without a biblical bill of divorce) from a husband commits adultery (on a side note, there was a controversy in the first century between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel. Beit Shammai said a man should not divorce his wife unless he has found an indecency in her biblically. On the other hand, Beit Hillel allowed divorce for any reason, even trivial transgressions).

Luke 16.19-31 is a midrashic aggadah (parable) that has Beit Shammai in mind (the context) who were rich, religious leaders and lovers of money, and he is dealing with the Pharisees (v 14). This parable was to show them that with all their riches and outward appearance of righteousness, they may be lost.

v 19…Now there was a certain rich man (the Pharisees and scribes of Beit Shammai in particular for this parable, but not limited to them only) and he dressed habitually in purple (worn by the rich and royal) and fine linen (alludes to their self-righteousness-Matt 23.5), gaily living in splendor every day (Matt 23.6).

v 20…And a certain poor man named Lazarus (Eliezer meaning “God helps; he is a type of Yeshua) laid at his gate (Yeshua had no place to lay his head) covered in sores (Isa 53.4),

v 21…and longing to be fed with the crumbs which were falling down from the man’s table (left-overs; Yeshua left out of the religious circles); besides, even the dogs were coming and licking his sores (the non-Jews who came to him like the Samaritans, the Syro-Phoenician woman, and those who will come later; they encouraged him with their faith in him).

v 22…Now it came about that the poor man died (Yeshua died) and he was carried away by the angels to Abraham’s Bosom (Paradise, a term for heaven) and the rich man also died (in unbelief) and was buried.

v 23…And in Hades (Hebrew “Sheol” or the abide of the dead) he lifted up his eyes, being in torment (because his eyes were now open to see his spiritual mistakes and lost opportunities); and saw Abraham far away (distance in spiritual space does not relate to a measurable distance as in physical space and movement; “near” means “similar to” and “far” means “different or opposite”), and Lazarus in his bosom.

v 24…And he cried out and said, ‘Father Abraham (his seed, a type of Yehovah)), have mercy on me and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue, for I am in agony in this flame (his conscience-dipping his finger in water alludes to an oblation and washing purification ceremonies, referring to pardon, forgiveness, comfort and rest)!’

v 25…But Abraham said, ‘Child (in flesh only), remember that during your life you received your good things (earthly blessings), and likewise Lazarus bad things (poverty, surrounded by evil); but now he is being comforted here, and you are in agony.

v 26…And besides all this, between us and you is a great chasm (the decree of God that fixes the eternal state of the righteous and the wicked) in order that those who wish to come over from here to you may not cross over from there to us.’

v 27…And he said, ‘Then I beg you Father, that you send him to my father’s house,

v 28…for I have five brothers (the Jewish people that were not being taught correctly and were unprepared)-that he may warn them, lest they also come to this place of torment.’

v 29…But Abraham said, ‘They (the Jewish people) have Moses (Torah) and the Prophets (John 5.39-47); let them hear them.’

v 30…But he said to him, ‘No, Father Abraham, but if someone goes to them from the dead, they will repent!”

v 31…But he said to him, ‘If they do not listen to Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be persuaded if someone rises from the dead (“Lazarus” did come back from the dead but they were negligent of the Torah and the Prophets and were ignorant of the prophecies, and the story was met with unbelief-Matt 28.11-15; Luke 24.25-27).’ “

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 15

Luke 15.1-32 tells us about the grumbling of the Pharisees and scribes from Beit Shammai; the midrashic aggadot of the Lost Sheep, the Lost Coin and the Merciful Father, also known as the parable of the Prodigal Son. This may have occurred during the time called Teshuvah (Elul1 to Tishri 10) due to the context.

v 1…Now all the tax-gatherers and the sinners (chata’im, whom the Pharisees of Beit Shammai shunned) were coming near him to listen to him (they were sincere).

v 2…And both the Pharisees and the scribes began to grumble (murmur), saying, “This man receives sinners (there are three categories of people in the Scriptures. The Tzaddikim are the righteous, the Chata’im are the regular sinners, and the Rashim are the desperately wicked) and eats with them.”

v 3…And he told them this parable (midrashic aggadah), saying,

v 4…”What man among you, if he has a hundred sheep and has lost one of them, does not leave the ninety-nine in the open pasture, and go after the one which is lost, until he finds it (in the parable Yeshua is vindicating his behavior in dealing with the sinners and neglecting the scribes and Pharisees).

v 5…And when he has found it, he lays it upon his shoulders (speaking of security-John 10.27-30), rejoicing.

v 6…And when he comes home (it rode on his shoulders all the way home, it didn’t take one step of its own; we are not required to reach the kingdom home on our own-Jude 24-25), he calls together his friends and his neighbors, saying to them, ‘Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost!’

v 7…I tell you that in the same way, there will be much joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over the ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance.

v 8…Or what woman, if she has ten (the number of judgment) silver (redemption) coins and loses one coin does not light a lamp (a type of the Torah) and sweep the house and search carefully until she finds it?

v 9…And when she has found it, she calls together her friends and neighbors, saying, ‘Rejoice with me, for I have found the coin which I had lost!’

v 10…In the same way, I tell you, there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner who repents.”

Luke 15.11-32 tells us about the concept of Teshuvah (repentance) with a parable some call “The Prodigal Son” and it teaches repentance. This parable is based on Jer 31.1-22 which is read on Rosh Ha Shanah and called “The Merciful (perfect) Father. Eschatologically it is about the return of Ephraim as the “fullness of the nations (Gentiles)” or “M’loh ha Goyim” in Hebrew, as prophesied is Gen 48.19 and Rom 11.25-26.

v 11…And he said, “A certain man (Yehovah) had two sons (Israel/Ephraim and Judah being a type),

v 12…and the younger (Ephraim/Israel) of them said to his father, ‘Father, give me the share of the estate that falls to me.’ And he divided his living between them (alludes to the divided kingdom of Israel/Ephraim and Judah after Solomon).

v 13…And not many days later, the younger son gathered everything together and went on a journey into a distant country (Israel/Ephraim went into idolatry-1 Kings 12.16-33, and this led to their exile into Assyria) and there he squandered his estate with loose living.

v 14…Now when he had spent everything, a severe famine occurred (a spiritual famine-Amos 8.11) in that country, and he began to be in need.

v 15…And he went and attached himself to one of the citizens in that country and he sent him into fields to feed swine (Israel/Ephraim lost their identity-2 Pet 2.21-22).

v 16…And he was longing to fill his stomach with the pods (not the true bread) that the swine were eating, and no one was giving him anything to him.

v 17…But when he came to his senses (he had insanity in his heart-Ecc 9.3), he said, ‘How many of my father’s hired men have more than enough bread, but I am dying here with hunger.

v 18…I will get up and go to my father (Teshuvah meaning “to return”)m and I will say to him (confession), “Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in your sight (Psa 24).

v 19…I am no longer worthy to be called your son (but he still was a son-Jer 31.20); make me as one of your hired men (shows humility, the way to be exalted-Jam 4.6; 1 Pet 5.6).

v 20…and he got up and came to his father (God’s mercy is executed and he acts). But while he was still a long way off (spiritual space does not relate to measurable distance, as in physical space. Near means “similar to” and far means “different, opposite”), his father saw him (Yehovah was watching Israel/Ephraim the whole time-Jer 31.17-19) and felt compassion (mercy is one of the attributes of a perfect father and righteous king0_psa 29.13) for him, and ran (with speedy relief to his distressed son- this will happen at the end of the birth-pains) and embraced him, and kissed him (acknowledging him as his son-Jer 31.20).

v 21…And the son said to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven (God) and in your sight. I am no longer worthy to be called your son!”

v 22…But the father said to his servants, ‘Quickly bring the best robe and put it on him (alludes to righteousness-Isa 61.10), and put a ring on his hand (the ring is round and it alludes to the fact that Ephraim is a free man eternally), and sandals on his feet (servants did not wear sandals);

v 23…and bring the fattened calf, kill it, and let us eat and be merry (this alludes to the Marriage Supper in the Messianic Kingdom-Isa 25.6, Matt 8.11; Rom 11.25);

v 24…for this son of mine was dead (Israel/Ephraim was seen as no more) and has come to life again, he was lost (alludes to the ten “lost tribes”) and has been found (God knew where they were).’ And they began to be merry.

v 25…Now his older son (Judah) was in the land (Judah came back after Babylonian exile), and when he came and approached the house (the father’s house, the kingdom) he heard music and dancing.

v 26…And he summoned one of his servants and inquired what these things might be,

v 27…and he said to him, ‘Your brother has come, and your father has killed the fattened calf because he has received him back safe and sound (healed and forgiven).’

v 28…But he became angry and was not willing to go in, and his father came out and entreated him.

v 29…But he answered and said to his father, ‘Look! For so many years I have been serving you (Judah maintained the covenant after the fall of the first Temple) and I have never neglected a command of yours (Judah did stay closer to the Torah); and yet you have never given me a kid that I might be merry with my friends (they weren’t the sinners and reprobates of his brother; but this feast was not given to honor the returning son, who had no behavior to honor; the feast was given to express the father’s joy at the confession of his son’s sins, and his restoration into the father’s house);

v 30…but when this son of yours came, who has devoured your wealth with harlots (spiritual adultery) you killed the fattened calf for him.’

v 31…And he said to him, “Child, you have always been with me, and all that is mine is yours (so there was no real occasion for such a restoration, and your inheritance is intact).

v 32…But we had to be merry and rejoice (to express such joy in his return), for this brother of yours was dead (lifeless among the nations), and has begun to live (is now alive with a new nature), and was lost and has been found (this goes back to the joy expressed in finding the lost sheep and coin in Luke 15.4-10).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 14

Luke 14.1-35 tells us about a healing on the Sabbath at the home of a Pharisee, his midrashic aggadot about invited guests taking seas of honor; inviting the poor and crippled and blind to be guests to a banquet, not just relatives or friends; and the test for true discipleship and the cost.

v 1…And it came about when he went into the house of one of the leaders (from Beit Shammai) of the Pharisees on the Sabbath to eat bread, that they (others were there) were watching him closely (in order to take advantage of him).

v 2…And there, in front of him was a certain man suffering from dropsy (a heart illness causing water accumulation in parts of the body).

v 3…And Yeshua answered (meaning to begin a discourse; he knew why he was there and what he was going to do), saying, “Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath, or not (according to Beit Shammai, no; but Beit Hillel said it was permissible)?”

v 4…But they kept silent (because the Torah did not forbid it, and now was their chance to defend their doctrine). And he took hold of him (touched him to show the healing was from Yeshua), and healed him (if Yeshua can dry up the sea with his word, he can dry up the small amount of water this man had in his body), and sent him away.

v 5…And he said to them, “Which one of you shall have a donkey or an ox fall into a well, and will not immediately pull him out on a Sabbath day?”

v 6…And they could make no supply to this (because to Torah requires the righteous to show compassion and mercy to mankind and their animals-Deut 22.4).

v 7…And he began speaking a parable (midrashic aggadah) to the invited guests when he noticed how they had been picking out the places of honor (at the table-Beit Shammai had a habit of this-Matt 23.6), saying to them,

v 8…”When you are invited by someone to a wedding feast, do not take the place of honor (have humility), lest someone more distinguished more than you may have been invited by him (this was the belief of Beit Hillel),

v 9…and he who invited you both shall come and say to you, ‘Give place to this man’; and then in disgrace you proceed to occupy the last place.

v 10…But when you are invited, go and recline at the last place (this was the mindset of Beit Hillel, contrary to Beit Shammai who were seen as “pushy”), so that when the one who has invited you comes he may say to you, ‘Friend, move up higher; then you will have honor in the sight of all who are at the table with you.

v 11…For everyone who exalts himself shall be humbled, and he who humbles himself shall be exalted (Prov 15.33; Jam 4.6).”

v 12…And he went on to say to the one who had invited him, “When you give a luncheon or a dinner, do not invite your friends or your brothers or your relatives or rich neighbors (alluding to those from Beit Shammai), lest they also invite you in return, and repayment come back to you,

v 13…But when you give a reception invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, the blind (this story alludes to the fact that Beit Shammai was totally against the kingdom of God going out to the non-Jews-v 23; Beit Hillel taught that they were welcome; this concept will be illustrated in the next midrashic aggadah in v 16-24),

v 14…and you will be blessed, since they do not have the means to repay you; for you will be repaid at the resurrection of the righteous.”

v 15…And when one of those who were reclining at the table with him heard this, he said to him (Yeshua), “Blessed is everyone who shall eat bread in the kingdom of God (be welcomed in it)!”

v 16…But he said to him, “A certain man (Yehovah) was giving a big dinner (alludes to the wedding feast, a meal consecrated to God or a Lord’s Supper); and he invited many (the call of the basar, or gospel, came to Israel first).

v 17…And at the dinner hour he sent his servant to say to those who had been invited, ‘Come for everything is ready now (the kingdom is here now and being offered).’

v 18…But they all alike began to make excuses (never valid; disobeying God’s call-John 1.11, 5.40). The first one said to him, ‘I have bought a piece of land (not evil in itself) and I need to go out and look at it (who buys land without looking at it first); please consider me excused.’

v 19…And another one said, ‘I have bought five yokes of oxen, and I am going to try them out; please consider me excused (his priorities were wrong-Matt 6.21)!

v 20…And another one said, ‘I have married a wife, and for that reason I cannot come (no earthly ground of excuses justified the rejection of God’s calling).’

v 21…And the servant came back and reported this to his master (John 1.11-12). Then the head of the household became angry (at their hard hearts) and said to his servant, ‘Go out at once into the streets and lanes of the city signifies God’s elect among the Jews; to the Jew first) and bring in here the poor and crippled and blind and lame.’

v 22…And the servant said, ‘Master, what you have commanded has been done, and still there is room (there is always enough room in the kingdom).”

v 23…And the master said to the servant, ‘Go out into the highways and along the hedges (outside of the city, meaning God’s elect in the non-Jewish world; the non-Jews were welcomed into the kingdom by Beit Hillel; but not Beit Shammai, without becoming Jewish through ritual circumcision; the Jews were invited into the kingdom first, then the non-Jews-Rom 1.16) and compel them to come in (the kingdom, God’s rule and movement in action and power confronting you) that my house may be filled.

v 24…For I tell you, none of those men who were invited shall taste my dinner (the wedding supper in the kingdom-Matt 8.11.”

v 25…Now great multitudes (some curious, some anxious, some believed, etc) were going along with him; and he turned and said to them (to sift the multitude out of the uncommitted, unreliable, lazy, slackers, phonies, etc).

v 26…”If anyone comes to me (and wants to be a talmid/student) and does not hate (by comparison of his love for me) his own father and mother and wife and children and brothers and sisters, yes, and even his own life, he cannot be my talmid.

v 27…Whoever does not carry his cross (their own afflictions and persecutions; to carry a cross means you are under a death sentence, and to such, the affairs of this life have little concern) and come after me cannot be my talmid.

v 28…For which one of you, when he wants to build a tower (symbolic of reaching for heavenly things, take up a profession of faith), does not first sit down and calculate the cost, to see if he has enough to complete it (the people were interested in Yeshua but uncommitted; rather than making it easy to respond favorably, Yeshua presents a “high standard for a talmid, and advised them to count the cost before following him).

v 29…Otherwise, when he has laid a foundation, and is not able to finish, all who observe it began to ridicule him,

v 30…saying, ‘This man began to build and was not able to finish (don’t start something you can’t finish).’

v 31…Or what king, when he sets to meet another king in battle, will not first sit down and take counsel whether he is strong enough with ten thousand men to encounter the one coming against him with twenty thousand (Prov 11.14-there is safety in many counselors).

v 32…Or else, while the other is still far away, he sends a delegation and asks terms of peace (looks for alternatives; makes a plea for peace negotiations).

v 33…So therefore, no one of you can be my talmid who does not forsake all that he has (makes family, companions, material things, lands, fame secondary to being a talmid).

v 34…Therefore salt is good (Matt 5.13); but if even salt has become tasteless, with what shall it be seasoned (if men lose the truth, what can replace it-salt halts corruption and is used in a new birth (Ezek 16.4), gives flavor, used against germs and is an antiseptic and cleans the pores; used on slippery surfaces; there is a salt covenant-Lev 2.13; Num 18.18; Col 4.6-it speaks of perpetuity of the Torah and covenant at Sinai)?

v 35…It is useless for the soil (can’t plant it) or for the manure piles (can’t fertilize the land); it is thrown out. He who has an ear (to perceive truth), let him hear (be instructed).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasah Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 13

Luke 13.1-35 begins telling us about the news of Pilate killing a group of Galileans (probably Zealots) in the Temple and a warning to repent; the parable of the Fig Tree; the healing of a woman in a synagogue on the Sabbath; Yeshua being warned about Herod and that he is unsafe; the parable of the Mustard Seed; and a lamentation over the lack of faith he has experienced.

v 1…Now on the same occasion (that he was giving the previous teachings) there were some present who reported to him about the Galileans (Zealots who were aligned with Beit Shammai, and possibly followers of Judas the Galilean of Acts 5.37; he formerly started the Zealot Party (or sect) in 6 AD with Zadok, a Pharisee from Shammai-Josephus, Antiquities, Book 18, Chapter 1, paragraph 1. He is the brother of Hananiah, son of Hezekiah Ben Gurion, in whose chambers a meeting took place to discuss the adaptation of the 18 Edicts in 20 BC; some from Beit Hillel were murdered before the vote, and Yeshua refers to this in Matt 23.29-31) whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices (in the Temple).

2…And he answered and said to them, “Do you suppose that these Galileans were greater sinners (debtors obligated to pay a bill) than the other Galileans, because they suffered this fate (this incident was a warning to repent; it dispels their notion of calamity; they were no better or worse than the victims, so they better repent; if they didn’t, a greater slaughter was coming, and it did when the Romans not only slaughtered a few Zealot Galileans, but slaughtered the nation and destroyed the Temple-God had a reason for this-Amos 3.1-18)?

v 3…I tell you, no, but, unless you report, you will likewise perish (this event foreshadowed the judgment in 70 AD).

v 4…Or do you suppose that those eighteen on whom the tower of Siloam fell and killed were worse culprits (sinners, debtors and obligated to pay a bill) than all the men who live in Jerusalem?

v 5…I tell you, no, but, unless you repent you will all likewise perish (buried beneath the rubble of the whole city in 70 AD).”

v 6…Ad he began telling this parable (midrashic aggadah), “A certain man (Yehovah) had a fig tree (coming out of Egypt Israel was a vine/vineyard-Psa 80.8; Isa 5.1; in the first century Israel was the fig tree-Matt 21.19; after that Israel was seen as the olive tree-Hos 14.6; Rom 11.17-24) which had been planted in his vineyard (fig tree was a picture of the religious teachings coming out of the vineyard; and he came looking for fruit on this fig tree without finding any (they were following the Oral Law of the rabbis rather than the Torah, producing false teachers and prophets-Matt 7.15-23).

v 7…And he (Yehovah) said to the vineyard keeper (Yeshua), “Behold, for three years I have come looking for fruit on this fig tree without finding any (the length of Yeshua’s ministry at this point). Cut it down! Why does it even use up the ground (the land).

v 8…And he (the vineyard keeper/Yeshua) answered and said to him, “Let it alone, sir, for this year, too, until I dig around it and put fertilizer (the various means Yeshua will use to make Israel fruitful);

v 9…and if it bears fruit next year fine, (Lev 19.23-25); but if not, cut it down (they were running out of time; let justice run its course, and it did in 70 AD).”

v 10…And he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath.

v 11…And behold (see and take note), there was a woman (a type of Israel) who for eighteen years had a sickness caused by a spirit; and could not straighten up at all (to look up).

v 12… And when he saw her, he called her over and said to her, “Woman, you are freed from your sickness (“Greek, “You have been and are loosed”).”

v 13…And he laid his hands upon her (called “semicha” or “to lean and put your weight on and an attestation that it was this woman that was healed and the healing came from Yeshua; this concept is one of the elementary principles of the faith in Heb 6); and immediately she was made erect again, and began glorifying God.

v 14…And the synagogue official (the Nasi or “president”), indignant because Yeshua healed on the Sabbath (because he was a follower of Beit Shammai and a picture of unbelieving Israel; he was also jealous that he couldn’t do anything to help her) began saying to the multitude in response, “There are six in which work should do, therefore come during them and get healed, and not on the Sabbath day.”

v 15…But the Lord said, “You hypocrites (plural, not just him), does not each of you on the Sabbath untie his ox or donkey from the stall (this is the same word used in Luke 2.7, 12 for “manger”) and lead him away to water him (to draw water is work)?

v 16…And this woman, a daughter (descendant) of Abraham as she is, whom Satan bound for eighteen long years (but your animals you release after a few hours), should she not have been released (loosed) from this bond on the Sabbath day?”

v 17…And as he said this, all his opponents were being humiliated (by the truth being exposed); and the entire multitude was rejoicing over the glorious things being done by him.

v 18…Therefore he was saying, “What is the kingdom of God (his rule and movement in power and action confronting them) like and to what shall I compare it (resemblance)?

v 19…It is like a mustard seed (small at first), which a man took and threw into his own garden; and it grew and became a tree (a tree of life); and the birds (the righteous in this case, born of heaven) of the air (heaven-John 3.7-8) nest (rest) in its branches (a term for the Messiah).”

v 20…And again he said, “To what shall I compare the kingdom of God (his rule and movement in action and power confronting them);

v 21…it is like leaven (a type of teaching, a living thing) which a woman (Israel) took and hid in three pecks of meal (a few people at first) until it was all leavened (the elect of God are gathered into the kingdom; if the birds and leaven are meant in a negative sense, it speaks of the kingdom being “infected” with evil and false doctrine, like the tares being planted among the wheat in Matt 13.24-30, and false teaching in Mark 8.15).”

v 22…And he was passing through from one city and village to another, teaching and proceeding on his way to Jerusalem.

v 23…And someone (in the crowd) said to him, “Lord, are there few who are being saved (this question may have been prompted by the Jewish belief that few would enter the Olam Haba. There were only two people who came out of Egypt who made it into Canaan, so some believed a small number would enter the kingdom)?” And he said to them,

v 24…”Strive (enter a contest, contend as in athletics, struggle) to enter by the narrow gate (these were restricted doors and must be sought for, and opened only to those who knock; at night they are locked and it is too late); for many, I tell you, will seek to enter (at the judgment-Matt 7.21-23) and will not be able (mercy has ended, no more opportunity).

v 25…Once the head of the house gets up and shuts the door, and you begin to stand outside and knock on the door, saying, ‘Lord, open up to us!’ then he will answer and say to you, ‘I do not know where you are from’ (because they were not born from above, he does not know them-Matt 7.23; 1 John 2.3-4).

v 26…Then you will begin to say, “We ate and drank in your presence, and you taught in our streets (all this was given to show “proof” of a relationship);

v 27…and he will say, ‘I tell you, I do not know where you are from (or know them); depart from me all you evildoers (meaning “without or not Torah”).’

v 28…There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth (extreme anguish being separated from Yehovah) there when you see Abraham and Isaac and Jacob (in whom they boasted and trusted in, believing they were “favorites” to enter the kingdom because of a physical relationship) and all the prophets (whose books they read, and who desired to see what this generation was seeing) in the kingdom of God (his rule and movement in action and power), but yourselves being cast out (forcefully because they refused to enter in the narrow door and tried to climb in another way like a thief).

v 29…And they (the non-Jews will not be rejected because they were not Jewish, but accepted because of their faith) will come from east and west, and from north and south, and will recline at the table (be accepted) in the kingdom of God (this is called “ushpizin” or invited guests-Isa 25.6; Matt 8.11).

v 30…And behold (see), some are last (in priority) who will be first, and some are first who will be last (a reversal of the worldly order and what they thought was going to happen).”

v 31…Just at that time (same hour) some Pharisees (possibly from Beit Hillel and were more sympathetic to Yeshua than Beit Shammai; they showed favor to Peter and the shaliachim in Acts 5.17-42, and Paul in Acts 23.6-9) came up, saying to him, “Go away and depart from here (Galilee), for Herod wants to kill you (they are warning him).”

v 32…And he said to them, “Go and tell that fox (Hebrew “shual” meaning a small fox, insignificant; he was not a “lion” but the opposite in Hebraic, cultural thought), ‘Behold (see), I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and on the third day I will reach my goal (my work will be completed in Galilee, and then move into Judea; Herod cannot stop me because he is small, inept, and insignificant, the opposite of a lion).

v 33…Nevertheless, I must journey on today and tomorrow and the next, for it cannot be that a prophet should perish outside of Jerusalem (many prophets slain there because it was the religious and civil center; the Sanhedrin was dominated by Beit Shammai at the time).

v 34…O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, that kills the prophets and stones those sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, just as a hen her brood under her wings, and you would not have it!

v 35…Behold (see), your house (alluding to Beit, or “house” of Shammai who dominated the Sanhedrin he would appear before, and who were aligned with the Sadducees and Zealots, and plotted to kill him-John 11.47-57; Matt 12.14) is left to you (“desolate”-this was said about Beit Shammai by Bava Ben Buta in the first century, see the book “Jesus the Pharisee” by Harvey Falk, p.58), and I say to you, you shall not see me until the time comes when you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord (Yehovah-this account was earlier in Yeshua’s ministry, and then it was repeated when Yeshua was in the Temple in Matt 23.1-39; both discourses are against Beit Shammai who ruled Jewish life and halakah at the time).”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 12

Luke 12.1-59 deals with the attitude believers should have in regard to persecution, material possessions, and eschatology and Yeshua’s return.

v 1…In the meantime (while he was dealing with the scribes and the Pharisees from Beit Shammai), when there were gathered together an innumerable multitude of people that they were stepping on one another, he began saying to his talmidim first (directly, first in order, “Beware (take heed) of the leaven (teaching and their lifestyle which was an outward show of religion) of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy (leaven starts out small and unseen at first, but in time it will infect everything).

v 2…But there is nothing covered up that will not be revealed, and hidden that will not be known (a parallelism-what they have studied with Yeshua will be revealed to others).

v 3…Accordingly whatever you have said in the dark shall be heard in the light, and what you have whispered in the inner rooms shall be proclaimed from the rooftops (held accountable for; what Yeshua has taught publicly will be published openly).

v 4…And I say to you, my friends (chaverim-distinguishing them from their hostile enemies), do not be afraid of those who kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do (to the soul, spirit, heart-the power of the enemy is limited to this life, and that is only what Yehovah will allow).

v 5…But I will warn you whom to fear; fear the one (Yehovah) who after he has killed (the body) has the authority to cast into hell (Gehenna); Yes, I tell you, fear him (Deut 32.39; Isa 45.7; Ecc 7.14, 12.14)!

v 6…Are not five sparrows sold for two cents (seen as of little value to me)? And yet not one of them is forgotten by God (He cares for his creation).

v 7…Indeed the very hairs of your head are all numbered (not only are our days numbered and our purpose on earth, but even more minute aspects of our lives are known). Do not fear, you are more valuable than many sparrows.

v 8…And I say to you, everyone who confesses me (acknowledges and defends me) before men, the son of Man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13 and an eschatological title) confess (acknowledge and defend) him also before the angels of God (as belonging to him, redeemed and chosen);

v 9…But he who denies me before men shall be denied before the angels of God (as belonging to him).

v 10…And everyone who will speak a word against the son of Man (Bar Enosh of Dan 7.13), it shall be forgiven him; but he who blasphemes (blasphemy is calling something unholy, when it isn’t; or calling something holy when it isn’t; some did this with Yeshua and said certain miracles were the work of Ha Satan, etc) against the Holy Spirit (Ruach Ha Kodesh), it shall not be forgiven him.

v 11…And when (not “if”-it is a certainty) they bring you before the synagogues and the rulers and authorities (which the book of Acts is full of), do not become anxious about how or what you should speak in your defense, or what you should say (to your accusers-Stephen wasn’t, Peter wasn’t, John wasn’t, Paul wasn’t, Barnabas wasn’t, etc);

v 12…for the Holy Spirit (Ruach Ha Kodesh- he has a kedusha) will teach you in that very hour what you ought to say (whether it will be to honor Yeshua, defend the Basar or confuse the enemy; this is not a promise to the lazy student or teacher-2 Tim 2.15 and 3.16-17).”

v 13…And someone in the crowd said to him, “Teacher, tell my brother to divide the inheritance with me (without delay, or litigation in court; when two brothers were involved, two-thirds went to the eldest and a third to the youngest-Deut 21.17. The elder was the “priest” of the family and was to help his family from what he inherited).”

v 14…But he said to him, “Man, who appointed me a judge or arbiter over you (he wasn’t a civil ruler…yet)?”

v 15…And he said to them (taking the opportunity to address covetousness), “Beware (take heed) and be on your guard against every form of greed, for not even when one has an abundance does his life consist of possessions (man’s natural life cannot be prolonged by all the good things of the world).”

v 16…And he told them a parable (midrashic aggadah), “The land of a certain rich man was very productive.

v 17…And he began reasoning to himself, saying, ‘What shall I do, since I have no place to store my crops (no room for more; notice the pronouns used in v 17-19 like (I, my, I, I, my, I, my, my, I, my).

v 18…And he said (without consulting Yehovah-Jam 4.15), ‘This is what I will do: I will tear down my barn and build larger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods (he didn’t even think about giving some of what he was hoarding to the poor, widows or orphans).

v 19…And will say to my soul (himself), “Soul (me), you have many goods laid up for many years; take your ease (don’t worry now), eat, drink and be merry (as he pleases).’

v 20…But God said to him, ‘You fool (senseless, stupid), this night your soul (himself) is required of you; and who will own what you have prepared?

v 21…So is the man who lays up treasure for himself and is not rich towards God (eternal life; it is vanity to hoard property and riches while not caring about the consequences of a life without God-Matt 6.19).”

v 22…And he said to the talmidim, “For this reason I say to you, do not be anxious for your life, as to what you shall eat; nor for your body, as to what you shall put on.

v 23…For life (physically) is more than food, and the body than clothing (God gives us life and breath, he will provide food and clothing also).

v 24…Consider the ravens (Job 38.41), for they neither sow nor reap; and they have no storeroom or barn, and yet God feeds them; how much more valuable you are than the birds (spiritually, intellectually, morally)!

v 25…And which of you by being anxious can add a single cubit to his life’s span (you won’t die before your appointed time-Psa 139.16; Job 7.1)?

v 26…If then you cannot do even a very little thing, why are you anxious about other matters?

v 27…Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they neither toil or spin (their clothing, what they wear-Matt 6.28); but I tell you, even Solomon in all his glory did not clothe himself as one of these (theirs was real, Solomon covering was artificial and an imitation).

v 28…But if God so arrays (clothes) the grass in the field, which is today and tomorrow is thrown into the furnace, how much more you, O men of little faith (emunah-will he not be even more careful to clothe you)!

v 29…And do not seek (chase, pursue) what you shall eat, and what you shall drink, and do not keep worrying (doubtful, off balance, mentally uncertain).

v 30…For all these things the nations of the world eagerly seek; but your Father knows that you need these things (he will provide if you seek him and his will as a priority).

v 31…But seek for his kingdom (his rule and movement), and these things will be added to you (to meet your needs as you carry out his will in obeying his word).

v 32…Do not be afraid, little flock (those in the kingdom-big numbers don’t always signal success or God’s blessings-John 10.16), for your Father has chosen gladly to give you the kingdom (according to his sovereignty and will-John 1.13; Eph 1.4).

v 33…Seek your possessions and give to charity (since we have a kingdom, we shouldn’t be anxious about physical things like food, clothes, houses, lands and worldly possessions); make yourselves purses which do not wear out (decay), an unfailing treasure in heaven (rather than on earth), where no thief comes near, nor moth destroys.

v 34…For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also (your priorities will be known).

v 35…Be blessed in readiness (girded in service to God in labor or battle-2 Tim 2.4; Eph 6.12-17), and your lamps a light (your Torah-based testimony in Yeshua-Rev 12.17).

v 36…And be like men (believers/servants) who are waiting (serving) their master when he returns from the wedding (after the birth-pains eschatologically) so that they may immediately open the door to him when he comes and knocks (to give an accounting).

v 37…Blessed (empowered to succeed) are those servants whom the master shall find on the alert when he comes, truly I say to you that he will gird himself to serve and have them recline at the table, and will come up and wait on them (all of their spiritual needs as promised-Matt 8.11; Rev 3.20-21; Jam 2.5; Matt 24.45, 21; 2 Tim 4.7-8; 1 Pet 5.1-4; Isa 25.6-8-all Sukkot themes).

v 38…Whether he comes in the second watch (9-12 midnight), or in the third (midnight to 3 am), and finds them so, blessed are those servants (alert and watching).

v 39…And be sure of this, that if the head of the house had known at what hour the thief was coming, he would not have allowed his house to be broken into (now Yeshua’s coming is switched to the comparison of a night thief or “kleptes” where we get the word “kleptomaniac”-coming suddenly is the meaning).

v 40…You too, be ready (on the alert); for the son of Man is coming at an hour that you do not expect (or least anticipate).”

v 41…And Peter said, “Lord, are you addressing this parable to us, or to everyone as well (Yeshua will now explain that the lord of the household gives directions to all who belong to his house, not to those of another house)?”

v 42…And the Lord said, “Who then is the faithful and sensible steward (who is he? He is the one who is given a specific responsibility to over see the estate of another), whom his master will put in charge of his servants, to give them their rations at the proper time (the steward gives the household their allotment; and alludes to the portion of the word of God and the true interpretation of it given to God’s servants)?”

v 43…Blessed is that servant whom his master finds doing (the Torah) when he comes (rewards are proportionate to faithfulness-Luke 19.17-26).

v 44…Truly (I say to you, that he will put him in charge of all his possessions (like Pharaoh did with Joseph).

v 45…But if that servant says in his heart (an evil servant), ‘My master will be a long time in coming,’ and he begins to beat the servants, men and women, and to eat and drink and get drunk (apostates and mere professors of religion can be some of the most cruel persecutors of the righteous);

v 46…the master of the slave will come on a day when he does not expect (he isn’t looking), and at an hour he does not know, and will cut him to pieces (cut him loose from his portion), and assign him a place with the unbelievers (Lake of Fire, the second death-Rev 21.8).

v 47…And that servant who knew his master’s will and did not get ready or act in accord with his will (he knew to obey the Torah-John 17.17), shall receive many lashes (Jam 4.17),

v 48…but the one who did not know (to obey the Torah because he was never told because they were in a replacement theology assembly who taught the Torah had been done away with), and committed deeds worthy of a flogging (though he was ignorant of the truth does not give him freedom from his sin) will receive but few (limited punishment because of ignorance). And from everyone who has been given much will be required; and to whom they entrusted much of him they will ask all the more.

v 49…I have come to cast fire upon the earth; and how I wish it were already kindled!

v 50…But I have a baptism to undergo, and how distressed I am until it is accomplished (these verses are pure Hebraic poetry called a parallelism; Yeshua recoils at the thought of judgment, but it had already begun and Yeshua had set the earth on fire, a baptism of fire or judgment-Matt 3.11. Yeshua’s original meaning here is quoted from the book called “Understanding the Difficult Words of Jesus” by David Bivin and Roy Blizzard, p. 98, where it says: “My task” Jesus said, “is to set the earth on fire. That I am doing. The earth is burning. I have already begun to sow the seeds of judgment, and one day there will be a final judgment. But I do not look forward to that Day of Judgment, that final moment-the moment of my return- when men will no longer have a chance to accept me as Lod. How could I wish for that? I am required to baptize the earth, to judge the world. That is the task I have been given by my Father. But in the meantime, until judgment is complete, how difficult it is for me! How I agonize as some men decide to become my disciples, and others decide to reject my messianic claims.” For additional information on this passage see the complete explanation found on p.87-103).

v 51…Do you suppose that I came to grant peace on the earth? I tell you, no, but rather division;

v 52…for from now on, five in one household will be divided three against two, and two against three.

v 53…They will be divided, father against son, and son against father, mother against daughter, and daughter against mother; mother-in-law against mother-in-law (the allegory in v 49-50 are understandable now because of v 51-53. Yeshua is the sign and is causing division, contention and discord between those who accept his messianic claims and those who don’t; people will have to decide-Luke 2.34-35; John 12.31-true conversion will bring conflict, even among family members).”

v 54…And he was also saying to the multitudes, “When you see a cloud rising in the west, immediately you say, ‘A shower is coming,’ and so it turns out.

v 55…And when you see a south wind blowing, you say, ‘It will be a hot day’, and it turns out (that way).

v 56…You hypocrites! You know how to analyze the appearance of the earth and the sky, but why do you not analyze this present time (of fulfilled messianic prophecies predicted in the Scriptures-Luke 24.27; Acts 26.22-23)?

v 57…And why do you not even on your own initiative judge what is right (you have seen prophecy fulfilled, why don’t you in like manner know that this is the time for the Messiah)?

v 58…When you go with your opponent to appear before the magistrate (to file charges because you won’t pay a just debt you owe), on your way make an effort to settle with him in order that he may not drag you before the judge, and the judge turns you over to the constable, and the constable throws you in prison.

v 59…I say to you, you shall not get out of there until you have paid the very last cent (this teaches that one should reconcile with God before the hour of judgment; accept Yeshua as the Messiah according to all the signs given you by the Scriptures before it’s too late. But Israel would not acknowledge their inability to pay the debt to the judge, who is Yehovah. It was beyond their ability to pay by doing works-Rom 9.31, 10.1-3).

Posted in Uncategorized

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 11

Luke 11.1-54 tells us about Yeshua teaching his talmidim to pray; answers a question about demons and sings; and his warning to hypocrites.

v 1…And it came about that while he was praying in a certain place (perhaps the Mount of Olives or a desert place), after he had finished, one of his talmidim said to him, “Lord, teach us to pray just as John also taught his talmidim (rabbis would teach their students prayers; this is a model prayer based on what is called the “Amidah” or “standing prayer”, also known as the Shemoneh Esrai, also known as the Eighteen Benedictions; it is a typical Jewish prayer).

v 2…And he said to them, “When you pray say: Our Father, who is in heaven, may your name be sanctified (it has a kedusha and is set apart by certain limitations and restrictions) and your kingdom be blessed (and established), your will shall be done in heaven and on earth.

v 3…Give us our bread continually,

v 4…and forgive us our debts (caused by sin), as we forgive the debts of those who have sinned against us. And do not bring us into the hands of a test, but deliver us from all evil.”

v 5…And he said to them, “Suppose one of you shall have a friend, and shall go to him at midnight and say to him, ‘Friend, lend me three loaves;

v 6…For a friend of mine (he is interceding for him) has come to me (unexpectedly) from a journey (needing a place to stay), and I have nothing to set before (before he goes to bed, which was good hospitality)’;

v 7…and from inside he shall hear and say, ‘Do not bother me; the door has already been shut and my children and I are already in bed; I cannot get up and give you anything.’

v 8…I tell you, even though he will not get up and give him anything (for reasons of privacy and the late hour), because he is his friend, yet because of his persistence (the main point of this story) he will get up and give him as much as he needs (so don’t give up when praying.

v 9…And I say to you, ask (and keep on asking), and it shall be given to you; seek (and keep on seeking), and you shall find; knock (and keep on knocking) and it shall be opened to you (all the while our focus should be on Yehovah).

v 10…For everyone who asks (and keeps on asking) receives (as long as we have the right motives-Jam 4.3); and he who seeks (and keeps on seeking), finds (what he is seeking); and to him who knocks (and keeps on knocking), it shall be opened (though there may be some delay-unless we have the wrong motives).

v 11…Now suppose (if) one of you fathers is asked by his son for bread, will he give him a stone (showing he had a hard heart)? And if he asks for a fish, will he give him a snake (serpent that resembles a fish)?

v 12…Or if he asked for an egg, will he give him a scorpion?

v 13…If you then, being evil (by nature), know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit (power for understanding, hope, insight, knowledge, comfort, guidance, wisdom, discernment to help in prayer-Rom 8.26-27) to those who ask him?”

v 14…And he was casting out a demon, and it was dumb (could not speak), and it came about that when the demon had gone out, the dumb man spoke; and the multitudes marveled (wondered if he was the Messiah).

v 15…But some of them said, “He casts out demons by Beelzebul (“Baal Zebub” or Lord of the fly- a Philistine deity-2 Kings 1.2; inferring Ha Satan), ruler of the demons.

v 16…And others, to test him, were demanding of him a sign from heaven (proof that he was the Messiah).

v 17…But he knew their thoughts, and said to them, “Any kingdom divided against itself is laid waste (desolated); and a house divided against itself falls (not cemented together).

v 18…And if Satan (adversary) also is divided against himself, how then shall his kingdom stand (exist)? For you say that I cast out demons by Beelzebul.

v 19…And if I by Beelzebul cast out demons, by whom do your sons cast them out (where do they get their help; if these sons cast out demons, which they would say was not done with the help of Satan, why would they say the expulsion of demons by Yeshua was done with Satan’s help)? Consequently they (demons) they shall be your judges.

v 20…But if I cast out demons by the finger of God-power-Exo 8.19; Ezek 1.3), then the kingdom of God (his rule and movement in power and action) has come upon you (confronted them-We see God’s kingdom when we see him in action; Yehovah is now ruling when Yeshua casts out demons, and Satan is defeated).

v 21…When a strong man fully armed guards his own homestead, his possessions are undisturbed (alluding to Ha Satan).

v 22…But when someone stronger than he (Yeshua) attacks him and overpowers him, he takes away from him all his armor on which he relied, and distributes his plunder (Eph 4.8).

v 23…He who is not with me is against me (no middle ground); and he who does not gather with me (the sheep, the wheat, etc) scatters.

v 24…When the unclean spirit goes out of a man (or a nation, in appearance, a moral convert by outward reformation, it passes through waterless places (the wilderness was seen as the abode of demons; this alludes to waterless, spiritual desolation of a carnal man in unbelief) seeking rest and not finding any (uneasy), it says, ‘I will return to my house from which I came (there was no real reformation.’

v 25…And when it comes, it finds it swept and put in order (whitewashed, a case of moral reformation without real regeneration-John 3.3).

v 26…Then it goes and takes along seven (completion) other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there; and the last state of that man (or nation) becomes worse than the first (this also alludes to what happened in Israel in the first century and Israel today; this is what is happening in the United States currently; the USA had an outward appearance and profession at the beginning of its history, but not a real regeneration. As a result, our laws and people have turned away from God and his Torah and we have allowed these ancient spirits to take over).”

v 27…And it came about while he said these things, one of the women in the crowd raised her voice, and said to him, “Blessed is the womb that bore you, and the breasts at which you nursed.”

v 28…But he said, “On the contrary, blessed (empowered to succeed) are those who hear the word of God (in the Torah-it was the only word of God he could have been referring to at the time), and observe it (Matt 7.24, 13.16, 19.17, 28.20; Luke 6.46-47, 10.25-28; Jam 1.25).”

v 29…And as the crowds were increasing (pressing toward him), he began to say, “This generation (that exists now) is a wicked generation; it seeks for a sign (Luke 11.16), and no sign shall be given to it but the sign of Jonah (three days buried).

v 30…For just as Jonah became a sign to the Ninevites, (three days buried in the fish, then cast ashore to confirm his message), so shall the son of Man (Bar Enosh and an eschatological title from Dan 7.13) be to this generation (Yeshua was the sign to his generation just as Jonah was to his-decisions will need to be made-Luke 12.49-53).

v 31…The queen of the south (1 Kings 10.1-13-Sheba meaning “oath” or “seven”, south of Judea in Arabia; south is the direction of faith and she is a picture of the Torah observant non-Jew in the Kahal) shall rise up with the men of this generation at the judgment (Yom Ha Din) and condemn them, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom (she was a non-Jew who came a long way and didn’t know God, but these Jews did) of Solomon (peace, a type of Messiah), and behold (see for yourself), something greater than Solomon is here (Messiah himself).

v 32…The men of Ninevah (non-Jews) shall stand up with this generation at the judgment and condemn it, because they repented at the preaching of Jonah (but this generation rejected the preaching of Yeshua); and behold (see), something greater than Jonah is here (Messiah is confronting you).

v 33…No one, after lighting a lamp (having some light), puts it away in a cellar or under a peck measure, but on the lampstand in order that those who enter may see the light (who Yeshua was and what he came to do was not a secret, so there is no excuse for them; they preferred the darkness of ignorance because they did not want to change-John 3.19).

v 34…The lamp of your body is your eye (the only source needed for light); when your eye is clear (called the “ein tov or good eye; single, uncrossed, good vision) your whole body also is full of light, but when it is bad (called the “ein ra” or evil eye) your whole body also is full of darkness (blind).

v 35…Then watch out that the light in you may not be darkness.

v 36…If therefore your whole body is full of light, with no dark part in it, it shall be wholly illumined, as when the lamp illumines you with its rays (have a full understanding).”

v 37…Now when he had spoken, a Pharisee (from Beit Shammai who opposed Yeshua) asked him to have lunch with him; and he went in and reclined at table (accepted his hospitality).

v 38…And when the Pharisee saw it, he was surprised that he had not first ceremonially washed before the meal (according to the rabbinic traditions of Beit Shammai).

v 39…But the Lord said to him, “Now you Pharisees (from Beit Shammai) clean the outside of the cup and of the platter (the imagery of a ceremonial purification externally on dishes, something the Torah never commanded), but inside of you (heart, soul, mind, spirit, thoughts, intentions, desires) are full of robbery and wickedness (the food they get was obtained by fraud, extortion, robbery, oppression of widows, etc).

v 40…You foolish ones, did not he (Yehovah) who made the outside make the inside also (both the outer and inner man needs cleansing; to have an outward, ceremonial washing without a new nature is hypocrisy).

v 41…But rather give alms of such things that you have (by oppression and defrauding widows, etc), and then all things are clean to you (you consider yourselves clean inside because of your ceremonial deeds).

v 42…But woe to you (lamentations await you- a very common phrase in Jewish literature, especially against Beit Shammai) Pharisees (of Shammai)! For you pay tithe on mint and rue and every kind of garden herb, and yet disregard justice and the love of God; but these are the things you should have done without neglecting the others (justice and love).

v 43…Woe to you (lamentations await you) Pharisees (of Shammai)! For you love the front seats in the synagogues, and the respectful greetings in the market places (before the public where everyone can see them).

v 44…Woe to you (lamentations await you)!. For you are like concealed tombs (unmarked), and the people who walk above are unaware of them (and are defiled).”

v 45…And one of the lawyers said to him in reply, “Teacher, when you say this, you insult us too (Yeshua was perceived by some to be insulting and cruel)!

v 46…But he said, “Woe to you (lamentations await you) lawyers as well! For you weigh men down with burdens hard to bear (Beit Shammai was more strict than Beit Hillel with all their man-made traditions like the 18 Edicts and oral laws), while you yourselves will not even touch (to relieve anyone or show compassion) the burdens (of your oral laws) with your fingers.

v 47…Woe to you (lamentations await you)! For you build the tombs of the prophets and it was your fathers who killed them (members of Beit Shammai are with Yeshua here, and fifty years earlier members of Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel met at the house of Hananiah Ben Hezekiah to discuss the 18 Edicts, which would separate Jew and Non-Jew. Beit Hillel was against this. So, members of Beit Hillel were killed, probably by the Zealots who were aligned with Shammai, and the edicts were passed. Jewish literature called those killed “prophets” in the Talmud, Sukkah 28a and Bava Batra 134a. Beit Shammai in Yeshua’s day descended from these fathers-for more information on this and the issues between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, see the book called “Jesus the Pharisee” by Harvey Falk, WIPF and Stock Pub.).

v 48…Consequently, you are witnesses and approve the deeds of your fathers; because it was they who killed them, and you build their tombs (this statement is also found in the Talmud Sukkah 28a and Bava Batra 134a and Sanhedrin 11a, “We would never have joined in shedding the blood of the prophets had we lived in our father’s day”).

v 49…For this reason also the wisdom of God said (because of this attitude), ‘I will send to them prophets and apostles, and some of them they will kill and some they will persecute (drive out),

v 50…in order that the blood of all the prophets shed since the foundation of the world may be charged against this generation (referring to the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple),

v 51…from the blood of Abel (first one murdered in relation to the altar in the Tanak-Gen 4.3-8 to the blood of Zechariah, who perished between the altar and the house (the last one killed in relation to the altar in the Tanak-2 Chr 24.20-21); yes, I tell you, it shall be charged against this generation (in 70 AD).

v 52…Woe to you (lamentations await you) lawyers! For you have taken away the key of knowledge (to understand the Torah, perverting and distorting it); you did not enter in yourselves (the kingdom of God), and those who were entering in you hindered (stood in their way-Mark 7.13-they even prevented non-Jews from entering unless they converted to Judaism through ritual circumcision, something the Torah never commanded).”

v 53…And when he left there, the scribes and the Pharisees (who were aligned with Beit Shammai) began to be very hostile and to question him closely on many subjects (to irritate him into saying something they could use against him; they were just like their fathers as Yeshua said),

v 54…plotting against him to catch him in something he might say (no word from Yeshua could pierce their seared conscience-Matt 26.1-4).

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament

Brit Chadasha Foundations-Concepts in Luke-Chapter 10

Luke 10.1-42 tells us about Yeshua sending out as shaliachim the seventy; the parable of the Good Samaritan and his visit to the house of Mary and Martha.

v 1…Now after this (Luke 9.51-62 in particular) the Lord appointed seventy others (of a different kind than the twelve), and sent them (as shaliachim) two and two (as he did the twelve) ahead of him to every city and place where he himself was going to come (a picture of his second coming; he wanted the inhabitants to know he was coming).

v 2…And he was saying to them, “The harvest is great, but the laborers are few (there was a need for more); therefore (as a result) beseech (ask) the Lord of the harvest to send out laborers into his harvest (only God can send them, so don’t go unless he sends you).

v 3…Go your ways (into the towns and the cities and villages where he told them); behold (see), I send you out as lambs (harmless and innocent) among wolves (cruel and cunning men).

v 4…Carry no purse (to put money in; gold and silver), no bag (to food in), or shoes (than what was on their feet), and greet no one on the way (so that you won’t be hindered; no long discussions with others about their welfare and waste time on idle “chit chat”; keep your mind on the business at hand).

v 5…And whatever house you enter, first say, ‘Peace (shalom) to this house’ (be civil and polite, wishing them prosperity in every area they are deficient).

v 6…And if a man of peace (with God) is there your peace shall rest upon him; but if not, it will return to you (your wish of peace is rejected, it will return with no good effect on them; move on knowing you have delivered your soul of responsibility-Ezek 33.7-11).

v 7…And stay in that house (as a guest), eating and drinking what they give you (what they share), for the laborer is worthy of his wages (it is your pay), do not keep moving from house to house (be content with your host and his hospitality).

v 8…And whatever city you enter, and they receive you, eat what is set before you (whether it is a small portion, or you think the food is too good for you and you don’t want to be a burden, but eat it as your own);

v 9…and heal those in it who are sick (rewarding your host and affirming your message), and say to them, ‘The kingdom of God has come near to you (confronted you- the kingdom has been demonstrated to you with power and signs; God in action-Luke 11.20).’

v 10…But whatever city you enter, and they don’t receive you, go out into the streets and say (as you depart, deliver a message),

v 11…’Even the dust of your city which clings to our feet, we wipe off against you (a sign that their labor there is over, exonerating them from any further responsibility for what happens-Ezek 33.7-11; Acts 13.51), yet be sure of this, that the kingdom of God (his rule and movement in power and action) has come near (confronted your life).’

v 12…I say to you, it will be more tolerable in that day (when Messiah comes; and the Romans come to destroy the land) for Sodom than for that city (they did not have the kingdom preached to them like these cities who had Yeshua among them; this may indicate degrees of punishment for those who reject the light God has shown).

v 13…Woe to you (lamentations await you) Chorazin (near Capernaum where Yeshua spent a lot of time)! Woe to you (lamentations await you), Bethsaida (also near Capernaum)! For if the miracles had been performed in Tyre and Sidon which occurred in you, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes (an outward sign of repentance).

v 14…But it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the judgment, than for you (especially when Rome comes).

v 15…And you, Capernaum, will not be exalted to heaven, will you (where Yeshua resided-Matt 4.13)? You will be brought down to Hades (Sheol-calamity)!

v 16…The one who listens to you listens to me and the one who rejects you rejects me (Matt 25.40); and he who rejects me rejects the one who sent me (there is no disconnect between Yeshua and the Father-John 12.44; Prov 30.4; and once the Ruach Ha Kodesh came there is no disconnect between the Father, Yeshua and the Ruach-John 16.5-15).”

v 17…And the seventy returned with joy, saying, “Lord, the demons are subject to us in your name (because they represented Yeshua and were sent; the greatest enemy they had submitted to them and were cast out).”

v 18…And he said to them, “I was watching Satan (the overseer of the demonic realm) fall from heaven (because the kingdom of God was taking over) like lightning (swiftly and suddenly like lightning falls from heaven).

v 19…Behold (take note), I have given you authority (power and ability) to tread upon serpents and scorpions (idioms for the demonic realm and false teachers and doctrines; handle the enemy-Exo 4.1-5; Psa 58.4; and literally as in Acts 28.3); and over all the power of the enemy, and nothing shall injure you (the enemy will not do you great harm, and their false teachings will not hurt them).

v 20…Nevertheless, do not rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you (in their self-importance in spiritual gifts), but rejoice that your names are recorded in heaven (individually; are among the tzaddikim or righteous).”

v 21…At that very time he rejoiced (jumped for joy) greatly in spirit (in his heart at their success), and said, “I praise thee, of Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou didst hide these things from the wise and intelligent (earthly wise) and did reveal them to babes (those with child-like faith). Yes, Father, for thus it was well-pleasing in thy sight (before him).

v 22…All things have been handed over to me by my Father (in plan and execution of the redemption-Acts 3.21; 1 Cor 15.24-28), and no one knows who the Son is except the Father (his glory and perfections), and who the Father is except the Son (his perfections, purposes and will), and anyone to whom the Son wills to reveal him (this claim would be blasphemous if Yeshua was anything less than the sovereign Yehovah himself).”

v 23…And turning to his talmidim, he said privately, “Blessed (empowered to succeed) are the eyes which see the things you see (who the Messiah is, his kingdom and the rule of God in action in the world),

v 24…for I say to you, that many prophet and kings wished to see the things which you see, and did not see them, and to hear the things which you hear, and did not hear them.”

v 25…And behold (see), a certain lawyer (probably from Beit Shammai) stood up and put him to the test (examined him), saying, “Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life (Yeshua will show that his error is in his premise; it is not by works that you inherit eternal life, but by faith)?”

v 26…And he said to him, “What is written (not the oral law but already recorded) in the Law (Torah? How does it read to you (interpret it)?”

v 27…And he answered and said, “You shall love (“ahav” and an element of emunah, faith) the Lord (Yehovah) your God with all your heart, and with all your soul (a parallelism), and with all your strength (physically), and with all your mind (intellectual power); and your neighbor as yourself.”

v 28…And he said to him, “You have answered correctly (because that is in agreement with the Torah); do this and you will live (righteous deeds as defined by the Torah from the heart will follow one who has biblical faith); if one follows the commandments you will recognize the Messiah when he comes; you will know what altars are for, what true worship is, you will see the need for a redeemer; an evil tree cannot bear good fruit; Torah observance comes because you have been saved, it does not cause your salvation; your faith will produce good works, meaning the commandments-Jam 2.14-18).”

v 29…But wishing to justify himself (to be righteous in his own way-Rom 10.1-4), he said to Yeshua, “And who is my neighbor (he takes notice of his responsibility to God in v 27; by “neighbor” he was thinking “Israelite and those with the same “religion” as he; a “neighbor” in the Torah; this lawyer was probably from Beit Shammai who wanted little or no association with non-Jews, tax collectors, sinners as seen in their 18 Edicts).

v 30…Yeshua replied and said, “A certain man (we will look at this parable in the remez and sowd level; a type of mankind on a journey of life-the man is to be understood as Jewish) was going down from Jerusalem (the city of God) to Jericho (at a lower level and about 18 miles away-a city cursed in Josh 6.26-his back was to Jerusalem and a type of one who is “going away from God) and he fell among robbers (Ha Satan and demons) and they stripped him (robbed his innocence, starting with Adam) and beat him and went off, leaving him half dead (alive physically, dead spiritually).

v 31…And by chance a certain priest (who had just performed works in the Temple, but that won’t save him) was going down on that road (Jericho was a place where many priests lived), and when he saw him, he passed by on the other side (of the road-he thought he was dead, and a priest was not to defile himself for ordinary dead; however, the Talmud teaches that a priest, even the high priest, coming upon a corpse, and no one else is around can defile himself ritually to help; but in this case there was no compassion).

v 32…And likewise a Levite (probably coming from working in the Temple and going home) also. When he came to the place and saw him, he passed by on the other side (with no show of compassion or mercy).

v 33…But a certain Samaritan (who had a dislike for Jews and Yeshua was called a “Samaritan” in John 8.48) who was on a journey (Yeshua was in a journey to earth) came upon him; and when he saw him he felt compassion (Yeshua saw mankind on the wayside of life, half dead),

v 34…and came and bandaged up his wounds (caused by sin, part of the work of the Messiah-Psa 147.3), pouring oil (a type of the Ruach Ha Kodesh) and wine (a type of correct doctrines and teachings; these were medicines-Jam 5.14; Acts 28.9-the word for “cured” in this verse in Greek is where we get the word “therapeutic” from; these weren’t miraculous healings only but they used medicine, and Luke was a physician and was with them in Acts; Mark 6.13 uses the same word used in Jam 5.14, “aleipho”, which means to rub or smear medicine, not “chrio” which is using oil in a ritual sense), and he put him on his own beast (denying himself) and brought him to the inn (a type of a local assembly where he could get well by learning the Torah and correct doctrine-Acts 15.21) and took care of him.

v 35…And on the next day he took out two denarii (two days wages, a picture of 2000 years-Hos 6.1-3) and gave them to the innkeeper and said to take care of him; and whatever more you spend, when I return (at his coming) I will repay you.

v 36…Which of these do you think proved to be a neighbor to the man who fell into the robbers (leading him to answer his own question in v 29).”

v 37…And he said, “The one who showed mercy toward him.” And Yeshua said to him, “Go and do the same (in your attitudes, life, and teachings, especially if he was from Bait Shammai and looked down on non-Jews and sinners. All mankind came from one man, Adam. Any in need of mercy and kindness is our neighbor. Yeshua, like Paul in 2 Cor 3.6, is illustrating the difference between Beit Hillel, who were not against non-Jews, and Beit Shammai on the issue of “neighbor.” Beit Hillel interpreted the Scriptures according to the “spirit” or the same essence as the Torah, but Beit Shammai were more strict. Strict observance of the Torah according to Beit Shammai can kill compassion, mercy and kindness. But the “spirit” of the Torah is the essence of the instruction and gives life-2 Cor 3.6).

v 38…Now as they were traveling along (on their way), he entered a certain village (Bethany, two miles east of Jerusalem); and a woman named Martha (lady) welcomed him (showed hospitality) into her home.

v 39…And she had a sister called Mary (Miriam, meaning rebellion and bitter), who moreover was listening to the Lord’s word, sitting at his feet (an idiom for a talmid or student).

v 40…But Martha was distracted (from listening to the word) with all her preparations (for a meal); and she came up (to Yeshua), and said, “Lord, do you not care that my sister has left me to do all the serving alone (she should have gone to her sister first)? Then tell her to help me.”

v 41…But the Lord answered and said to her, “Martha, Martha (repeated to show earnestness and emphasis), you are worried and bothered about so many things (over anxious, more careful than she needed to be; he didn’t need great preparations or a lavish meal and she was creating unnecessary trouble for herself; keep things simple);

v 42…but only few things are necessary, really only one, for Mary has chosen the good part (the one lasting, necessary and important thing; she is doing the right thing and has the right priorities) which shall not be taken away from her.”

Posted in All Teachings, Articles, Idioms, Phrases and Concepts, Prophecy/Eschatology, The Feasts of the Lord, The Tanach, Tying into the New Testament